Kekuatan besar

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Kekuatan besar diakui dalam suatu struktur internasional seperti Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa.[1] Ditunjukkan di sni adalah Ruang Dewan Keamanan.

Kekuatan besar adalah negara yang diakui memiliki kemampuan untuk memberikan pengaruhnya dalam skala global. Ciri kekuatan besar adalah memiliki kekuasaan militer dan diplomasi serta pengaruh kekuatan lunak yang bisa membuat kekuatan kecil mempertimbangkan pendapat kekuatan besar sebelum mengambil tindakan sendiri. Para pakar hubungan internasional berpendapat bahwa status kekuatan besar dapat dicirikan menjadi kapabilitas kekuasaan, aspek spasial, dan dimensi status. Terkadang status kekuatan besar secara formal diakui dalam konferensi seperi Kongres Wina[2][3] atau suatu struktur internasional seperti Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa.

Isitlah "kekuatan besar" pertama kali digunakan untuk menunjukkan negara-negara yang paling penting di Eropa pada masa pasca-Napoleon. "Kekuatan Besar" menegakkan "Kesepakatan Eropa" dan mengklaim memiliki hak untuk bersam-samaa menegaskan perjanjian pascaperang.[4] Formalisasi pembagian antara kekuatan kecil[5] dan kekuatan besar muncul dengan disepakatinya Perjanjian Chaumont pada 1814. Sejak itu, keseimbangan kekuasaan telah berganti berkali-kali, yang paling dramatis adalah pada Perang Dunia I dan Perang Dunia II. Meskipun beberapa negara banyak dianggap sebagai kekuatan besar, tetapi tidak ada daftar tetapnya.

Daftar kekuatan besar berdasarkan periode[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tabel Garis Waktu[sunting | sunting sumber]

1606 1660 1699 1713 1763 1815 1878 1900 1919 1939 1945 2000 2010 2020
 Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (Monarki Habsburg)[nb 1]  Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (Monarki Habsburg)[nb 2]  Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (Monarki Habsburg)[nb 3]  Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (Monarki Habsburg)[nb 4]  Kekaisaran Romawi Suci (Monarki Habsburg)[nb 5]  Kekaisaran Austria[nb 6]  Austria-Hungaria[nb 7]  Austria-Hungaria[nb 8]
 Kerajaan Inggris
 Skotlandia
Bendera Britania Raya Britania Raya[nb 9] Bendera Britania Raya Britania Raya[nb 10]  Imperium Britania[nb 11]  Imperium Britania[nb 12]  Imperium Britania[nb 13]  Imperium Britania[nb 14]  Britania Raya[nb 16]  Britania Raya[nb 17]  Britania Raya[nb 18]  Britania Raya[nb 19]  Britania Raya[nb 20]
 Kekaisaran Qing  Kekaisaran Qing  Kekaisaran Qing  Kekaisaran Qing  Kekaisaran Qing[nb 21]  Tiongkok  Tiongkok[nb 22]  Tiongkok[nb 23]  Tiongkok[nb 24]  Tiongkok[nb 25]
 Uni Eropa[nb 26]  Uni Eropa[nb 27]
 Kerajaan Prancis  Kerajaan Prancis  Kerajaan Prancis  Kerajaan Prancis  Kerajaan Prancis  Monarki Prancis[nb 28]  Prancis[nb 29]  Prancis[nb 30]  Prancis[nb 31]  Prancis[nb 32]  Prancis[nb 33]  Prancis[nb 34]  Prancis[nb 35]  Prancis[nb 36]
 Prussia[nb 37]  Kekaisaran Jerman[nb 38]  Kekaisaran Jerman[nb 39]  Jerman[nb 40]  Jerman[nb 41]  Jerman[nb 42]  Jerman[nb 43]
 Kemaharajaan Mughal  Kemaharajaan Mughal  Kemaharajaan Mughal  Kemaharajaan Mughal  Kemaharajaan Mughal  Kemaharajaan Mughal[nb 44]  India[nb 45]  India[nb 46]
 Kerajaan Italia[nb 47]  Kerajaan Italia[nb 48]  Kerajaan Italia[nb 49]  Kerajaan Italia[nb 50]  Italia[nb 51]  Italia[nb 52]  Italia[nb 53]
 Kekaisaran Jepang[nb 54]  Kekaisaran Jepang[nb 56]  Kekaisaran Jepang[nb 57]  Jepang[nb 58]  Jepang[nb 59]  Jepang[nb 60]
Bendera Kekaisaran RusiaKetsaran Rusia Bendera Kekaisaran RusiaKetsaran Rusia Bendera Kekaisaran RusiaKetsaran Rusia  Kekaisaran Rusia  Kekaisaran Rusia  Kekaisaran Rusia[nb 61]  Kekaisaran Rusia[nb 62]  Kekaisaran Rusia[nb 63]  Uni Soviet[nb 64]  Uni Soviet[nb 65]  Rusia[nb 66]  Rusia[nb 67]  Rusia[nb 68]
 Amerika Serikat[nb 69]  Amerika Serikat[nb 70]  Amerika Serikat[nb 71]  Amerika Serikat[nb 72]  Amerika Serikat[nb 73]  Amerika Serikat[nb 74]  Amerika Serikat[nb 75]
 Kekaisaran Spanyol  Kekaisaran Spanyol  Kekaisaran Spanyol  Kekaisaran Spanyol  Kekaisaran Spanyol  Kekaisaran Spanyol
 Kerajaan Portugal  Kerajaan Portugal  Kerajaan Portugal  Kerajaan Portugal  Kerajaan Portugal
 Persia (Dinasti Safawi)  Persia (Dinasti Safawi)  Persia (Dinasti Safawi)  Persia (Dinasti Safawi)  Persia (Dinasti Afshariyah)
 Kesultanan Utsmaniyah  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah[nb 76]  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah[nb 77]  Kesultanan Utsmaniyah[nb 78]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

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