Anti-Katolik

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Pembakaran Gereja St. Augustine selama kerusuhan nativis Philadelphia pada tahun 1844

Anti-Katolik adalah penentangan atau permusuhan terhadap Gereja Katolik, terhadap para klerus dan pengikutnya.[1]

Setelah Reformasi Protestan dan setidaknya sampai akhir abad ke-20, sebagian besar negara Protestan (terutama Inggris, Jerman, Amerika Serikat, dan Kanada) menjadikan anti-Katolik dan oposisi terhadap Paus dan ritual-ritual Katolik sebagai tema utama politik, dengan adanya sentimen anti-Katolik yang kadang-kadang mengarah ke kekerasan dan diskriminasi agama terhadap individu-individu Katolik (di negara-negara Protestan berbahasa Inggris dengan nada merendahkan menyebutnya "papis" atau "Romanis"). Secara historis, umat Katolik di negara-negara Protestan seringkali (dan hampir selalu tanpa alasan) dicurigai bersekongkol melawan negara untuk kepentingan kepausan atau untuk mendirikan hegemoni politik di bawah pimpinan "Kepausan", dengan terkadang adanya pertanyaan dari umat Protestan mengenai loyalitas individu-individu Katolik kepada negara dan kecurigaan bahwa umat Katolik lebih mempertahankan loyalitas kepada Vatikan daripada mempertahankan loyalitas kepada negara tempat mereka berdomisili. Di sebagian besar negara Protestan dengan imigrasi skala besar, seperti Amerika Serikat, Kanada, dan Australia, kecurigaan atau diskriminasi terhadap imigran Katolik sering tumpang tindih atau bercampur aduk dengan nativisme, xenophobia, dan sentimen etnosentris atau rasis (yaitu anti-Italianisme, sentimen anti-Irlandia, Hispanofobia, sentimen anti-Quebec, sentimen anti-Polandia).

Pada periode modern awal, dalam menghadapi meningkatnya kekuatan sekuler di Eropa, Gereja Katolik berjuang untuk mempertahankan peran politis dan religius tradisionalnya di negara-negara mayoritas Katolik. Sebagai akibat dari perjuangan ini, di beberapa negara mayoritas Katolik (terutama di antara individu-individu dengan pandangan politis sekuler tertentu) timbul sikap bermusuhan terhadap kekuatan politis, sosial, spiritual, dan religius yang cukup besar dari Paus maupun kaum klerus dalam bentuk anti-klerikalisme.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ anti-catholicism. Dictionary.com. WordNet 3.0. Princeton University. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/anti-catholicism (accessed: November 13, 2008).

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

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