Model Nordik

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Model Nordik (biasa disebut kapitalisme Nordik[1] atau demokrasi sosial Nordik)[2][3] mengacu kepada kebijakan sosial dan ekonomi yang diterapkan di negara-negara Nordik (Denmark, Finlandia, Norwegia, Islandia, dan Swedia). Kebijakan tersebut mencakup gabungan kapitalisme pasar bebas dengan negara kesejahteraan dan perundingan kolektif menyeluruh di tingkat nasional.[4][5]

Meski ada beberapa perbedaan antara negara-negara Nordik, semuanya memiliki ciri khas yang sama. Kebijakan mereka mendukung negara kesejahteraan "universalis" yang bertujuan meningkatkan kemandirian seseorang dan mendorong mobilitas sosial; sistem korporatis yang melibatkan kesepakatan antara tiga pihak: wakil pekerja dan majikan merundingkan upah dan kebijakan pasar tenaga kerja sambil dimediasi pemerintah;[6] dan komitmen untuk menyebarkan kepemilikan swasta, pasar bebas, dan perdagangan bebas.[7]

Setiap negara Nordik memiliki model ekonomi dan sosialnya sendiri, kadang jauh berbeda dibandingkan negara tetangganya.[8] Menurut sosiolog Lane Kenworthy, dalam konteks model Nordik, "demokrasi sosial" mengacu kepada serangkaian kebijakan yang mengutamakan keamanan ekonomi dan kesempatan dalam kerangka kerja kapitalisme alih-alih sistem pengganti kapitalisme.[9]

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ The Nordic Way, Klas Eklund, Henrik Berggren and Lars Trägårdh. 2011.
  2. ^ Nik Brandal, Øivind Bratberg, Dag Einar Thorsen. The Nordic Model of Social Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. ISBN 1-137-01326-5
  3. ^ Pontusson, Jonas (2011). Once Again A Model: Nordic Social Democracy in a Globalized World. pp 89-115 in What's Left of the Left: Democrats and Social Democrats in Challenging Times. Edited by James E. Cronin , George W. Ross, and James Shoch. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-5079-3.
  4. ^ "The surprising ingredients of Swedish success - free markets and social cohesion" (PDF). Institute of Economic Affairs. June 25, 2013. Diakses tanggal January 15, 2014. 
  5. ^ James E. McWhinney (June 25, 2013). "The Nordic Model: Pros and Cons". Investopedia. Diakses tanggal September 16, 2015. The Nordic model is a term coined to capture the unique combination of free market capitalism and social benefits that have given rise to a society that enjoys a host of top-quality services, including free education and free healthcare, as well as generous, guaranteed pension payments for retirees. These benefits are funded by taxpayers and administered by the government for the benefit of all citizens. 
  6. ^ Hicks, Alexander (January 20, 2000). Social democracy and Welfare Capitalism: A century of Income Security Politics. Cornell University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0801485565. By the late 1950s, labor had been incorporated alongside Swedish business in fully elaborated corporatist institutions of collective bargaining and policy making, public as well as private, supply-side (as for labour training) as well as demand side (e.g., Keynesian). During the 1950s and 1960s, similar neocorpratist institutions developed in Denmark and Norway, in Austria and the Netherlands, and somewhat later, in Belgium and Finland. 
  7. ^ James E. McWhinney (June 25, 2013). "The Nordic Model: Pros and Cons". Investopedia. Diakses tanggal September 16, 2015. The model is underpinned by a capitalist economy that encourages creative destruction. While the laws make it is easy for companies to shed workers and implement transformative business models, employees are supported by generous social welfare programs. 
  8. ^ Kenworthy, Lane (2014). Social Democratic America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-932251-1 p. 138.
  9. ^ Lane Kenworthy (January 2014). "America's Social Democratic Future". Foreign Affairs. Diakses tanggal 2 April 2014. 

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bucken-Knapp, Gregg (2009). Defending the Swedish Model: Social democrats, trade unions, and labor migration policy reform. Lexington Books. 
  • Christiansen, Niels Finn et al. The Nordic Model of Welfare (2006)
  • Hilson, Mary. The Nordic model: Scandinavia since 1945 (2008)
  • Kenworthy, Lane. Social Democratic America. Oxford University Press USA (2014). ISBN 0-19-932251-1
  • Kvist, Jon, et al. Changing social equality: The Nordic welfare model in the 21st century (2011)
  • Nik Brandal, Øivind Bratberg, Dag Einar Thorsen. The Nordic Model of Social Democracy (2013) Pallgrave MacMillan. ISBN 1-137-01326-5

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Model sosial di Eropa