Wikipedia:IPA untuk bahasa Persia

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Pengucapan kosa kata bahasa Inggris di Wikipedia disalurkan dengan Alfabet Fonetis Internasional (IPA) memakai transkripsi berikut, yang tidak spesifik pada satu dialek apapun. Untuk pengenalan dasar IPA, lihat Wikipedia:IPA/Pengenalan. Jika Anda merasa perlu menambahkan pengejaan pengucapan, gunakan konvensi kunci pengejaan pengucapan Wikipedia. Untuk kunci IPA yang lebih lengkap, lihat Wikipedia:IPA, yang dilengkapi suara yang tidak muncul dalam bahasa Inggris. Jika simbol IPA tidak tertampil dengan baik pada peramban Anda, lihat pranala di bawah halaman.

Tabel di bawah ini menunjukkan bahasa Persia dalam simbol-simbol IPA. Lihat Fonologi bahasa Persia untuk lebih dalam mengenai bunyi dalam bahasa Persia.


Konsonan[1]
IPA Huruf Contoh Contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia
b ب برادر benda[2]
d د د‫وست‬ dendang
ج جوان jasa
f ف فشار fatal
ɡ گ گروه gerbang[3]
ɣ[4] غ
[5] ق
باغ Tidak ada contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia; seperti gerbang namun dilafalkan di tenggorokan bawah
ɢ قلم Tidak ada contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia; seperti kucing namun dilafalkan sangat di belakang
h ه
ح
هفت hati
j ی یا yakin
k ک کشور kucing[6]
l ل لب lapis
m م مادر manusia[7]
n ن نان nasi
p ‫پ‬ ‫پدر‬ pena[6]
ɾ ر ایران bitter in American English[8]
s س
ص
ث
سایه suka
ʃ ‫ش‬ ‫شاه‬ syukur
t ت
ط
تا tali[6]
چ چوب cabai[6]
v و ویژه oven[9][10]
x خ خانه khatam
z ز
ذ
ض
ظ
آزاد zakat[11]
ʒ ژ ژاله zebra[12]
ʔ ع
ء
معنا Seperti dalam yakn atau makna
Konsonan marginal
ŋ نگ رنگ siang[13]
Penekanan
ˈ [14] ایران
[iˈɾɒːn]
again
[əˈɡeɪn]
Vowels
IPA Huruf Contoh Contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia
Monophthongs
æ َ   ا[15] نه bat
ɒː ا تا As in the interjection aw but slightly shorter in length - similar to caught (American English) or not (English English)
e[16] ِ   ا[15] که between bate and bet[17]
ی کی beat
o ا   ُ   و[15] تو boat (but shorter)[18]
و تو boot
Diphthongs
ei ی کی bay, they
ou[19] و نو flow; in early New Persian as well as in modern eastern dialects pronounced as in flower or loud

Notes[sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Konsonan bahasa Persia dapat dipanjangkan, terutama pada kata-kata dari bahasa Arab. Dalam Ipa diwakilkan dengan menggandakan simbol konsonan, seperti: [sejjed].
  2. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /p/ sebelum konsonan bersuara.
  3. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /k/ sebelum konsonan bersuara.
  4. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /x/ sebelum konsonan bersuara.
  5. ^ غ dan ق menyatakan fonem dalam bahasa Persia Klasik yang berasal dari bahasa Arab, the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop [ɢ]), respectively. In modern Tehrani Persian (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning and the end of a word, post-consonantal position, and syllable-final position, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive [ɢ], when /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]; the allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
  6. ^ a b c d The unvoiced stops /p, t, tʃ, k/ are aspirated much like their English counterparts: they become aspirated when they begin a syllable, though aspiration is not contrastive.
  7. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /n/ sebelum konsonan dwibibirs.
  8. ^ A trilled allophone [r] occurs word-initially (Spanish/Italian/Russian R); trill [r] as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially especially in loanwords of Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
  9. ^ While و is pronounced [v] in Iranian Persian, it is pronounced as [w] in Dari.
  10. ^ [v] is also an allophone of [f] before voiced consonants.
  11. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /s/ sebelum konsonan bersuara.
  12. ^ Juga sebuah alofon dari /ʃ/ sebelum konsonan bersuara.
  13. ^ Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
  14. ^ Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
  15. ^ a b c In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
  16. ^ [e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
  17. ^ The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  18. ^ The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  19. ^ /ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Eastern Persian.