Galerius

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Galerius
Patung dada Porfiri Galerius
Patung dada Porfiri Galerius
Kaisar ke-53 Bersama Kekaisaran Romawi
Memerintah 1 Maret atau 21 Mei 293[1][2]:4, 38[3]:288[4]:146[5]:64–5[6] – 1 May 305 (as Caesar, under Diocletian)[7]
1 May 305 – late April or early May 311 (as Augustus alongside Constantius (until July 25, 306) then Severus (until spring 307) then Constantine (from ca. September 307; unrecognized by Galerius' coinage from ca. September 307 to November 308) then Licinius (from 11 November 308))[2]:4–6
Pendahulu Maximian dan Diokletianus[7]
Pengganti Maximinus, Konstantinus, dan Licinius[2]:7
Lahir ca. 260[2]:37, 46
Serdica[8] (Sofia, Bulgaria)
Mangkat Akhir April atau awal Mei 311 (usia 51)[9]
Serdica (Sofia), Bulgaria
Makam Serdica atau Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad)[10]
Pasangan Galeria Valeria[2]:38
Anak
Candidianus
Valeria Maximilla, Maharani Romawi
Nama lengkap
Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus[7]
Ibu Romula (dituduh)[2]:37–8

Galerius (bahasa Latin: Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus Augustus;[11] sekitar 260 – April atau Mei 311) adalah Kaisar Romawi dari 305 sampai 311.[12] Pada masa pemerintahannya, ia berkampanye, bersama dengan Diokletianus, melawan Kekaisaran Sassaniyah, merebut ibukota mereka Ctesiphon pada 299. Ia juga berkampanye menyeberangi Danube melawan Carpi, mengalahkan mereka pada 297 dan 300. Meskipun ia awalnya merupakan musuh dari Kekristenan, Galerius mengakhiri Penganiayaan Diokletianikus ketika ia mengeluarkan sebuah edik tolerasi pada 311.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber kuno[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Codex Theodosianus.
  • Mommsen, T. and Paul M. Meyer, eds. Theodosiani libri XVI cum Constitutionibus Sirmondianis et Leges novellae ad Theodosianum pertinentes2 (in Latin). Berlin: Weidmann, [1905] 1954. Complied by Nicholas Palmer, revised by Tony Honoré for Oxford Text Archive, 1984. Prepared for online use by R.W.B. Salway, 1999. Preface, books 1–8. Online at University College London and the University of Grenoble. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Unknown edition (in Latin). Online at AncientRome.ru. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Epitome de Caesaribus.
  • Banchich, Thomas M., trans. A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores. Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Eusebius of Caesarea.
  • Historia Ecclesiastica (Church History).
  • McGiffert, Arthur Cushman, trans. Church History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Vita Constantini (Life of Constantine).
  • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Life of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Festus. Breviarium.
  • Banchich, Thomas M., and Jennifer A. Meka, trans. Breviarium of the Accomplishments of the Roman People. Canisius College Translated Texts 2. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2001. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Lactantius. De Mortibus Persecutorum (On the Deaths of the Persecutors).
  • Fletcher, William, trans. Of the Manner in Which the Persecutors Died. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 7. Edited by Alexander Roberts, James Donaldson, and A. Cleveland Coxe. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1886. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • XII Panegyrici Latini (Twelve Latin Panegyrics).
  • Nixon, C.E.V., and Barbara Saylor Rodgers, ed. and trans. In Praise of Later Roman Emperors: The Panegyrici Latini. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.
  • Zosimus. Historia Nova (New History).
  • Unknown, trans. The History of Count Zosimus. London: Green and Champlin, 1814. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.[notes 1]

Sumber modern[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Banchich, Thomas M. "Iulianus (c. 286–293 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed March 8, 2008.
  • Barnes, Timothy D. "Lactantius and Constantine." The Journal of Roman Studies 63 (1973): 29–46.
  • Barnes, Timothy D. Constantine and Eusebius. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981. ISBN 978-0-674-16531-1
  • Barnes, Timothy D. The New Empire of Diocletian and Constantine. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-7837-2221-4
  • Bleckmann, Bruno. "Diocletianus." In Brill's New Pauly, Volume 4, edited by Hubert Cancik and Helmut Schneider, 429–38. Leiden: Brill, 2002. ISBN 90-04-12259-1
  • Bowman, Alan K., Peter Garnsey, and Averil Cameron. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume XII: The Crisis of Empire. Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-521-30199-8
  • Brown, Peter. The Rise of Western Christendom. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-22138-7
  • Burgess, R.W. "The Date of the Persecution of Christians in the Army". Journal of Theological Studies 47:1 (1996): 157–158.
  • Canduci, Alexander. Triumph and Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome's Immortal Emperors. Pier 9, 2010. ISBN 978-1-74196-598-8
  • Corcoran, Simon. The Empire of the Tetrarchs: Imperial Pronouncements and Government, AD 284–324. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996. ISBN 0-19-815304-X
  • Corcoran, "Before Constantine", Simon. "Before Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 35–58. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2
  • DiMaio, Jr., Michael. "Constantius I Chlorus (305–306 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1996a). Accessed March 8, 2008.
  • DiMaio, Jr., Michael. "Galerius (305–311 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1996b). Accessed March 8, 2008.
  • DiMaio, Jr., Michael. "Maximianus Herculius (286–305 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed March 8, 2008.
  • Elliott, T. G. The Christianity of Constantine the Great. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press, 1996. ISBN 0-940866-59-5
  • Gibbon, Edward, ‘Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire’, Chapter 14
  • Harries, Jill. Law and Empire in Late Antiquity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-41087-8 Paperback ISBN 0-521-42273-6
  • Helgeland, John. "Christians and the Roman Army A.D. 173–337." Church History 43:2 (1974): 149–163, 200.
  • Jones, A.H.M. The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: A Social, Economic and Administrative Survey. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986.
  • Leadbetter, Bill. "Galerius and the Will of Diocletian", London and New York, Routledge, 2010. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-40488-6 Paperback ISBN 978-0-415-85971-4
  • Lenski, Noel. "The Reign of Constantine." In The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Constantine, edited by Noel Lenski, 59–90. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006b. Hardcover ISBN 0-521-81838-9 Paperback ISBN 0-521-52157-2
  • Mackay, Christopher S. "Lactantius and the Succession to Diocletian." Classical Philology 94:2 (1999): 198–209.
  • Mathisen, Ralph W. "Diocletian (284–305 AD.)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (1997). Accessed February 16, 2008.
  • Odahl, Charles Matson. Constantine and the Christian Empire. New York: Routledge, 2004. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-17485-6 Paperback ISBN 0-415-38655-1
  • Pohlsander, Hans. The Emperor Constantine. London & New York: Routledge, 2004a. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-31937-4 Paperback ISBN 0-415-31938-2
  • Pohlsander, Hans. "Constantine I (306 – 337 AD)." De Imperatoribus Romanis (2004b). Accessed December 16, 2007.
  • Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395. New York: Routledge, 2005. Hardcover ISBN 0-415-10057-7 Paperback ISBN 0-415-10058-5
  • Rees, Roger. Diocletian and the Tetrarchy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7486-1661-6
  • Southern, Pat. The Roman Empire from Severus to Constantine. New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-23944-3
  • Rostovtzeff, Michael. The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1966. ISBN 978-0-19-814231-7
  • Treadgold, Warren. A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8047-2630-2
  • Williams, Stephen. Diocletian and the Roman Recovery. New York: Routledge, 1997. ISBN 0-415-91827-8

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ This edition and translation is not very good. The pagination is broken in several places, there are many typographical errors (including several replacements of "Julian" with "Jovian" and "Constantine" with "Constantius"). It is nonetheless the only translation of the Historia Nova in the public domain.[13]

Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, pp. 8–9.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Barnes, New Empire .
  3. ^ Potter, The Roman Empire at Bay .
  4. ^ Southern, Severus to Constantine .
  5. ^ Williams, Diocletian .
  6. ^ The earlier dates for Galerius' appointment have been argued for based on the suggestion that the appointments of Constantius and Galerius were timed to coincide (Barnes 1981, 8–9; Southern 1999, 146). Barnes (1982, 62) argues against a dating of 21 May 293 in Nicomedia originating in Seston, Dioclétien, 88ff., stating that the evidence adduced (the Paschal Chronicle 521 = Chronica Minora 1.229 and Lactantius, DMP 19.2) is invalid and confused. Lactantius is commenting on Diocletian and the place where Diocletian was acclaimed, and that the "Maximianus" in the text is therefore a later gloss; the Paschal Chronicle is not authoritative for this period for events outside Egypt, and may simply be commenting on the day when the laureled image of the new emperors arrived in Alexandria. Potter (2004, 650) agrees that locating the acclamation to Nicomedia is false, but believes that Seston's other evidence makes a strong case for a temporal lag between the two Caesars' acclamations.
  7. ^ a b c Barnes, New Empire, p. 4.
  8. ^ Eutropius. Breviarivm historiae romanae, IX, 22 Templat:Ref-la
  9. ^ Lactantius, DMP 35.4. The exact date is lost in a lacuna (Barnes 1982, 6).
  10. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Barnes, New Empire, p. 37
  11. ^ Dalam bahasa Latin Klasik, nama Galerius ditulis menjadi GAIVS GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS.
  12. ^ Canduci, Triumph & Tragedy .:119
  13. ^ Roger Pearse, "Preface to the online edition of Zosimus' New History". 19 November 2003, rev. 20 August 2003. Accessed 15 August 2009.

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