Wikipedia:IPA untuk Bahasa Melayu

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IPA untuk pengucapan bahasa Melayu dan Indonesia

Konsonan
IPA Contoh pengucapan dekat bahasa Inggris
b bola [1] beau
d dari [1] do
jari job
f fikir, visa [2] festival
ɡ galah [3] gain
h habis, tokoh hat
j yakin, kaya yes
k kalah [1][3] sky
l lama clean
m makan moon
n nakal note
ŋ ngarai feeling
ɲ nyaman canyon
p pola [1] spy
r raja, dari, pasar trilled 'r' [4]
s saya six
ʃ syak [2] shoe
t tari [1] sty
cari check
v visa [2] vision
w waktu, Jawa we
x khas [2]
z zaman [2] zero
ʔ bapak [1] [3]
Vowel [5]
IPA Contoh pengucapan dekat bahasa Inggris
a ajar, buka[6] father
e serong, kare [7] clay[8]
ɛ teh, bebek [9] festival
i bila, ini see
ɪ kirim [9] bin
o roda, toko [7] sole
ɔ pohon [9] sort
u upah, baru moon
ʊ rumput [9] foot
ə gelak [6] about
Diphthong
au kalau [7] how
ai capai [7] bye
oi, ui sepoi boy (uncommon)
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress
Placed before the stressed syllable [10]

Catatan[sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c d e f /p/, /t/, /k/ are unaspirated, as in the Romance languages, or as in English spy, sty, sky. In final position, they are unreleased [p̚, t̪̚, ʔ̚], with final k being a glottal stop. /b, d/ are also unreleased, and therefore devoiced, [p̚, t̚]. There is no liaison: they remain unreleased even when followed by a vowel, as in kulit ubi "potato skins", though they are pronounced as a normal medial consonant when followed by a suffix.
  2. ^ a b c d e The fricatives [f, z, ʃ, x] are found in loanwords only. Some speakers pronounce orthographic ‹v› in loanwords as [v]; otherwise it is [f].
  3. ^ a b c The glottal stop [ʔ] is an allophone of /k/ and /ɡ/ in the coda: baik, bapak. It is also used between identical vowels in hiatus. Only a few words have this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs). It may be represented by an apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
  4. ^ In traditional Malay areas, the rhotic consonant /r/ is realized as a velar or uvular fricative, [ɣ] or [ʁ], and elided word-finally. Elsewhere, including in Standard Indonesian, it is an alveolar tap [ɾ] or trill [r]. Its position relative to schwa is ambiguous: kertas "paper" may be pronounced [krəˈtas] or [kərəˈtas].
  5. ^ The nasal consonant /m, n, ŋ, ɲ/ nasalize following vowels, and may nasalize a subsequent vowel if the intervening consonant is /h, j, w, ʔ/.
  6. ^ a b In Malaysian, word-final /a/ is often reduced to [ə].
  7. ^ a b c d [e, o] are allophones of /i, u/ in native words, but have become established as distinct phonemes in English and Javanese loan words. The diphthongs /ai, au/, which only occur in open syllables, are often merged into [e, o], respectively, especially in Java.
  8. ^ The Malay/Indonesian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of clay (for most English dialects) and the vowel of get. The Malay/Indonesian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  9. ^ a b c d /e, i, o, u/ have lax allophones [ɛ, ɪ, ɔ, ʊ] in closed syllables, except that tense [i, u] occur in stressed syllables with a coda nasal, and laax [ɛ, ɔ] also occur in open syllables if the following syllable contains the same lax vowel.
  10. ^ Stress generally falls on the penultimate syllable. If that syllable contains a schwa [ə], stress shifts to the antepenult if there is one, and to the final syllable if there is not. Some suffixes are ignored for stress placement.