Daftar teori konspirasi

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Terdapat beberapa teori konspirasi yang tidak sah dengan berbagai tingkat ketenaran, yang biasanya dikaitkan namun tidak terbatas pada rencana pemerintah yang ditutup-tutupi, rencana pembunuhan terencana, pembuatan teknologi dan ilmu pengetahaun rahasia, dan skema tersembunyi lainnya yang berada di balik peristiwa sejarah, budaya dan politik tertentu. Beberapa teori terhalang oleh penyensoran dan bertentangan hukum seperti seperti penyangkalan Holocaust. Teori konspirasi biasanya berlawanan dengan konsensus atau tidak dapat disepakati menggunakan metode sejarah dan biasanya tidak sama dengan konspirasi terverifikasi seperti pretensi Jerman untuk menginvasi Polandia pada Perang Dunia II.

Etnisitas, ras dan agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teori konspirasi Antisemitik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejak Abad Pertengahan, Antisemitisme masih memegang karakteristik teori konspirasi. Tuduhan Antisemitik terus menerus berlanjut. Di Eropa pada Abad Pertengahan, Yahudi dituduh meracuni sumur, telah membunuh Yesus. dan memakan darah orang Kristen dalam ritual mereka (meskipun pada kenyataannya darah hewan dan manusia tidak kosher).

Pada paruh kedua abad ke-19, para pemegang teori konspirasi mengklaim bahwa Yahudi dan/atau Freemason berencana memegang kendali atas dunia. Teks paling terkenal yang menuduh keberadaan teori konspirasi Yudeo-Masonik adalah Protokol Para Tetua Sion. Sebuah manifestasi paling modern dari gagasan semacam itu adalah teori Pemerintah Pendudukan Zionis.

Berbagai teori konspirasi mengait-kaitkan Yahudi dengan perbankan,[1] yang meliputi teori yang menyatakan bahwa perbankan dunia didominasi oleh keluarga Rothschild,[2] bahwa Yahudi mengkontrol Wall Street,[2] dan bahwa Yahudi mengkontrol U.S. Federal Reserve System.[3] Sebuah teori terkait mengatakan bahwa Yahudi mengkontrol Hollywoood atau media berita.[4][5][6]

Sebagian besar penyangkalan Holocaust mengklaim secara tersirat, atau secara terbuka, bahwa Holocaust adalah sebuah hoax yang dikembangkan melalui persekongkolan Yahudi untuk meningkatkan perhatian bangsa-bangsa lain terhadap Yahudi,[7] dan untuk membenarkan pembuatan Negara Israel. Karena itu, penyangkalan Holocaust dianggap sebagai teori konspirasi[8] antisemitik.[9]

Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eurabia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Penulis Yahudi Inggris Bat Ye'or, pengarang Eurabia: The Euro–Arab Axis, yang kemudian disusul oleh jurnalis Italia Oriana Fallaci, mengeluarkan sebuah teori konspirasi anti-Arab yang menyatakan bahwa terdapat persekongkolan antara para kaum elit Perancis dengan Komunitas Ekonomi Eropa dan Liga Arab pada pertengahan 1970an untuk membentuk sebuah aliansi strategis melawan Amerika Serikat dan Israel, dan untuk membuat Eropa menjadi wilayah Islam.[10]

Jihad Cinta[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pernikahan antar kepercayaan, khususnya antara Hindu dan Muslim, seringkali menjadi titik ketegangan dan berakibat kerusuhan komunal di India. Jihad Cinta, yang juga disebut Jihad Romeo, yang sebagian besar dianggap sebagai teori konspirasi, merupakan sebuah kegiatan dimana pria atau lelaki Muslim muda dikabarkan menargetkan para gadis muda yang berasal dari komunitas non-Muslim untuk berpindah agama ke Islam atas dasar cinta.[11][12][13][14]

Teori konspirasi anti-Katolik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teori konspirasi anti-Katolik, Vatikan, dan Yesuit[sunting | sunting sumber]

Teori konspirasi anti-Katolik, teori konspirasi Yesuit, dan Vatikan beragam dalam tingkat keekstriman mereka. Teori konspirasi yang paling ekstrem menampilkan gagasan yang lebih realistis yang memandang bahwa Gereja Katolik merupakan etnitas politik yang mengendalikan peristiwa-peristiwa dunia atau ekonomi global, khususnya melalyu perbankan Vatikan; atau bahwa Gereja Katolik telah mengadakan dan sedang menutup-nutupi keterlibatan mereka dalam konspirasi politik dan praktik-praktik kejahatan dan tak bermoral lainnya. Teori-teori lainnya yang jatuh pada sisi paling ekstrem meliputi kepercayaan bahwa Gereja Katolik. Yesuit, atau Kesatria Templar menyimpan bukti atau dokumen berpengaruh pada masa lalu yang bertentangan dengan pengajaran Gereja, sebuah teori yang makin tenar dengan popularitas The Da Vinci Code karya Dan Brown.

Pada 1858, karya pseudo-sejarah Alexander Hislop, The Two Babylons menuduh bahwa Gereja Katolik Roma bermula dari sebuah agama misteri Babilonia dan menyatakan bahwa upacara dan ritualnya merupakan sebuah kelanjutan dari paganisme Babilonia. Pada masa yang sama, 50 Years In The Church of Rome dan The Priest, the Woman and the Confessional (1885) karya Charles Chiniquy yang mengaku sebagai pendeta menjadi populer karena menyatakan Katolik sebagai pagan rahasia.

Buku Avro Manhattan Vatican Moscow Alliance (1982), The Vatican Billions (1983) dan The Vatican's Holocaust (1986) memberikan pandangan bahwa Gereja menrancang peperangan demi mendominasi dunia. Karya Avro Manhattan menjadi dasar serangkaian traktat karya evangelis buku komik dan anti-Katolik modern terkenal Jack Chick yang juga menuduh kepausan mendukung Komunisme, dengan menggunakan Yesuit untuk melakukan revolusi, dan mendalangi Holocaust. Menurut Chick, Gereja Katolik adalah "Pelacur Besar" yang disebutkan pada Kitab Wahyu, dan akan mengirim Tatanan Dunia Baru Satanik sebelum dihancurkan oleh Yesus Kristus. Chick mengklaim bahwa Gereja Katolik berencana dan berupaya untuk menghancurkan atau merusak seluruh agama dan gereja lainnya, dan membuat berbagai peristiwa yang meliputi perpecahan, penutup-nutupan, dan pembunuhan para kritikusnya secara diam-diam. Berdasarkan pada gagasan Alberto Rivera, Chick juga mengklaim bahwa Gereja Katolik membantu mendirikan Islam sebagai sebuah alat unbtuk menjauhkan orang-orang dari Kekristenan dalam apa yang ia sebut Konspirasi Vatikan Islam. Menurut Alberto Rivera, Muhammad dimanipulasi oleh Gereja Katolik untuk membuat Islam dan menghancurkan Yahudi dan kelompok Kristen lainnya, dan istri pertama Muhammad, Khadijah binti Khuwailid, sebenarnya adalah seorang biarawati Katolik di sebuah biara Arab yang disuruh oleh seorang uskup untuk menikahinya dan menabur benih-benih yang kemudian menjadi Islam.[15] Rivera juga menuduh bahwa Vatikan membuat penampakan di Fatima (mengambil nama dari putri Muhammad) untuk menyanjung kaum Muslim.[15] Ia kemudian menyatakan bahwa Gereja Katolik telah mengadakan upaya pembunuhan Paus Yohanes Paulus II pada 1981 dengan menggunakan seorang Muslim sebagai penyamaran "untuk memberitahu dunia Muslim bahwa mereka masih dekat dengan kepercayaan Katolik..."[15] Rivera juga menyakini bahwa Yesuit bertanggung jawab atas pembuatan Komunisme dan Nazime, sebab dari kedua Perang Dunia, Pembantaian Jonestown, dan pembunuhan Abraham Lincoln dan John F. Kennedy; bahwa Gereja Katolik ingin menyebarkan homoseksualitas dan aborsi; bahwa Gerakan Karismatik adalah sebuah front untuk Gereja Katolik; bahwa para Paus adalah Anti-Kristus; dan bahwa Gereja Katolik adalah Pelacur Besar.[15] Ia juga mengklaim bahwa Yesuit adalah dalang di balik Inkuisisi Abad Pertengahan pada abad ke-12, meskipun pada kenyataannya Yesuit baru didirikan pada 1534.[16][17]

Pengarang David Yallop menerbitkan buku buatannya dengan penjualan terbaik, In God's Name (1984), yang mengklaim bahwa Paus Yohanes Paulus I dibunuh oleh para pembuat skema Vatikan yang korup (lihat teori konspirasi Paus Yohanes Paulus I) dengan novel konspirasi lainnya, The Power and the Glory: Inside the Dark Heart of John Paul II's Vatican (2007), yang mengklaim bahwa Paus Yohanes Paulus II bersekongkol dengan para penguasa Soviet.[18]

Serba-serbi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan dan referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "ADL Report "Blaming the Jews: The Financial Crisis and Anti-Semitism"". 
  2. ^ a b Levy, Richard (2005). Antisemitism: a historical encyclopedia of prejudice. hlm. 55. ISBN 1-85109-439-3. 
  3. ^ "ADL report "Jewish "Control" of the Federal Reserve: A Classic Anti-Semitic Myth"". 
  4. ^ Baker, Lee D. (2010). Anthropology and the Racial Politics of Culture. Duke University Press. hlm. 158. ISBN 978-0822346982. 
  5. ^ Waltman, Michael; John Haas (2010). The Communication of Hate. Peter Lang. hlm. 52. ISBN 978-1433104473. 
  6. ^ "Who runs Hollywood? C'mon". LA Times. 
  7. ^ A hoax designed to advance the interests of Jews:
    • "The title of App's major work on the Holocaust, The Six Million Swindle, is informative because it implies on its very own the existence of a conspiracy of Jews to perpetrate a hoax against non-Jews for monetary gain." Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Jews are thus depicted as manipulative and powerful conspirators who have fabricated myths of their own suffering for their own ends. According to the Holocaust deniers, by forging evidence and mounting a massive propaganda effort, the Jews have established their lies as ‘truth’ and reaped enormous rewards from doing so: for example, in making financial claims on Germany and acquiring international support for Israel." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived 20110718044959 at www.jpr.org.uk Error: unknown archive URL, JPR report #3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "Why, we might ask the deniers, if the Holocaust did not happen would any group concoct such a horrific story? Because, some deniers claim, there was a conspiracy by Zionists to exaggerate the plight of Jews during the war in order to finance the state of Israel through war reparations." Michael Shermer & Alex Grobman. Denying History: : who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and why Do They Say It?, University of California Press, 2000, ISBN 0-520-23469-3, p. 106.
    • "Since its inception... the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States Archived 20110628184616 at www.tau.ac.il Error: unknown archive URL, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The central assertion for the deniers is that Jews are not victims but victimizers. They 'stole' billions in reparations, destroyed Germany's good name by spreading the 'myth' of the Holocaust, and won international sympathy because of what they claimed had been done to them. In the paramount miscarriage of injustice, they used the world's sympathy to 'displace' another people so that the state of Israel could be established. This contention relating to the establishment of Israel is a linchpin of their argument." Deborah Lipstadt. Denying the Holocaust – The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, Penguin, 1993, ISBN 0-452-27274-2, p. 27.
    • "They [Holocaust deniers] picture a vast shadowy conspiracy that controls and manipulates the institutions of education, culture, the media and government in order to disseminate a pernicious mythology. The purpose of this Holocaust mythology, they assert, is the inculcation of a sense of guilt in the white, Western Christian world. Those who can make others feel guilty have power over them and can make them do their bidding. This power is used to advance an international Jewish agenda centered in the Zionist enterprise of the State of Israel." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Deniers argue that the manufactured guilt and shame over a mythological Holocaust led to Western, specifically United States, support for the establishment and sustenance of the Israeli state—a sustenance that costs the American taxpayer over three billion dollars per year. They assert that American taxpayers have been and continue to be swindled..." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana, University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445.
  8. ^ Conspiracy theory:
    • "While appearing on the surface as a rather arcane pseudo-scholarly challenge to the well-established record of Nazi genocide during the Second World War, Holocaust denial serves as a powerful conspiracy theory uniting otherwise disparate fringe groups..." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "Before discussing how Holocaust denial constitutes a conspiracy theory, and how the theory is distinctly American, it is important to understand what is meant by the term 'Holocaust denial.'" Mathis, Andrew E. Holocaust Denial, a Definition, The Holocaust History Project, July 2, 2004. Retrieved December 18, 2006.
    • "Since its inception... the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    Archived 20110604020743 at www.adl.org Error: unknown archive URL
  9. ^ Antisemitic:
    • "Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include ... denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust)." Working Definition of Antisemitism Archived 20110125001633 at fra.europa.eu Error: unknown archive URLPDF (33.8 KB), Fundamental Rights Agency
    • "It would elevate their antisemitic ideology—which is what Holocaust denial is—to the level of responsible historiography—which it is not." Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust, ISBN 0-14-024157-4, p. 11.
    • "The denial of the Holocaust is among the most insidious forms of anti-Semitism..." Roth, Stephen J. "Denial of the Holocaust as an Issue of Law" in the Israel Yearbook on Human Rights, Volume 23, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1993, ISBN 0-7923-2581-8, p. 215.
    • "Contemporary Holocaust deniers are not revisionists—not even neo-revisionists. They are Deniers. Their motivations stem from their neo-nazi political goals and their rampant antisemitism." Austin, Ben S. "Deniers in Revisionists Clothing" Archived 20081121021941 at www.mtsu.edu Error: unknown archive URL, The Holocaust\Shoah Page, Middle Tennessee State University. Retrieved March 29, 2007.[pranala nonaktif]
    • "Holocaust denial can be a particularly insidious form of antisemitism precisely because it often tries to disguise itself as something quite different: as genuine scholarly debate (in the pages, for example, of the innocuous-sounding Journal for Historical Review)." The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial? Archived 20110718044959 at www.jpr.org.uk Error: unknown archive URL, JPR report #3, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
    • "This books treats several of the myths that have made antisemitism so lethal... In addition to these historic myths, we also treat the new, maliciously manufactured myth of Holocaust denial, another groundless belief that is used to stir up Jew-hatred." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, p. 3.
    • "One predictable strand of Arab Islamic antisemitism is Holocaust denial..." Schweitzer, Frederick M. & Perry, Marvin. Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, p. 10.
    • "Anti-Semitism, in the form of Holocaust denial, had been experienced by just one teacher when working in a Catholic school with large numbers of Polish and Croatian students." Geoffrey Short, Carole Ann Reed. Issues in Holocaust Education, Ashgate Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7546-4211-9, p. 71.
    • "Indeed, the task of organized antisemitism in the last decade of the century has been the establishment of Holocaust Revisionism – the denial that the Holocaust occurred." Stephen Trombley, "antisemitism", The Norton Dictionary of Modern Thought, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0-393-04696-6, p. 40.
    • "After the Yom Kippur War an apparent reappearance of antisemitism in France troubled the tranquility of the community; there were several notorious terrorist attacks on synagogues, Holocaust revisionism appeared, and a new antisemitic political right tried to achieve respectability." Howard K. Wettstein, Diasporas and Exiles: Varieties of Jewish Identity, University of California Press, 2002, ISBN 0-520-22864-2, p. 169.
    • "Holocaust denial is a convenient polemical substitute for anti-semitism." Igounet, Valérie. "Holocaust denial is part of a strategy", Le Monde diplomatique, May, 1998.
    • "Holocaust denial is a contemporary form of the classic anti-Semitic doctrine of the evil, manipulative and threatening world Jewish conspiracy." Introduction: Denial as Anti-Semitism, "Holocaust Denial: An Online Guide to Exposing and Combating Anti-Semitic Propaganda", Anti-Defamation League, 2001. Retrieved June 12, 2007.
    • "In a number of countries, in Europe as well as in the United States, the negation or gross minimization of the Nazi genocide of Jews has been the subject of books, essay and articles. Should their authors be protected by freedom of speech? The European answer has been in the negative: such writings are not only a perverse form of anti-semitism but also an aggression against the dead, their families, the survivors and society at large." Roger Errera, "Freedom of speech in Europe", in Georg Nolte, European and US Constitutionalism, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-85401-6, pp. 39–40.
    • "Particularly popular in Syria is Holocaust denial, another staple of Arab anti-Semitism that is sometimes coupled with overt sympathy for Nazi Germany." Efraim Karsh, Rethinking the Middle East, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-7146-5418-3, p. 104.
    • "Holocaust denial is a new form of anti-Semitism, but one that hinges on age-old motifs." Dinah Shelton, Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Macmillan Reference, 2005, p. 45.
    • "The stress on Holocaust revisionism underscored the new anti-Semitic agenda gaining ground within the Klan movement. Holocaust denial refurbished conspiratorial anti-Semitism. Who else but the Jews had the media power to hoodwink unsuspecting masses with one of the greatest hoaxes in history? And for what motive? To promote the claims of the illegitimate state of Israel by making non-Jews feel guilty, of course." Lawrence N. Powell, Troubled Memory: Anne Levy, the Holocaust, and David Duke's Louisiana, University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-5374-7, p. 445.
    • "Since its inception... the Institute for Historical Review (IHR), a California-based Holocaust denial organization founded by Willis Carto of Liberty Lobby, has promoted the antisemitic conspiracy theory that Jews fabricated tales of their own genocide to manipulate the sympathies of the non-Jewish world." Antisemitism and Racism Country Reports: United States Archived 20110628184616 at www.tau.ac.il Error: unknown archive URL, Stephen Roth Institute, 2000. Retrieved May 17, 2007.
    • "The primary motivation for most deniers is anti-Semitism, and for them the Holocaust is an infuriatingly inconvenient fact of history. After all, the Holocaust has generally been recognized as one of the most terrible crimes that ever took place, and surely the very emblem of evil in the modern age. If that crime was a direct result of anti-Semitism taken to its logical end, then anti-Semitism itself, even when expressed in private conversation, is inevitably discredited among most people. What better way to rehabilitate anti-Semitism, make anti-Semitic arguments seem once again respectable in civilized discourse and even make it acceptable for governments to pursue anti-Semitic policies than by convincing the world that the great crime for which anti-Semitism was blamed simply never happened – indeed, that it was nothing more than a frame-up invented by the Jews, and propagated by them through their control of the media? What better way, in short, to make the world safe again for anti-Semitism than by denying the Holocaust?" Reich, Walter. "Erasing the Holocaust", The New York Times, July 11, 1993.
    • "There is now a creeping, nasty wave of anti-Semitism ... insinuating itself into our political thought and rhetoric ... The history of the Arab world ... is disfigured ... by a whole series of outmoded and discredited ideas, of which the notion that the Jews never suffered and that the Holocaust is an obfuscatory confection created by the elders of Zion is one that is acquiring too much, far too much, currency." Edward Said, "A Desolation, and They Called it Peace" in Those who forget the past, Ron Rosenbaum (ed), Random House 2004, p. 518.
  10. ^ "Il nemico che trattiamo da amico – Corriere della Sera". Corriere.it. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-03. 
  11. ^ "Muzaffarnagar: 'Love jihad', beef bogey sparked riot flames". Hindustan Times. 12 Sep 2013. Diakses tanggal 2014-04-18. 
  12. ^ Stephen Brown (2009-10-16). "The "Love Jihad"". Front Page Mag. Diakses tanggal 2014-04-18. 
  13. ^ Ananthakrishnan G (2009-10-13). "'Love Jihad' racket: VHP, Christian groups find common cause". Times of India. Diakses tanggal 2014-04-18. 
  14. ^ Mahanta, Siddhartha (5 September 2014). "India's Fake 'Love Jihad'". Foreign Policy. Diakses tanggal 24 November 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c d Catholic Answers Special Report: Chick Tracts
  16. ^ Brian Onken, "Alberto: The Truth about His Story," Forward, February 25, 1983
  17. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica – Jesuit". 
  18. ^ "Culture". The Telegraph. Diakses tanggal 6 May 2016. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Teori konspirasi