Kulturkampf

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Antara Berlin dan Roma, Kladderadatsch, 1875

Kulturkampf adalah penindasan umat Katolik di Jerman pada akhir abad ke-19.[1] Gerakan ini dilakukan oleh Otto von Bismarck yang takut pada pengaruh gereja Katolik Roma yang akan memecah belah kesatuan Kekaisaran Jerman.[2] Para Yesuit diusir keluar Jerman dan sekolah-sekolah gereja dinegerikan.[2] Ada beberapa uskup dan kardinal yang dipenjarakan, Gereja Katolik Roma kehilangan semua bantuan finansial dari pemerintah dan semua anggota serikat diusir dari Jerman.[2] Tetapi ketika Bismarck ingin mengalahkan Partai Sosial Demokrasi ia justru meminta bantuan dari Gereja Katolik Roma, dan hal ini menyebabkan adanya perdamaian dengan Paus Leo XIII.[2] Pada tahun 1887, peraturan yang melawan Gereja Katolik Roma dihapuskan, tetapi serikat Yesuit tetap diusir.[2]


Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Adolf Heuken. 2006. Ensiklopedi Gereja:Tr-Z. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka. Hlm 81.
  2. ^ a b c d e F.D.Wellem. 2006. Kamus Sejarah Gereja. Jakarta: BPK Gunung Mulia. Hlm 252-253.

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. Windthorst: A Political Biography (1981), the leader of the Catholic Center Party
  • Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. Practicing democracy: Elections and political culture in Imperial Germany (Princeton University Press, 2000)
  • Atkin, Nicholas, and Frank Tallett. Priests, Prelates and People: A History of European Catholicism since 1750 (Oxford UP, 2003).
  • Bennette, Rebecca Ayako. Fighting for the Soul of Germany: The Catholic Struggle for Inclusion After Unification (Harvard University Press; 2012) 368 pages; examines Catholics' promotion of an alternative national identity after 1871.
  • Blackbourn, David. Marpingen: Apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Nineteenth-Century Germany (Oxford, 1993)
  • Clark, Christopher and Wolfram Kaiser, eds. Culture Wars: Secular-Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth Century Europe (Cambridge University Press, 2003); Covers 10 countries; online review
  • Gross, Michael B. The War against Catholicism: Liberalism and the Anti-Catholic Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Germany (2005)
  • Hollyday, FBM (1970), Bismarck, Great Lives Observed, Prentice-Hall .
  • Hope, Nicholas, "Prussian Protestantism," in Philip G. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: 1830–1947 (2001) pp. 188–208
  • Lamberti, Marjorie. "Religious conflicts and German national identity in Prussia, 1866–1914," in Philip G. Dwyer, ed. Modern Prussian History: 1830–1947 (2001) pp. 169–187
  • Ross, Ronald J. The failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf: Catholicism and state power in imperial Germany, 1871–1887, (Washington, D.C., 1998)
  • Ross, Ronald J. "Enforcing the Kulturkampf in the Bismarckian state and the limits of coercion in imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History (1984): 456-482. in JSTOR
  • Ross, Ronald J. "The Kulturkampf: Restrictions and Controls on the Practice of Religion in Bismarck’s Germany." in Richard Helmstadter, ed. Freedom and Religion in the Nineteenth Century (1997) pp: 172-195.
  • Trzeciakowski, Lech. The Kulturkampf in Prussian Poland (East European Monographs, 1990) 223 pp
  • Weir, Todd. Secularism and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Germany: The Rise of the Fourth Confession, Cambridge University Press, 2014, ISBN 1139867903, 9781139867900
  • Zeender, John. "Ludwig Windthorst, 1812-1891" History (1992) 77#250 pp 237–54, the leader of the Catholic Center Party

Historiografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Anderson, Margaret Lavinia. "Confessions of a Fellow Traveler," Catholic Historical Review (2013) 99#4 pp 623–648.
  • Heilbronner, Oded. "From Ghetto to Ghetto: The Place of German Catholic Society in Recent Historiography" Journal of Modern History (2000) 72#2 pp. 453–495. in JSTOR

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]