Bantuan:IPA untuk bahasa Mandarin

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Tabel di bawah ini menunjukkan Alfabet Fonetis Internasional (International Phonetic Alphabet - IPA) yang dipakai untuk menulis pelafalan dalam bahasa Mandarin pada artikel-artikel di Wikipedia.

Konsonan
IPA Pinyin Bopomofo Bahasa Indonesia
[p] 
b paku
[pʰ] p batu
[m] 
m mana
[f] 
f fakir
[t] 
d tetapi
[tʰ] t delapan
[n] 
n-, -an, -en ㄋ, ㄢ, ㄣ negara
[l] 
l lelaki
[k] 
g kera
[kʰ] k gerak
[x] 
h hendak
[] 
j cicak
[tɕʰ] q jinak
[ɕ] 
x siapa
[] 
zh pitcher (Inggris)
[tʂʰ] ch church (Inggris)
[ʂ] 
sh sure (Inggris)
[ʐ] 
r- [1] Zsa Zsa (awal suku kata)
[ts] 
z cecak
[tsʰ] c jerapah
[s] 
s sebuah
[ɻ] 
-r aria (akhir suku kata)
[ŋ] 
-ng (-ang, -eng) ㄤ, ㄥ bolong
[w] 
w-, -u- walau
[j] 
y-, -i- ya
[ɥ] 
yu-, -ü-[2] (simultan y dan w)
Vokal
IPA Pinyin Bopomofo Kesamaan dengan bahasa lain
[a] 
a (a, an) ㄚ, ㄢ Agak seperti car (inggris)
[ɑ] 
a (ang), e (er) ㄤ, ㄦ car (Inggris)
[ɔ] 
o (wo[3]) pohon
[ɤ] 
e Agak seperti hurt (Inggris)
[ə] 
e (en[4], eng) ㄣ, ㄥ gelas
[ɛ] 
é (ye), a (yan, yuan) ㄝ,ㄧㄢ , ㄩㄢ teh
[aɪ] ai capai
[eɪ] ei[4] hei
[ɑʊ] au kalau
[oʊ] ou[4] hoe (Inggris)
[i] 
yi/-i (yi, yin, ying) ini
[u] 
wu/-u rumput
[ʊ] 
o (ong) ㄨㄥ rumput
[y] 
yu/-ü[2] (yu, yun) Agak seperti cute (Inggris)
[œ] 
e (yue) ㄩㄝ jeune (Prancis)
[ɨ] i (si, zi, ci, shi, zhi, chi, ri) (berdengung)[5]
Nasal[6]
[ɑ̃] ang (angr) Tak ada ekuivalen; nasal [ɑ]
[ə̃] eng (engr) Tak ada ekuivalen; nasal [ə]
[ʊ̃] ong (ongr) Tak ada ekuivalen; nasal [ʊ]
IPA Pinyin Deskripsi
Nada
[ǎ ɤ̌] á, é pertengahan naik: ˧˥
[â ɤ̂] à, è tinggi jatuh: ˥˩
[á ɤ́] ā, ē tinggi: ˥
[à, ɤ̀] ǎ, ě medial, rendah: ˩
awalnya, pertengahan jatuh: ˧˩
akhirnya, rendah naik: ˩˧
secara terpisah, menukik: ˧˩˧
[a, ɤ] a, e "datar":
rendah setelah nada jatuh [â];
pertengahan setelah semua nada lain

Urutan bopomofo[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bopomofo.png
Bopomofo
Diftong Vokal Konsonan
Konsonan
  • bo po mo fo (dibaca: po bo mo fo; b dibaca p, p dibaca b)
  • de te ne le (dibaca: te de ne le; d dibaca t, t dibaca d)
  • ge ke he (dibaca: ke ge he; g dibaca k, k dibaca g)
  • ji qi xi (dibaca: ci ji si; j dibaca c, q dibaca j, x dibaca s)
  • zhi chi shi ri (dibaca: che jhe she re; zh dibaca ch, ch dibaca jh, huruf i di belakang zh/ch/sh/r dibaca e)
  • zi ci si (dibaca: ce je se; z dibaca c, c dibaca j, huruf i di belakang z/c/s dibaca e)
Vokal
  • a o e é
  • ai ei au ou
  • an en ang eng
  • i u ü[7] er

Beberapa perbedaan antara penulisan pinyin dengan pengejaan dalam bahasa Indonesia:

  • -ou seringkali dibaca -o
  • -ui dibaca -ué
  • -un dibaca -uên, tetapi -ün tidak dibaca -üên, melainkan tetap -ün
  • -ian dibaca -ién, kecuali jika dipisah tanda petik tunggal, mis: xian (/sién/) vs. Xi'an (/si an/)

Dua macam bunyi "i"

  • Semua konsonan dapat diberi bunyi "i", kecuali "zh", "ch", "sh", "r", dan "z", "c", "s"
  • "zh", "ch", "sh", "r", dan "z", "c", "s" ditulis dengan huruf "i": "zhi", "chi", "shi", "ri", dan "zi", "ci", "si", tetapi dibaca dengan suara "e" "/che/", "/jhe/", "/she/", "/re/", dan "/ce/", "/je/", "/se/"
  • Bunyi "/ci/", "/ji/", "/si/" ditulis dengan "ji", "qi", "xi"

Indeks pinyin Tionghoa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terdapat 430 kemungkinan grafem dalam pinyin Tionghoa, tanpa menggunakan marka nada (tone marks).

  1. a
    1. a
    2. ai
    3. an
    4. ang
    5. ao
  2. b
    1. ba - /pa/
    2. bai - /pai/
    3. ban - /pan/
    4. bang - /pang/
    5. bao - /pao/
    6. bei - /pei/
    7. ben - /pen/
    8. beng - /peng/*
    9. bi - /pi/
    10. bian - /pien/
    11. biao - /piao/
    12. bie - /pie/
    13. bin - /pin/*
    14. bing - /ping/
    15. bo - /po/
    16. bu - /pu/
  3. c
    1. ca - /ja/*
    2. cai - /jai/
    3. can - /jan/
    4. cang - /jang/
    5. cao - /jao/
    6. ce - /je/
    7. cen - /jen/*
    8. ceng - /jeng/*
    9. cha - /jha/
    10. chai - /jhai/
    11. chan - /jhan/
    12. chang - /jhang/
    13. chao - /jhao/
    14. che - /jhe/
    15. chen - /jhen/
    16. cheng - /jheng/
    17. chi - /jhi/
    18. chong - /jhong/
    19. chou - /jho/
    20. chu - /jhu/
    21. chua - /jhua/*
    22. chuai - /jhuai/*
    23. chuan - /jhuan/
    24. chuang - /jhuang/
    25. chui - /jhui/
    26. chun - /jhuen/
    27. chuo - /jhuo/
    28. ci - /ji/
    29. cong - /jong/
    30. cou - /jo/*
    31. cu - /ju/
    32. cuan - /juan/
    33. cui - /jui/
    34. cun - /juen/
    35. cuo - /juo/
  4. d
    1. da - /ta/
    2. dai - /tai/
    3. dan - /tan/
    4. dang - /tang/
    5. dao - /tao/
    6. de - /te/
    7. dei - /tei/*
    8. den - /ten/*
    9. deng - /teng/
    10. di - /ti/
    11. dian - /tien/
    12. diao - /tiao/
    13. die - /tie/
    14. ding - /ting/
    15. diu - /tiu/
    16. dong - /tong/
    17. dou - /to/
    18. du - /tu/
    19. duan - /tuan/
    20. dui - /tui/
    21. dun - /tuen/
    22. duo - /tuo/
  5. e
    1. e
    2. en
    3. eng
    4. er
  6. f
    1. fa
    2. fan
    3. fang
    4. fei
    5. fen
    6. feng
    7. fo/fou
    8. fu
  7. g
    1. ga - /ka/*
    2. gai - /kai/
    3. gan - /kan/
    4. gang - /kang/
    5. gao - /kao/
    6. ge - /ke/
    7. gei - /kei/
    8. gen - /ken/
    9. geng - /keng/
    10. gong - /kong/
    11. gou - /ko/
    12. gu - /ku/
    13. gua - /kua/
    14. guai - /kuai/
    15. guan - /kuan/
    16. guang - /kuang
    17. gui - /kue/
    18. gun - /kuen/
    19. guo - /kuo/
  8. h
    1. ha
    2. hai
    3. han
    4. hang
    5. hao
    6. he
    7. hei
    8. hen
    9. heng
    10. hm
    11. hong
    12. hou - /ho/
    13. hu
    14. hua
    15. huai
    16. huan
    17. huang
    18. hui
    19. hun
    20. huo
  9. j
    1. ji
    2. jia
    3. jian
    4. jiang
    5. jiao
    6. jie
    7. jin
    8. jing
    9. jiong
    10. jiu
    11. ju
    12. juan
    13. jue
    14. jun
  10. k
    1. ka - /ga/*
    2. kai - /gai/
    3. kan - /gan/
    4. kang - /gang/
    5. kao - /gao/
    6. ke - /ge/
    7. ken - /gen/
    8. keng - /geng/*
    9. kong - /gong/
    10. kou - /go/
    11. ku - /gu/
    12. kua - /gua/*
    13. kuai - /guai/
    14. kuan - /guan/*
    15. kuang - /guang/
    16. kui - /gue/
    17. kun - /guen/
    18. kuo - /guo/*
  11. l
    1. la
    2. lai
    3. lan
    4. lang
    5. lao
    6. le
    7. lei
    8. leng
    9. li
    10. lia*
    11. lian
    12. liang
    13. liao
    14. lie
    15. lin
    16. ling
    17. liu
    18. lo*
    19. long
    20. lou - /lo/
    21. lu
    22. luan
    23. lüe*
    24. lun - /luen/
    25. luo
  12. m
    1. m*
    2. ma
    3. mai
    4. man
    5. mang
    6. mao
    7. me
    8. mei
    9. men
    10. meng
    11. mi
    12. mian - /mien/
    13. miao
    14. mie
    15. min
    16. ming
    17. miu*
    18. mo
    19. mou - /mo/
    20. mu
  13. n
    1. na
    2. nai
    3. nan
    4. nang
    5. nao
    6. ne
    7. nei
    8. nen*
    9. neng
    10. ni
    11. nian - /nien/
    12. niang
    13. niao
    14. nie*
    15. nin
    16. ning
    17. niu
    18. nong
    19. nou - /no/*
    20. nu
    21. nuan
    22. nüe*
    23. nuo
  14. o
    1. o/ou
  15. p
    1. pa - /ba/
    2. pai - /bai/
    3. pan - /ban/
    4. pang - /bang/
    5. pao - /bao/
    6. pei - /bei/
    7. pen - /ben/*
    8. peng - /beng/
    9. pi - /bi/
    10. pian - /bian/
    11. piao - /biao/
    12. pie - /bie/*
    13. pin - /bin/
    14. ping - /bing/
    15. po - /bo/
    16. pou - /bo/
    17. pu - /bu/
  16. q
    1. qi - /ji/
    2. qia - /jia/*
    3. qian - /jien/
    4. qiang - /jiang/
    5. qiao - /jiao/
    6. qie - /jie/
    7. qin - /jin/
    8. qing - /jing/
    9. qiong - /jiong/
    10. qiu - /jiu/
    11. qu - /jü/
    12. quan - /jüen/
    13. que - /jüe/
    14. qun - /jün/
  17. r
    1. ran
    2. rang
    3. rao
    4. re
    5. ren
    6. reng
    7. ri - /re/
    8. rong
    9. rou - /ro/
    10. ru
    11. ruan
    12. rui
    13. run - /ruen/*
    14. ruo
  18. s
    1. sa
    2. sai
    3. san
    4. sang
    5. sao
    6. se
    7. sen
    8. seng*
    9. sha
    10. shai*
    11. shan
    12. shang
    13. shao
    14. she
    15. shei*
    16. shen
    17. sheng
    18. shi
    19. shou - /sho/
    20. shu
    21. shua*
    22. shuai
    23. shuan*
    24. shuang
    25. shui
    26. shun - /shuen/
    27. shuo
    28. si - /se/
    29. song
    30. sou - /so/
    31. su
    32. suan
    33. sui
    34. sun - /suen/
    35. suo
  19. t
    1. ta - /da/
    2. tai - /dai/
    3. tan - /dan/
    4. tang - /dang/
    5. tao - /dao/
    6. te - /de/
    7. teng - /deng/
    8. ti - /di/
    9. tian - /dien/
    10. tiao - /diao/
    11. tie - /die/
    12. ting - /ding/
    13. tong - /dong/
    14. tou - /do/
    15. tu - /du/
    16. tuan - /duan/
    17. tui - /dui/
    18. tun - /duen/
    19. tuo - /duo/
  20. w
    1. wa
    2. wai
    3. wan
    4. wang
    5. wei
    6. wen
    7. weng - /ong/
    8. wo
    9. wu - /u/
  21. x
    1. xi - /si/
    2. xia - /sia/
    3. xian - /sien/
    4. xiang - /siang/
    5. xiao - /siao/
    6. xie - /sie/
    7. xin - /sin/
    8. xing - /sing/
    9. xiong - /siong/
    10. xiu - /siu/
    11. xu - /sü/
    12. xuan - /süen/
    13. xue - /süe/
    14. xun - /sün/
  22. y
    1. ya
    2. yai*
    3. yan - /yen/
    4. yang
    5. yao
    6. ye
    7. yi - /i/
    8. yin - /in/
    9. ying - /ing/
    10. yo*
    11. yong
    12. you - /yo/
    13. yu - /ü/
    14. yuan - /yuen/
    15. yue - /ye/
    16. yun - /yün/
  23. z
    1. za - /ca/
    2. zai - /cai/
    3. zan - /can/
    4. zang - /cang/
    5. zao - /cao/
    6. ze - /ce/
    7. zei - /cei/*
    8. zen - /cen/
    9. zeng - /ceng/
    10. zha - /cha/
    11. zhai - /chai/
    12. zhan - /chan/
    13. zhang - /chang/
    14. zhao - /chao/
    15. zhe - /che/
    16. zhei - /chei/*
    17. zhen - /chen/
    18. zheng - /cheng/
    19. zhi - /chi/
    20. zhong - /chong/
    21. zhou - /chou/
    22. zhu - /chu/
    23. zhua - /chua/
    24. zhuai - /chuai/*
    25. zhuan - /chuan/
    26. zhuang - /chuang/
    27. zhui - /chui/
    28. zhun - /chun/
    29. zhuo - /chuo/
    30. zi - /ce/
    31. zong - /cong/
    32. zou - /cou/
    33. zu - /cu/
    34. zuan - /cuan/
    35. zui - /cui/
    36. zun - /cuen/
    37. zuo - /cuo/

*Jarang dipakai

Initials and finals[sunting | sunting sumber]

"ci", "ji", "si", "che", "jhe", "she", "re", "ze", "je", "se".

Unlike European languages, clusters of letters – initials (Hanzi sederhana: 声母Hanzi tradisional: 聲母pinyin: shēngmǔ) and finals (Hanzi sederhana: 韵母Hanzi tradisional: 韻母pinyin: yùnmǔ) – and not consonant and vowel letters, form the fundamental elements in pinyin (and most other phonetic systems used to describe the Han language). Every Mandarin syllable can be spelled with exactly one initial followed by one final, except for the special syllable er or when a trailing -r is considered part of a syllable (see below). The latter case, though a common practice in some sub-dialects, is rarely used in official publications. One exception is the city Harbin (Hanzi sederhana: 哈尔滨Hanzi tradisional: 哈爾濱; pelafalan: /ha er pin/), whose name comes from the Manchu language.

Even though most initials contain a consonant, finals are not always simple vowels, especially in compound finals (Hanzi sederhana: 复韵母Hanzi tradisional: 複韻母pinyin: fuyunmu), i.e., when a "medial" is placed in front of the final. For example, the medials [i] and [u] are pronounced with such tight openings at the beginning of a final that some native Chinese speakers (especially when singing) pronounce (Hanzi sederhana: Hanzi tradisional: , clothes, officially pronounced /í/) as /jí/ and wéi (Hanzi sederhana: Hanzi tradisional: , to enclose, officially pronounced /uěi/) as /wěi/ or /wuěi/. Often these medials are treated as separate from the finals rather than as part of them; this convention is followed in the chart of finals below.

Initials[sunting | sunting sumber]

In each cell below, first the bold letters indicate pinyin, followed in brackets by the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo-palatal Velar
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiceless
Nasal m [m] n [n]
Plosive Unaspirated b [p] d [t] g [k]
Aspirated p [pʰ] t [tʰ] k [kʰ]
Affricate Unaspirated z [ts] zh [ʈʂ] j [tɕ]
Aspirated c [tsʰ] ch [ʈʂʰ] q [tɕʰ]
Fricative f [f] s [s] sh [ʂ] r [ʐ~ɻ]1 x [ɕ] h [x]
Lateral l [l]
Approximant y [j/ɥ]2 and w [w]2, 3

1 "r" may phonetically be [ʐ] (a voiced retroflex fricative) or [ɻ] (a retroflex approximant). This pronunciation varies among different speakers, and is not two different phonemes.
2 the letters "w" and "y" are not included in the table of initials in the official pinyin system. They are an orthographic convention for the medials "i", "u" and "ü" when no initial is present. When "i", "u" or "ü" are finals and no initial is present, they are spelled "yi", "wu", and "yu", respectively.
3 "y" is pronounced [ɥ] (a labial-palatal approximant) before "u".

The conventional order (excluding w and y), derived from the zhuyin system, is:

b  p  m  f   d  t  n  l   g  k  h   j  q  x   zh  ch  sh  r   z  c  s

Finals[sunting | sunting sumber]

Front Central Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y (ü)
ɨ (i)
u


ɤ (e) • o
ɚ (er)


ɛ (ê)


a
Close-mid
Open-mid
Open

The following chart gives the combinations of medials and finals based on an analysis that assumes just two vowel nuclei, /a/ and /ə/;[8] various allophones result depending on phonetic context.

In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals.1[9]

The only syllable-final consonants in Standard Chinese are -n and -ng, and -r, which is attached as a grammatical suffix. A Chinese syllable ending with any other consonant either is from a non-Mandarin language (a southern Chinese language such as Cantonese, or a minority language of China), or indicates the use of a non-pinyin Romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones).

Final Nucleus /a/ /ə/
Coda /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/ /i/ /u/ /n/ /ŋ/
Medial [ɑ]
a
-a
[aɪ̯]
ai
-ai
[ɑʊ̯]
ao
-ao
[an]
an
-an
[ɑŋ]
ang
-ang
[ɯ̯ʌ]
e
-e
[eɪ̯]
ei
-ei
[ɤʊ̯]
ou
-ou
[ən]
en
-en
[əŋ]
eng
-eng
[ɨ]

-i
/i/ [i̯ɑ]
ya
-ia
[i̯ɑʊ̯]
yao
-iao
[i̯ɛn]
yan
-ian
[i̯ɑŋ]
yang
-iang
[i̯ɛ]
ye
-ie
[i̯ɤʊ̯]
you
-iu
[in]
yin
-in
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[i]
yi
-i
/u/ [u̯ɑ]
wa
-ua
[u̯aɪ̯]
wai
-uai
[u̯an]
wan
-uan
[u̯ɑŋ]
wang
-uang
[u̯ɔ] 3
wo
-uo/-o
[u̯eɪ̯]
wei
-ui
[u̯ən]
wen
-un
[u̯əŋ], [ʊŋ] 4
weng
-ong
[u]
wu
-u
/y/ [y̯ɛn]
yuan
-üan 2
[y̯œ]
yue
-üe 2
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
[i̯ʊŋ]
yong
-iong
[y]
yu
2

1 [ɑɻ] is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends -r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final -r, please see Erhua#Rules.
2 "ü" is written as "u" after j, q, x, or y.
3 "uo" is written as "o" after b, p, m, or f.
4 "weng" is pronounced [ʊŋ] (written as "ong") when it follows an initial.

Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (欸, 誒) and syllabic nasals m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯, 𠮾) are used as interjections.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ [ʐ] dapat diucap [ɻ].
  2. ^ a b ü ([y], [ɥ]) dieja u setelah j, q, x sebagai [u], [w] tidak dapat terjadi setelah konsonan tersebut.
  3. ^ uo dieja dengan o ketika didahului oleh b, p, m atau f, namun diucapkan sama.
  4. ^ a b c wei, you, wen dieja ui, iu, un masing dalam pinyin, tapi diucapkan identik, ketika didahului oleh konsonan.
  5. ^ Vokal sedikit "berdengung" Dalam suku kata shi, zhi, chi, ri, vokal juga ditarik: [ɨ ˞], bukan seperti ir dalam kata bird bahasa Inggris Amerika. Ini kadang-kadang tercantum sebagai suku kata frikatif ([z], [ʐ̩]), tapi ada frication kecil.
  6. ^ Hanya terjadi di erhua dan umumnya tidak dianggap sebagai bagian dari persediaan vokal utama.
  7. ^ terkadang ditulis dengan graf /v/ atau /yu/ apabila u umlaut (ü) tidak tersedia
  8. ^ Hashimoto, Mantaro (1970). "Notes on Mandarin Phonology". Dalam Jakobson, Roman; Kawamoto, Shigeo. Studies in General and Oriental Linguistics. Tokyo: TEC. hlm. 207–220 
  9. ^ You can hear recordings of the Finals here