Bantuan:IPA untuk Punjabi

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Daftar di bawah menunjukkan cara (baik dalam aksara Gurmukhi dan Shahmukhi) di mana International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) mewakili pengucapan Punjabi dalam artikel-artikel Wikipedia.

Konsonan
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Padanan bahasa Inggris
b ب abash
p˦ بھ Tonal p
[1] د ado
˦ [1] دھ Tonal t̪
ɖ [1] ڈ guard
ʈ˦ [1] ڈھ Tonal ʈ
ج hedge
˦ جھ Tonal tʒ
f ਫ਼ ف food
ɡ گ agate
˦ گھ Tonal gʰ
ɦ ہ ahead
j ي yak
k ک scan
kʰ کھ can
l ل leaf
m م much
n ن not
ɳ - burner
ŋ - bank
p پ span
pʰ پھ pan
(sering diucapkan [f] dalam Punjabi)
q ਕ਼ ق a k dalam tenggorokan
(Shamukhi; diucapkan [k] dalam Gurmukhi)
ɾ ر US: better
ɽ ڑ US: larder
ɽʱ ੜ੍ਹ ڑھ as [ɽ] plus h
s س sue
ʃ ਸ਼ ش shoe
[1] ت stable
ʰ [1] تھ table
ʈ [1] ٹ art
ʈʰ [1] ٹھ art-historian
چ catch
ʰ چھ choose
ʋ[2] و bervariasi antara w dan v
x ਖ਼ خ Bach
(Shahmukhi; biasanya [kʰ] dalam Gurmukhi)
ɣ ਗ਼ غ seperti bahasa Perancis r
(Shahmukhi; biasanya [ɡ] dalam Gurmukhi). Dekat dengan flap uvular.
z ਜ਼ ز zen
Vokal
IPA Gurmukhi Shahmukhi Padanan bahasa Inggris
ɑː ਆ, ਪਾ آ, ـا bra
ਏ, ਪੇ ے antara yell dan Yale
ɛː ਐ, ਪੈ yell
ə ਅ, ਪ ـَ nut
[3] ਈ, ਪੀ ی feet
ɪ [3] ਇ, ਪਿ ـِ dill
ਓ, ਪੋ و old
ɔː ਔ, ਪੌ law
[3] ਊ, ਪੂ loot
ʊ [3] ਉ, ਪੁ ـُ look
 ̃ ں vokal sengau
([ãː], [õː], dcb.)


Suprasegmental
IPA
ˈ tekanan
(Ditempatkan sebelum penekanan suku kata)
ː konsonan ganda

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h To an English ear, [t̪ t̪ʰ ʈ ʈʰ] all sound like /t/, and [d̪ ɖ ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Punjabi speaker's ear these are very different sounds. [t̪ d̪] are like Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth, and [t̪ʰ d̪] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English /θ ð/ (the th sounds). Punjabi [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth, and [ʈʰ ɖ] are how a Punjabi speaker hears English t d; [ʈ] is how they hear English t after s.
  2. ^ [v], [w] and intermediate [ʋ] are allophonic in Punjabi. Some words, such as vart ('ਵਰਤ', fast), are pronounced with [v] and others, such as pakwan ('ਪਕਵਾਨ', food dish), are pronounced with [w].
  3. ^ a b c d /iː, ɪ/ and /uː, ʊ/ are neutralized to [i, u] at the end of a word.