Kepemilikan sosial

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Kepemilikan sosial merujuk pada berbagai macam bentuk kepemilikan atas alat produksi dalam sistem ekonomi sosialis; meliputi kepemilikan publik, kepemilikan pekerja, kepemilikan kooperatif, kepemilikan ekuitas warganegara,[1] kepemilikan umum dan kepemilikan kolektif.[2] Secara historis, kepemilikan sosial menyiratkan bahwa pasar kapital dan faktor akan hilang di bawah asumsi bahwa pertukaran pasar dalam proses produksi akan menjadi tidak berguna jika barang modal dimiliki oleh entitas tunggal atau jejaring entitas yang mewakili masyarakat,[3] tetapi artikulasi model sosialisme pasar yang pasar faktornya digunakan untuk mengalokasikan barang modal antarperusahaan yang dimiliki secara sosial, telah meluaskan definisi istilah ini hingga termasuk entitas otonom di dalam ekonomi pasar. Kepemilikan sosial atas alat produksi adalah karakter pendefinisian umum dari semua bentuk sosialisme.[4]

Dua bentuk utama kepemilikan sosial adalah kepemilikan publik di seluruh masyarakat dan kepemilikan kooperatif. Perbedaan antara keduanya terdapat pada distribusi produk surplus. Dalam kepemilikan publik di seluruh masyarakat, surplus didistribusikan kepada seluruh anggota masyarakat melalui dividen sosial; sedangkan dalam kepemilikan kooperatif, surplus ekonomi perusahaan dikontrol oleh semua anggota pekerja dari perusahaan terkait.[5]

Tujuan kepemilikan sosial adalah untuk menghapuskan perbedaan antara kelas pemilik pribadi yang menerima pendapatan properti pasif dan pekerja yang menerima pendapatan kerja (gaji, upah dan komisi), sehingga produk surplus (atau keuntungan ekonomi dalam kasus sosialisme pasar) dimiliki oleh masyarakat secara keseluruhan atau kepada anggota perusahaan terkait. Kepemilikan sosial memungkinkan peningkatan produktivitas dari otomasi kerja yang secara progresif mengurangi lamanya rata-rata hari kerja dibandingkan dengan menciptakan ketidakpastian kerja dan pengangguran. Pengurangan waktu kerja yang diperlukan merupakan hal sentral dalam konsep Marxis atas kemerdekaan manusia dan dalam mengatasi alienasi, sebuah konsep yang secara luas diterima oleh sosialis Marxis dan non-Marxis.[6][7]

Sosialisasi adalah proses restrukturisasi kerangka ekonomi, struktur organisasi dan institusi ekonomi dalam basis sosialis.[8] Pengertian yang komprehensif sosialisasi dan bentuk kepemilikan publik dari kepemilikan sosial menyiratkan berakhirnya penggunaan hukum kapitalisme, akumulasi kapital dan penggunaan uang serta penilaian finansial dalam proses produksi; bersamaan dengan restrukturisasi organisasi tingkat tempat kerja.[9][10]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ O'Hara, Phillip (September 2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. hlm. 71. ISBN 0-415-24187-1. In order of increasing decentralisation (at least) three forms of socialised ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity. ,
  2. ^ Hastings, Mason and Pyper, Adrian, Alistair and Hugh (December 21, 2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. hlm. 677. ISBN 978-0-19-860024-4. Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one. Nationalization in itself has nothing particularly to do with socialism and has existed under non-socialist and anti-socialist regimes. Kautsky in 1891 pointed out that a ‘co-operative commonwealth’ could not be the result of the ‘general nationalization of all industries’ unless there was a change in ‘the character of the state’. 
  3. ^ Steele, David Ramsay (September 1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. hlm. 175–177. ISBN 978-0-87548-449-5. Especially before the 1930s, many socialists and anti-socialists implicitly accepted some form of the following for the incompatibility of state-owned industry and factor markets. A market transaction is an exchange of property titles between two independent transactors. Thus internal market exchanges cease when all of industry is brought into the ownership of a single entity, whether the state or some other organization...the discussion applies equally to any form of social or community ownership, where the owning entity is conceived as a single organization or administration. 
  4. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. hlm. 2. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism. Yet having stated this as the common definition of socialism, one must necessarily admit that there are a wide variety of views among socialists of various stripes as to just what constitutes social ownership and control of the means of production, distribution and exchange. 
  5. ^ Toward a Socialism for the Future, in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past, by Weisskopf, Thomas E. 1992. Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 24, No. 3-4, pp. 10: "Here again there are two principal variants of such social claims to income, depending on the nature of the community holding the claim: (1) Public surplus appropriation: the surplus of the enterprise is distributed to an agency of the government (at the national, regional, or local level), representing a corresponding community of citizens. (2) Worker surplus appropriation: the surplus of the enterprise is distributed to enterprise workers."
  6. ^ Peffer, Rodney G. (2014). Marxism, Morality, and Social Justice. Princeton University Press. hlm. 73. ISBN 978-0-691-60888-4. Marx believed the reduction of necessary labor time to be, evaluatively speaking, an absolute necessity. He claims that real wealth is the developed productive force of all individuals. It is no longer the labor time but the disposable time that is the measure of wealth. 
  7. ^ Saros, Daniel E. (May 1, 2014). Information Technology and Socialist Construction: The end of Capital and the Transition to Socialism. Routledge. hlm. 61. ISBN 978-0-415-74292-4. Another characteristic that Marx and Engels emphasized as a central feature of a future socialist society was a shorter workday. According to Tucker, Marx had a ‘vision of man in a future condition of freedom-creative leisure’ that he described in volume 3 of Capital. 
  8. ^ "the act or process of making socialistic: the socialization of industry." "Socialization" at Dictionary.com
  9. ^ Otto Neurath's concepts of socialization and economic calculation and his socialist critics. Retrieved July 5, 2010: http://www.chaloupek.eu/work/NeurathFin.pdf
  10. ^ What is socialization? A program for practical socialism, by Korsch, Karl. 1975. Duke University Press. New German Critique, No. 6, pp. 60-81: "The socialization demanded by socialism signifies a new regulation of production with the goal of replacing the private capitalist economy with a socialist communal economy."

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Korsch, Karl (1975). "What Is Socialization? A Program of Practical Socialism". New German Critique No.6: 60-81.
  • Minns, Richard (1996). "The Social Ownership of Capital". New Left Review 219. 1: 42-61.
  • O'Neil, John (2002). "Socialist Calculation and Environmental Valuation: Money, Markets and Ecology". Science and Society 66. 1: 137-158.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]