Penganiayaan terhadap orang Kristen

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A Christian Dirce, lukisan karya Henryk Siemiradzki, 1897, di Museum Nasional, Warsawa. Seorang wanita Kristen mati sebagai martir di bawah pemerintahan Nero ketika mitos Dirce diberlakukan kembali.

Penganiayaan terhadap umat Kristen, atau penindasan terhadap umat Kristiani, dapat ditelusuri secara historis berdasarkan laporan kitab suci mengenai Yesus pada abad pertama era Kristen sampai dengan masa sekarang. Umat Kristen awal dianiaya karena iman mereka, baik oleh kaum Yahudi yang merupakan asal mula Kekristenan maupun oleh Kekaisaran Romawi yang menguasai sebagian besar wilayah tempat tersebarnya Kekristenan awal. Pada awal abad keempat, agama ini disahkan melalui Edik Milan dan akhirnya menjadi gereja negara Kekaisaran Romawi.

Para misionaris Kristen, serta orang-orang yang mereka konversi ke dalam Kekristenan, menjadi sasaran penganiayaan dan terkadang hingga menjadi martir karena iman mereka. Terdapat juga catatan sejarah tentang penganiayaan antar denominasi Kristen, yang dilakukan oleh suatu kalangan Kristen terhadap kalangan lainnya, terutama selama abad ke-16 dan sepanjang Abad Pertengahan. Pada abad ke-20, umat Kristen dianiaya oleh berbagai kelompok, misalnya oleh negara-negara ateistik seperti Uni Soviet dan Korea Utara. Selama Perang Dunia II, jemaat dari beberapa gereja Kristen mengalami penganiayaan di Jerman karena menolak ideologi Nazi.

Menurut International Christian Concern (ICC), penganiayaan terhadap umat Kristen telah meningkat di India belakangan ini.[1][2] Open Doors (Britania Raya), sebuah organisasi misioner Kristen, memperkirakan 100 juta umat Kristen mengalami penganiayaan, khususnya di negara-negara Timur Tengah.[3][4]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Changing Gods: Rethinking Conversion in India. Rudolf C Heredia. Penguin Books. 2007. ISBN 0-14-310190-0
  • W.H.C. Frend, 1965. Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church
  • Let My People Go: The True Story of Present-Day Persecution and Slavery Cal. R. Bombay, Multnomah Publishers, 1998
  • Their Blood Cries Out Paul Marshall and Lela Gilbert, World Press, 1997.
  • In the Lion's Den: Persecuted Christians and What the Western Church Can Do About It Nina Shea, Broadman & Holman, 1997.
  • This Holy Seed: Faith, Hope and Love in the Early Churches of North Africa Robin Daniel, (Chester, Tamarisk Publications, 2010: from www.opaltrust.org) ISBN 0-9538565-3-4
  • In the Shadow of the Cross: A Biblical Theology of Persecution and Discipleship Glenn M. Penner, Living Sacrifice Books, 2004
  • Catholic Martyrs of the Twentieth Century: A Comprehensive World History by Robert Royal, Crossroad/Herder & Herder; (April 2000). ISBN 0-8245-1846-2
  • Islam's Dark Side – The Orwellian State of Sudan, The Economist, 24 June 1995.
  • Sharia and the IMF: Three Years of Revolution, SUDANOW, September 1992.
  • Final Document of the Synod of the Catholic Diocese of Khartoum, 1991. [noting "oppression and persecution of Christians"]
  • Human Rights Voice, published by the Sudan Human Rights Organization, Volume I, Issue 3, July/August 1992 [detailing forcible closure of churches, expulsion of priests, forced displacement of populations, forced Islamisation and Arabisation, and other repressive measures of the Government].
  • Khalidi, Walid. "All that Remains: The Palestinian Villages cupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948." 1992. ISBN 0-88728-224-5
  • The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom by Candida R. Moss, HarperOne, 2013. ISBN 978-0-06-210452-6
  • Sudan – A Cry for Peace, published by Pax Christi International, Brussels, Belgium, 1994
  • Sudan – Refugees in their own country: The Forced Relocation of Squatters and Displaced People from Khartoum, in Volume 4, Issue 10, of News from Africa Watch, 10 July 1992.
  • Human Rights Violations in Sudan, by the Sudan Human Rights Organization, February 1994. [accounts of widespread torture, ethnic cleansing and crucifixion of pastors].
  • Pax Romana statement of Macram Max Gassis, Bishop of El Obeid, to the Fiftieth Session of the UN Commission on Human Rights, Geneva, February 1994 [accounts of widespread destruction of hundreds of churches, forced conversions of Christians to Islam, concentration camps, genocide of the Nuba people, systematic rape of women, enslavement of children, torture of priests and clerics, burning alive of pastors and catechists, crucifixion and mutilation of priests].
  • The Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614CE compared with Islamic conquest of 638CE

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