Sosialisme demokratik

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Sosialisme demokratik adalah filosofi politik yang menganjurkan demokrasi yang dilaksanakan bersamaan dengan kepemilikan sosial langsung atas alat produksi,[1] dengan penekanan pada manajemen mandiri dan manajemen demokrasi institusi ekonomi dalam suatu pasar atau suatu bentuk ekonomi sosialis terencana yang terdesentralisasi.[2] Sosialis demokratik menganut bahwa kapitalisme secara inheren tidak sesuai dengan apa yang mereka percaya sebagai nilai-nilai demokrasi seperti kebebasan, kesetaraan dan solidaritas. Mereka percaya juga bahwa cita-cita tersebut hanya dapat dicapai melalui realisasi masyarakat sosialis. Sosialisme demokratik dapat mendukung politik revolusioner maupun reformis sebagai sarana untuk membangun sosialisme.[3]

Dalam istilah sosialisme demokratik, kata sifat demokratik digunakan untuk membedakan sosialis demokratik dengan sosialisme yang terilhami Marxisme-Leninisme, yang dipandang banyak orang dalam praktiknya sebagai tidak demokratis atau otoriter.[4][5] Sosialis demokrat menentang sistem politik Stalinis dan perencanaan ekonomi tipe Soviet, menolak bentuk pemerintahan yang dianggap otoriter dan ekonomi komando yang sangat tersentralisasi seperti di Uni Soviet dan negara Marxis-Leninis lainnya pada awal abad ke-20.[6] Sosialisme demokratik dibedakan dengan konsep demokrasi sosial abad ke-20 atas dasar bahwa sosialis demokrat lebih berkomitmen pada transformasi ekonomi dari kapitalisme menuju sosialisme dengan menggunakan sarana pemerintahan; sedangkan demokrat sosial modern menentang penghapusan total kapitalisme dan sebaliknya mendukung reformasi progresif dari kapitalisme. [7]

Berbeda dengan demokrat sosial modern, kaum sosialis demokrat percaya bahwa reformasi yang bertujuan mengatasi kesenjangan sosial dan intervensi negara yang ditujukan untuk menekan kontradiksi ekonomi kapitalisme hanya akan membuat kapitalisme muncul di lain tempat dengan kedok yang berbeda. Sosialis demokrat percaya bahwa permasalahan sistemik kapitalisme hanya dapat diselesaikan dengan mengganti sistem ekonomi kapitalis dengan sosialisme — yaitu dengan mengganti kepemilikan pribadi dengan kepemilikan kolektif atas alat produksi dan memperluas demokrasi ke ranah ekonomi.[3][8] Asal-usul sosialisme demokratik dapat ditelusuri ke pemikir sosialis utopis abad ke-19 dan gerakan Chartisme Britania. Meski berbeda dalam detailnya, tetapi sama dalam esensi pengambilan keputusan demokratis dan kepemilikan publik atas alat produksi sebagai karakteristik positif dari masyarakat yang mereka anjurkan. Pada awal abad ke-20, reformisme gradualis demokrat sosial yang dianjurkan oleh Masyarakat Fabian Britania dan sosialisme revolusionernya Eduard Bernstein[9] di Jerman juga mempengaruhi perkembangan sosialisme demokratik.[10]

Definisi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sosialisme demokratik didefinisikan dengan memiliki ekonomi sosialis di mana alat produksi (termasuk kekayaan) dimiliki atau dikendalikan secara sosial dan kolektif, bersamaan dengan sistem pemerintahan yang secara politik demokratis. Sosialisme demokratik menolak Marxisme-Leninisme dan turunannya seperti Stalinisme, Maoisme dan lainnya.[11] Peter Hain mengklasifikasikan sosialisme demokratik bersama dengan sosialisme liberal sebagai bentuk sosialisme dari bawah antiotoritarian (menggunakan istilah yang dipopulerkan Hal Draper), berbeda dengan Stalinisme, sebuah varian dari sosialisme negara. Bagi Hain, kesenjangan demokratis/otoriter ini lebih penting daripada kesenjangan revolusioner/reformis.[12] Partisipasi aktif penduduk secara keseluruhan dan pekerja secara khusus dalam pengelolaan ekonomi merupakan ciri sosialisme demokratik, sementara nasionalisasi dan perencanaan ekonomi tersentralisasi (dikendalikan oleh pemerintahan terpilih atau tidak) adalah ciri dari sosialisme negara. Argumen serupa yang lebih kompleks dikemukakan oleh Nicos Poulantzas.[13] Draper sendiri menggunakan istilah sosialisme revolusioner-demokratis sebagai tipe sosialisme dari bawah dalam The Two Souls of Socialism, dia menulis: "Pembicara utama di Internasional Kedua tentang Sosialisme-dari-Bawah revolusioner-demokratis [...] adalah Rosa Luxemburg, yang dengan tegas menempatkan kepercayaan dan harapannya pada perjuangan spontan kelas pekerja bebas sehingga pembuat mitos menciptakan "teori spontanitas".[14] Demikian pula, dia juga menulis tentang Eugene V. Debs: "sosialisme Debsian" membangkitkan respon luar biasa dari hati rakyat, tetapi Debs tidak memiliki penerus sebagai mimbar sosialisme revolusioner-demokratis".[15]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Abad ke-21[sunting | sunting sumber]

Progressive Alliance adalah internasional politik yang didirikan pada 22 Mei 2013 oleh partai-partai politik, yang sebagian besar di antaranya merupakan anggota dan mantan anggota Sosialis Internasional. Organisasi ini menyatakan tujuannya untuk menjadi jaringan global "gerakan progresif, demokratis, demokratis-sosial, sosialis dan buruh".[16][17] Sebagai sebuah istilah, sosialisme demokratik menjadi sinonim dengan demokrasi sosial dalam politik Amerika baru-baru ini akibat kebijakan demokrat sosial yang diadopsi oleh kaum progresif dan reformis liberal seperti presiden dari Demokrat, Woodrow Wilson dan Franklin D. Roosevelt, yang mengarah pada koalisi New Deal untuk mereformasi kapitalisme, tidak seperti sosialis di Eropa Barat dan tetap seperti itu meski keliru.[18] Pada 30 November 2018, The Sanders Institute dari Bernie Sanders[19] dan Gerakan Demokrasi di Eropa 2025 dari Yanis Varoufakis[20] mendirikan Progresif Internasional, sebuah organisasi politik internasional yang menyatukan sosialis demokratik dengan aktivis buruh, sayap kiri, progresif dan demokrat sosial.[21]

Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sosialisme Afrika telah dan terus menjadi ideologi utama di seluruh benua. Di Afrika Selatan, Kongres Nasional Afrika, meski tetap berafiliasi dengan Sosialis Internasional, meninggalkan kesetiaan sosialisnya setelah mendapatkan kekuasaan pada 1994 dan mengikuti jalan neoliberal.[butuh rujukan] Pada periode 2005-2007, negara ini didera oleh banyak protes dari komunitas miskin. Salah satunya memunculkan gerakan massa penghuni gubuk bernama Abahlali baseMjondolo yang terus berjuang untuk perencanaan rakyat banyak dan melawan melawan pembentukkan ekonomi pasar pada tanah dan perumahan meskipun mendapat penindasan besar-besaran dari polisi. Pada 2013, Serikat Nasional Pekerja Metal Seluruh Afrika, serikat pekerja terbesar di negara ini, memilih untuk menarik dukungan dari Kongres Nasional Afrika dan Partai Komunis Afrika Selatan dan membentuk partai sosialis untuk melindungi kepentingan kelas pekerja.[22] Partai ini bernama Front Bersatu.

Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Amerika Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Kanada, sosialis demokratik Federasi Persemakmuran Koperasi (CCF), pendahulu demokrat sosial Partai Demokratis Baru (NDP), memiliki keberhasilan yang signifikan dalam perpolitikan provinsi. Pada 1944, CCF Saskatchewan membentuk pemerintahan sosialis pertama di Amerika Utara. Di tingkat federal, NDP menjadi Oposisi Resmi pada 2011-2015.

Amerika Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]
Fernando Lugo, Presiden Paraguay; Evo Morales, Presiden Bolivia; Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Presiden Brasil; Rafael Correa, Presiden Ekuador; dan Hugo Chávez, Presiden Venezuela di Forum Sosial Dunia untuk Amerika Latin

Gelombang merah jambu adalah istilah yang digunakan dalam analisis politik kontemporer abad ke-21 di media dan tempat lain untuk menggambarkan persepsi bahwa politik sayap kiri semakin berpengaruh di Amerika Latin.[23][24][25] Foro de São Paulo adalah konferensi partai dan organisasi politik kiri dari Amerika Latin dan Karibia. Konferensi ini diluncurkan oleh Partai Pekerja pada 1990 di kota São Paulo. Forum São Paulo dibentuk pada 1990 ketika Partai Pekerja mendekati partai dan gerakan sosial Amerika Latin dan Karibia dengan tujuan untuk memperdebatkan skenario internasional baru setelah jatuhnya Tembok Berlin dan konsekuensi implementasi dari kebijakan neoliberal yang diadopsi pemerintahan berhaluan kanan di kawasan itu. Tujuan utamanya adalah untuk berdebat tentang alternatif dari neoliberalisme.[26] Anggotanya termasuk partai sosialis dan demokrat sosial yang saat ini berada dalam pemerintahan di kawasan, seperti Gerakan untuk Sosialisme Bolivia, Partai Pekerja Brasil, Aliansi PAIS Ekuador, Partai Sosialis Bersatu Venezuela, Partai Sosialis Chile, Front Luas Uruguay, Front Pembebasan Nasional Sandinista Nikaragua, dan Front Pembebasan Nasional Farabundo Martí El Salvador.

Asia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di Jepang, Partai Komunis Jepang tidak menganjurkan revolusi kekerasan, melainkan mengusulkan revolusi demokratis untuk mencapai "perubahan demokratis dalam politik dan ekonomi". Ada minat yang muncul kembali terhadap Partai Komunis Jepang di antara kalangan pekerja dan anak muda karena krisis finansial pada akhir 2000-an.[27][28]

Setelah pemilihan umum 2008, Partai Sosialis Malaysia menempatkan anggota parlemen pertamanya, Michael Jeyakumar Devaraj.

Di Filipina, partai utama yang berkampanye untuk sosialisme demokratik adalah Partai Aksi Warganegara Akbayan. Partai ini didirikan oleh Joel Rocamora pada Januari 1998 sebagai partai sosialis demokratik[29] dan progresif[30] yang secara konsisten memenangkan kursi di Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, dengan Etta Rosales sebagai perwakilan pertamanya. Partai ini mendapat kursi Senat pertamanya pada 2016 ketika ketuanya, senator dan nominee Penghargaan Nobel Perdamaian, Risa Hontiveros terpilih.[31]

Pada 2010, terdapat 270 kibbutz di Israel. Pabrik dan pertaniannya menyumbang 9% dari hasil industri Israel, yang bernilai 8 miliar dollar AS; dan 40% keluaran agrikultur Israel, bernilai lebih dari 1,7 miliar dollar AS.[32] Beberapa kibbutz juga mengembangkan industri besar berteknologi tinggi dan industri militer. Juga di tahun 2010, Kibbutz Sasa yang beranggotakan 200 orang, menghasilkan pendapatan 850 juta dollar AS dari industri plastik-militernya.[33]

Partai sosialis demokratik lainnya di Asia termasuk Partai Persatuan Nasional Afghanistan; Aksi Lima April di Hong Kong; Kongres Trinamool Seluruh India, Partai Samajwadi, Partai Samta, dan Front Demokratik Sikkim di India; Partai Sosialis Progresif di Lebanon; Forum Sosialis Federal dan Partai Naya Shakti di Nepal; Partai Buruh di Korea Selatan; serta Partai Rakyat Demokratik Suriah dan Uni Sosialis Arab Demokratik di Suriah.

Eropa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Laporan Kebahagiaan Dunia PBB menunjukkan bahwa negara-negara paling bahagia terkonsentrasi di Eropa Utara, di mana model Nordik dilaksanakan. Peringkat pertama ditempati oleh Denmark, di mana Demokrat Sosial memerintah pertama kali pada 1924, kemudian selama 1930-an dan 1940-an sampai 1947, dilanjutkan pada 1953-1966, 1971, 1975-1981, 1994-2001 dan akhirnya pada 2011-2015. Periode tersebut dikaitkan dengan keberhasilan model Nordik di kawasan ini, ketika sosialis demokrat serupa mendominasi panggung politik dan meletakan dasar bagi negara kesejahteraan universal pada abad ke-20. Negara-negara Nordik termasuk Denmark, Finlandia, Islandia, Norwegia, Swedia, serta Greenland dan Kepulauan Faroe juga menempati peringkat tertinggi berdasarkan metrik PDB per kapita, harapan hidup sehat, memiliki seseorang yang dapat diandalkan, persepsi kebebasan untuk membuat pilihan kehidupan, kemurahan hati dan kebebasan dari korupsi.[34] Mereka juga berada di peringkat atas Indeks Persepsi Korupsi. Freedom in the World dari Freedom House menempatkan negara Skandinavia di peringkat atas pada indikator seperti kebebasan pers dan ekonomi, selain dari kebebasan sipil dan kerja.

Oseania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Beberapa tahun terakhir Australia mengalami peningkatan dalam minat sosialisme, khususnya di kalangan anak muda.[35] Paling kuat ada di Victoria, di mana tiga partai sosialis bergabung menjadi Sosialis Victoria, bertujuan untuk mengatasi permasalahan perumahan dan transportasi. Selandia Baru juga memiliki iklim sosialis, meski sebagian besar didominasi oleh kelompok Trotskyis.Di Melanesia, sosialisme Melanesia berkembang pada 1980-an, terinspirasi dari sosialisme Afrika. Bertujuan untuk mencapai kemerdekaan penuh dari Britania dan Prancis di wilayah Melanesia dan membentuk uni federal Melanesia. Gerakan ini populer dengan gerakan kemerdekaan Kaledonia Baru.[butuh rujukan]

Posisi ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sosialis demokrat menganjurkan berbagai model sosialisme mulai dari sosialisme pasar di mana badan usaha dimiliki secara sosial dalam pasar kompetitif dan dalam beberapa kasus dikelola sendiri oleh pekerjanya; sampai dengan sosialisme partisipatoris berdasarkan pada perencanaan ekonomi terdesentralisasi.[36]

Secara historis, sosialisme demokratik telah berkomitmen pada perencanaan ekonomi di mana unit-unit produksi diintegrasikan ke dalam suatu organisasi tunggal dan diorganisir berdasarkan manajemen mandiri, bertentangan dengan perencanaan komando tipe Soviet.[37] Misalnya, Eugene V. Debs dan Norman Thomas, keduanya adalah kandidat presiden AS dari Partai Sosialis Amerika, memahami sosialisme sebagai sistem ekonomi yang disusun berdasarkan produksi untuk penggunaan dan kepemilikan sosial sebagai pengganti sistem profit dan kepemilikan pribadi.[38][39]

Pendukung kontemporer sosialisme pasar berpendapat bahwa alasan utama kekurangan ekonomi dari ekonomi terencana tipe Soviet adalah kegagalan mereka untuk membuat kriteria aturan dan operasional untuk operasi yang efisien bagi badan usaha negara, serta kombinasi dengan kurangnya demokrasi dalam sistem politik.[40]

Partai sosialis demokratik di parlemen[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di bawah ini merupakan daftar partai yang memiliki ideologi sosialisme demokratik atau sebagiannya, dan saat ini memiliki perwakilan di badan legislatif di negaranya.

  •   menunjukkan partai yang memerintah (termasuk sebagai mitra junior koalisi)
Partai Negara Dibentuk % jumlah suara
di pemilu terakhir
Kursi di majelis rendah
(jika bikameral)
Front Pembebasan Nasional Sandinista  Nikaragua 1961 65.86% (2016)
71 / 92 (77%)
Gerakan untuk Sosialisme  Bolivia 1998 61.36% (2014)
88 / 130 (68%)
Aliansi PAIS1  Ekuador 2006 39.07% (2017)
74 / 137 (54%)
Front Luas  Uruguay 1971 49.45% (2014)
50 / 99 (51%)
Syriza  Yunani 2004 35.46% (2015)
145 / 300 (48%)
Partai Buruh1  Britania Raya 1900 39.99% (2017)
262 / 650 (40%)
Partai Sosialis[41]  Moldova 1997 31.15% (2019)
34 / 101 (34%)
Partai Sosialis Bersatu  Venezuela 2007 40.92% (2015)
52 / 165 (32%)
Sinn Féin[42][43]  Irlandia Utara 1905 27.90% (2017)
27 / 90 (30%)
Inuit Ataqatigiit[44]  Greenland 1976 25.78% (2018)
8 / 31 (26%)
Kiri Sosialis Demokratik[45]   San Marino 2017[butuh rujukan] 12.11% (2016)
14 / 60 (23%)
Unidos Podemos  Spanyol 2016 21.15% (2016)
67 / 350 (19%)
Plaid Cymru1[46][tak ada di rujukan][47][48][49]  Wales 1925 20.80% (2016)
10 / 60 (17%)
Gerakan Kiri-Hijau[50]  Islandia 1999 16.89% (2017)
11 / 63 (17%)
Front Luas  Peru 2013 13.94% (2016)
20 / 130 (15%)
Sinn Féin[42]  Irlandia 1905 13.82% (2016)
21 / 158 (13%)
Partai Demokratik Baru1  Kanada 1961 19.71% (2015)
41 / 338 (12%)
Partai Demokratik Rakyat[51][52]  Turki 2012 11.70% (2018)
67 / 550 (12%)
Partai Pekerja  Brasil 1980 10.30% (2018)
56 / 513 (11%)
Kiri[53]  Slovenia 2014 9.33% (2018)
9 / 90 (10%)
Die Linke[54]  Jerman 2007 9.24% (2017)
69 / 709 (10%)
Partai Sosialis1  Belanda 1971 9.09% (2017)
14 / 150 (9%)
Partai Sosialis1  Serbia 1990 10.95% (2016)
20 / 250 (8%)
Partai Kiri  Swedia 1917 8.02% (2018)
28 / 349 (8%)
Aliansi Merah-Hijau  Denmark 1989 7.80% (2015)
14 / 179 (8%)
Rusia Berkeadilan1[55]  Rusia 2006 6.34% (2016)
16 / 225 (7%)
Kiri Sosialis[56]  Norwegia 1975 6.02% (2017)
11 / 169 (7%)
Aliansi Kiri[57]  Finlandia 1990 7.13% (2015)
12 / 200 (6%)
Partai Sosialis dan Demokrat1[45]   San Marino 2005 7.17% (2016)
3 / 60 (5%)
La France insoumise[58]  Prancis 2016 11.03% (2017)
17 / 577 (3%)
Kiri[59]  Luxembourg 1999 5.48% (2018)
2 / 60 (3%)
Bebas dan Setara1[60]  Italia 2017 3.39% (2018)
14 / 630 (2%)
Federasi Revolusioner Armenia[61][62]  Lebanon 1890 0.96% (2018)
3 / 128 (2%)
Gerakan Demokrat Sosialis  Tunisia 1978 0.17% (2014)
1 / 217 (0.5%)
Buruh – Partai Buruh1[63]  Kroasia 2010 0.26% (2016)
0 / 151 (0%)

Sosialis demokratik ternama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Politisi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepala pemerintahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Politisi lainnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Intelektual dan aktivis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. "Democratic socialism is the wing of the socialist movement that combines a belief in a socially owned economy with that of political democracy."
  2. ^ Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 448. ISBN 978-1412918121. "Some have endorsed the concept of market socialism, a post-capitalist economy that retains market competition but socialises the means of production, and in some versions, extends democracy to the workplace. Some holdout for a non-market, participatory economy. All democratic socialists agree on the need for a democratic alternative to capitalism."
  3. ^ a b Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Though some democratic socialists reject the revolutionary model and advocate a peaceful transformation to socialism carried out by democratic means, they also reject the social democratic view that capitalist societies can be successfully reformed through extensive state intervention within capitalism. In the view of democratic socialists, capitalism, based on the primacy of private property, generates inherent inequalities of wealth and power and a dominant egoism that are incompatible with the democratic values of freedom, equality, and solidarity. Only a socialist society can fully realise democratic practices. The internal conflicts within capitalism require a transition to socialism. Private property must be superseded by a form of collective ownership."
  4. ^ Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. "Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism."
  5. ^ Kurian, George Thomas; Alt, James E.; Chambers, Simone; Garrett, Geoffrey; Levi, Margaret; McClain Paula D. (12 October 2010). The Encyclopedia of Political Science Set. CQ Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-1933116440. "Democratic socialism is a term meant to distinguish a form of socialism that falls somewhere between authoritarian and centralised forms of socialism on the one hand and social democracy on the other. The rise of authoritarian socialism in the twentieth century in the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence generated this new distinction."
  6. ^ Prychito, David L. (31 July 2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 72. ISBN 978-1840645194. "It is perhaps less clearly understood that advocates of democratic socialism (who are committed to socialism in the above sense but opposed to Stalinist-style command planning) advocate a decentralised socialism, whereby the planning process itself (the integration of all productive units into one huge organisation) would follow the workers’ self-management principle."
  7. ^ Eatwell, Eoger; Wright, Anthony (1 March 1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies: Second Edition. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 80. ISBN 978-0826451736. "So too with ‘democratic socialism’, a term coined by its adherents as an act of disassociation from the twentieth-century realities of undemocratic socialism…but also, at least in some modes, intended to reaffirm a commitment to system transformation rather than a merely meliorist social democracy."
  8. ^ Anderson, Gary L.; Herr, Kathryn G. (2007). Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. SAGE Publications. p. 447. ISBN 978-1412918121. "[...] the division between social democrats and democratic socialists. The former had made peace with capitalism and concentrated on humanising the system. Social democrats supported and tried to strengthen the basic institutions of the welfare state--pensions for all, public health care, public education, unemployment insurance. They supported and tried to strengthen the labour movement. The latter, as socialists, argued that capitalism could never be sufficiently humanised, and that trying to suppress the economic contradictions in one area would only see them emerge in a different guise elsewhere. (E.g., if you push unemployment too low, you'll get inflation; if job security is too strong, labour discipline breaks down.)"
  9. ^ Bernstein, Eduard (1899). "Evolutionary Socialism". Marxists Internet Archive. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
  10. ^ Sargent, Lyman Tower (2008). "The Principles of Democratic Socialism". Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis, 14th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 118. ISBN 978-0495569398. "Still, the origins of contemporary democratic socialism are best located in the early to mid-nineteenth century writings of the so-called utopian socialists, Robert Owen (1771-1858), Charles Fourier (1772-1837), Claude-Henri Saint-Simon (1760-1825), and Etienne Cabet (1788-1856). All these writers proposed village communities combining industrial and agricultural production, owned in varying ways, by the inhabitants themselves. Thus the essence of early socialism was public ownership of the means of production. These theorists also included varying forms of democratic political decision making, but they all distrusted the ability of people raised under capitalism to understand what was in their own best interest."
  11. ^ Busky, Donald F. (July 20, 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. hlm. 7–8. ISBN 978-0275968861. Sometimes simply called socialism, more often than not, the adjective democratic is added by democratic socialists to attempt to distinguish themselves from Communists who also call themselves socialists. All but communists, or more accurately, Marxist-Leninists, believe that modern-day communism is highly undemocratic and totalitarian in practice, and democratic socialists wish to emphasise by their name that they disagree strongly with the Marxist-Leninist brand of socialism. 
  12. ^ Hain, Peter (1995). Ayes to the Left. Lawrence and Wishart.
  13. ^ "Towards a Democratic Socialism," New Left Review I/109, May–June 1978.
  14. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 7: The "Revisionist" Facade.
  15. ^ Draper 1966, Chapter 8: The 100% American Scene.
  16. ^ "Basic document". Progressive Alliance. Diakses tanggal 23 May 2013. 
  17. ^ "A Progressive Network for the 21st Century" (PDF). Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 4 March 2014. Diakses tanggal 23 May 2013. 
  18. ^ "Bernie Is Not a Socialist and America Is Not Capitalist". The Atlantic. Diakses tanggal 4 January 2019. 
  19. ^ Wegel, David (1 December 2018). "Bernie Sanders turns focus to the White House and the world". The Washington Post. Diakses tanggal 2 December 2018. 
  20. ^ Adler, David; Varoufakis, Yanis (1 December 2018). "We shouldn't rush to save the liberal order. We should remake it". The Guardian. Diakses tanggal 2 December 2018. 
  21. ^ "An Open Call to All Progressive Forces". Progressive International. 30 November 2018. Diakses tanggal 2 December 2018. 
  22. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (20 December 2013). "South Africa's Biggest Trade Union Pulls Its Support for A.N.C." The New York Times. 
  23. ^ Gross, Neil (14 January 2007). "The many stripes of anti-Americanism". The Boston Globe. Diakses tanggal 30 October 2011. 
  24. ^ "South America's leftward sweep". BBC News. 2 March 2005. Diakses tanggal 30 October 2011. 
  25. ^ McNickle, Colin (6 March 2005). "Latin America's 'pragmatic' pink tide". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 16 May 2016. Diakses tanggal 30 October 2011. 
  26. ^ Baraibar, Carlos; Bayardi, José (23 August 2000). "Foro de San Pablo ¿qué es y cuál es su historia?". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 9 March 2016. Diakses tanggal 13 February 2014. 
  27. ^ Demetriou, Danielle (17 October 2008). "Japan's young turn to Communist Party as they decide capitalism has let them down". The Daily Telegraph. London. Diakses tanggal 30 October 2011. 
  28. ^ "Communism on rise in recession-hit Japan". BBC News. 4 May 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
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  42. ^ a b "What Sinn Féin stands for". sinnfein.ie. Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin is a 32-County party striving for an end to partition on the island of Ireland and the establishment of a democratic socialist republic. 
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  65. ^ Patsouras, Louis (2005). Marx in Context. iUniverse. hlm. 265. In Chile, where a large democratic socialist movement was in place for decades, a democratic socialist, Salvadore Allende, led a popular front electoral coalition, including Communists, to victory in 1970. 
  66. ^ Medina, Eden (2014). Cybernetic Revolutionaries: Technology and Politics in Allende's Chile. MIT Press. hlm. 39. [...] in Allende's democratic socialism. 
  67. ^ Winn, Peter (2004). Victims of the Chilean Miracle: Workers and Neoliberalism in the Pinochet Era, 1973–2002. Duke University Press. hlm. 16. The Allende government that Pinochet overthrew in 1973 had been elected in 1970 on a platform of pioneering a democratic road to a democratic socialism. 
  68. ^ Stephen, Schlesinger (3 June 2011). "Ghosts of Guatemala's Past". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  69. ^ Morgan, Kenneth O. (2001). Britain Since 1945: The People's Peace. Oxford University Press. hlm. 111. The last years of Attlee's democratic socialist regime [...]. 
  70. ^ Beech, Matt (2012). "The British Welfare State and its Discontents". Dalam Connelly, James; Hayward, Jack. The Withering of the Welfare State: Regression. Palgrave Macmillan. hlm. 90. Attlee's goal was a democratic socialist society [...]. 
  71. ^ Livingston Hall, Anthony (2007). The Ipinions Journal: Commentaries on Current Events, Volume 2. iUniverse. hlm. 18. Chileans elected Michelle Bachelet as their new president [...] [b]ecause her advocacy of democratic socialism. 
  72. ^ Gal, Allon (1991). David Ben-Gurion and the American Alignment for a Jewish State. Indiana University Press. hlm. 216. Ben-Gurion, Zionist and socialist-democrat [...]. 
  73. ^ Jones, Clive A. (2013). Soviet Jewish Aliyah, 1989-92: Impact and Implications for Israel and the Middle East. Routledge. hlm. 61. [...] Mapai, the democratic socialist party of David Ben Gurion. 
  74. ^ Cohen, Mitchell (12 June 2015). "'Léon Blum: Prime Minister, Socialist, Zionist,' by Pierre Birnbaum". The New York Times. Blum declared that he was what Nazis "hated most, . . . a democratic socialist and a Jew. 
  75. ^ Gress, David (1 July 1983). "Whatever Happened to Willy Brandt?". Commentary. 
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h Sargent, Lyman (2008). Contemporary Political Ideologies: A Comparative Analysis. Cengage Learning. hlm. 118. 
  77. ^ "Hugo Chavez". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Campaigning as a democratic socialist, Chávez [...]. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f g Navarro, Armando (2012). Global Capitalist Crisis and the Second Great Depression: Egalitarian Systemic Models for Change. Lexington Books. hlm. 299. 
  79. ^ Munck, Ronaldo (2012). Contemporary Latin America. Palgrave Macmillan. hlm. 119. In a broad historical sense Chávez has undoubtedly played a progressive role but he is clearly not a democratic socialist [...]. 
  80. ^ a b Iber, Patrick (Spring 2016). "The Path to Democratic Socialism: Lessons from Latin America". Dissent. "Most of the world's democratic socialist intellectuals have been skeptical of Latin America's examples [including Chavez and Correa], citing their authoritarian qualities and occasional cults of personality. To critics, the appropriate label for these governments is not socialism but populism."
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  83. ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (26 December 2011). "Gorbachev and the Struggle for Democracy". The Huffington Post. During his six years of rule, Gorbachev was intent on renovating Soviet socialism through peaceful and democratic means. 
  84. ^ "Perestroika: New Thinking for Our Country and the World by Mikhail S. Gorbachev". Stetson University. 1987. The more socialist democracy there is, the more socialism we will have. [pranala nonaktif permanen]
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  86. ^ Benson, Mary (1986). Nelson Mandela. Harmondsworth: Penguin. hlm. 231–232. ISBN 9780140089417. 
  87. ^ Smith, David James (2010). Young Mandela. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. hlm. 231. ISBN 978-0-297-85524-8. 
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  89. ^ Riemer, Neal; Simon, Douglas (1997). The New World of Politics: An Introduction to Political Science. Rowman & Littlefield. hlm. 147. 
  90. ^ Borsody, Stephen (29 May 1981). "In the wake of Francois Mitterrand's victory". The New York Times. [...] a democratic Socialist success, such as President Mitterrand's [...]. 
  91. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Nash, Walter". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Diakses tanggal 26 August 2013. 
  92. ^ Moraes, Frank (2007). Jawaharlal Nehru. Jaico Publishing House. hlm. 187. 
  93. ^ Powers, Roger S.; Vogele, William B.; Bond, Douglas; Kruegler, Christopher (1997). Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from Act-Up to Women's Suffrage. Taylor & Francis. hlm. 347. ISBN 9781136764820. 
  94. ^ Hoadley, J. Stephen (1975). The Future of Portuguese Timor. Institute of Southeast Asian. hlm. 25. Ramos Horta during his December 1974 trip to Australia was careful to distinguish between Fretilin and Frelimo, arguing that his own party was a democratic socialist party [...]. 
  95. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Savage, Michael Joseph - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Diakses tanggal 11 December 2011. 
  96. ^ Anwar, Rosihan (2010). Sutan Sjahrir: True Democrat, Fighter for Humanity, 1909–1966. Penerbit Buku Kompas. hlm. 115. Sjahrir [...] called the ideology he had thought up and that he followed 'democratic socialism' [...]. 
  97. ^ Astikainen, Arto (20 January 2004). "Kalevi Sorsa (21.12.1930 - 16.1.2004)". Helsingin Sanomat. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2 February 2016. We already are in democratic socialism. It will never be much different from this", Sorsa had said ten years earlier. 
  98. ^ Stone, Jon (26 January 2015). "Syriza: Everything you need to know about Greece's new Marxist governing party". The Independent. [...] a democratic socialist group Synaspismós, which current Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras led. 
  99. ^ "The Political Philosophy of Chief Obafemi Awolowo".
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  101. ^ "Tony Benn: Committed Democratic Socialist". Transnational Institute. 22 April 2014. 
  102. ^ Hall, Duncan (2011). A2 Government and Politics: Ideologies and Ideologies in Action. Lulu.com. hlm. 46. ISBN 978-1-4477-3399-7. 
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  104. ^ Calamur, Krishnadev (18 August 2015). "How Jeremy Corbyn Would Govern Britain". The Atlantic. Diakses tanggal 17 September 2017. 
  105. ^ Lovick, L. D. (30 September 2013). "Tommy Douglas". The Canadian Encyclopedia. 
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  107. ^ Dabby, George (29 April 2014). "Interview: Denis Healey". York Vision. Diakses tanggal 30 December 2015. 
  108. ^ "Healey, Denis Winston (b.1917)". History of Parliament. Diakses tanggal 30 December 2015. 
  109. ^ Richard Heffernan; Mike Marqusee (1992). Defeat from the Jaws of Victory: Inside Kinnock's Labour Party. Verso. hlm. 42. ISBN 978-0-86091-561-4. 
  110. ^ Hill, Dave (2002). Marxism Against Postmodernism in Educational Theory. Lexington Books. hlm. 188. Tony Benn and Ken Livingstone can be depicted as two of the leaders of the democratic socialist (or 'hard') left [...]. 
  111. ^ "Ocasio-Cortez discusses 'Democratic Socialist' label". Politico. Retrieved 15 August 2018.
  112. ^ Bierman, Noah (12 April 2014). "Bernie Sanders seeks to pull Democrats left in 2016 primary". The Boston Globe. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. The lawmaker, who is possibly the most liberal of all members of Congress — and the only one to call himself a democratic socialist [...]. 
  113. ^ Tupy, Marian (1 March 2016). "Bernie Is Not a Socialist and America Is Not Capitalist". The Atlantic. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. First, Sanders is not a socialist, but a social democrat. Second, the United States does not have a strictly capitalist economy, but a mixed one. 
  114. ^ Cooper, Ryan (10 January 2018). "Bernie Sanders and the rise of American social democracy". The Week. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. Despite Sanders' self-identification as a 'democratic socialist,' all this is classic social democracy ... 
  115. ^ Worstall, Tim (17 May 2016). "Bernie's Democratic Socialism Isn't Socialism, It's Social Democracy". Forbes. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. 
  116. ^ Qiu, Linda (26 August 2015). "Bernie Sanders — socialist or democratic socialist?". PolitiFact. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. With these positions, Sanders is technically a social democrat [...]. 
  117. ^ Barro, Josh (20 October 2015). "Bernie Sanders, Democratic Socialist Capitalist". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2019. 'It's not socialism, it's social democracy, which is a big difference,' said Mike Konczal, an economic policy expert at the left-wing Roosevelt Institute. 
  118. ^ Jamieson, Dave (6 May 2015). "Meet The Fist-Shaking Socialist Behind America's Highest Minimum Wage". The Huffington Post. [...] identifies as a member of Socialist Alternative, an anti-capitalist, democratic-socialist party. 
  119. ^ Isaacson, Walter (2007). Einstein: His Life and Universe. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743264747. For the rest of his life Einstein would expound a democratic socialism that had a liberal, anti-authoritarian underpinning. 
  120. ^ Calaprice, Alice; Lipscombe, Trevor (2005). Albert Einstein: A Biography. Greenwood. hlm. 61. ISBN 9780313330803. He committed himself to the democratic- socialist goals that became popular among intellectuals in Europe at the time. 
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  125. ^ Hendricks, Obery M. (20 January 2014). "The Uncompromising Anti-Capitalism of Martin Luther King Jr". The Huffington Post. For King the answer was democratic socialism. 
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  128. ^ Alan Ryan (1981). Bertrand Russell: A Political Life. Macmillan. hlm. 87. ISBN 9780374528201. None the less Russell joined the ILP [Independent Labour Party] and declared himself a democratic socialist, then and thereafter. 
  129. ^ "Andrei Sakharov". Spartacus Educational. He also advocated the integration of the communist and capitalist systems to form what he called democratic socialism. 
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