Ghaznawiyah

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غزنویان
Ghaznawiyah
977–1186
Kekaisaran Ghaznawiyah pada puncak kejayaannya
Ibu kota Ghazna
(977–1163)
Lahore
[1]
Bahasa Persia (bahasa istana dan bahasa resmi; lingua franca)[2][3]
Arab (agama)
Dialek Turki (militer)[4]
Agama Islam Sunni
Bentuk Pemerintahan Kekaisaran
Sultan
 -  977–997 Sabuktigin (pertama)
 -  1160–1186 Khusrau Malik (terakhir)
Wazir
 -  998–1013 Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini (pertama tersebutkan)
 -  12th-century Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasrallah (terakhir tersebutkan)
Era sejarah Abad Pertengahan
 -  Didirikan 977
 -  Dibubarkan 1186
Luas
 -  1029 est. 3.400.000 km² (1.312.747 mil²)
Pendahulu
Pengganti
Saffarid dynasty
Samanids
Ma'munids
Farighunids
Ghurid dynasty
Seljuk Empire
Sekarang bagian dari

Ghaznawiyah (bahasa Persia: غزنویان) adalah suatu dinasti Muslim mamluk etnis Turki[5][6][7] yang budayanya telah ter-Persia-kan,[8] yang pada masa puncak kejayaannya menguasai sebagian besar Iran, Transoxiana, dan India Utara antara 977-1186.[9][10][11] Dinasti ini didirikan oleh Sabuktigin yang dimulai saat ia sukses menguasai Ghazna setelah ayah mertuanya Alp Tigin wafat. Alp Tigin adalah mantan jenderal Kekaisaran Samaniyah dari Balkh, di sebelah utara Hindu Kush di Khorasan Raya.[12]

Meskipun dinasti ini berasal dari etnis Turki Asia Tengah, namun telah sangat terpengaruh Persia dalam bidang bahasa, budaya, sastra, serta adat kebiasaan,[13][14][15][16] sehingga beberapa ahli memandangnya lebih sebagai suatu "dinasti Persia" daripada Turki.[9][11][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Anak Sabuktigin, Mahmud dari Ghazni, mendeklarasikan independensinya dari Kekaisaran Samaniyah[24] dan meluaskan wilayah Kekaisaran Ghaznawiyah hingga ke Amu Darya, Sungai Indus, dan Samudera Hindia di sebelah timur, dan ke Rey dan Hamadan di sebelah barat. Di bawah pemerintahan Mas'ud I, dinasti Ghaznawiyah mulai kehilangan kendali atas wilayah-wilayah baratnya kepada dinasti Seljuk setelah Pertempuran Dandanaqan, sehingga kekuasaannya menjadi terbatas pada wilayah yang saat ini adalah Afghanistan, Punjab, Pakistan, dan Balochistan.[25][26] Pada tahun 1151, Sultan Bahram Shah kehilangan Ghazni ke tangan Ala al-Din Husayn dari dinasti Ghuriyah.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Lahore" Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  3. ^ "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (3 September 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1]
  4. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 134.
  5. ^ Islamic Central Asia: an anthology of historical sources, Ed. Scott Cameron Levi and Ron Sela, (Indiana University Press, 2010), 83;The Ghaznavids were a dynasty of Turkic slave-soldiers...
  6. ^ "Ghaznavid Dynasty" Encyclopædia Britannica
  7. ^ Jonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair, The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Oxford University Press, 2009, Vol.2, p.163, Online Edition, "Turkish dominated mamluk regiments...dynasty of mamluk origin (the GHAZNAVID line) carved out an empire..."
  8. ^ Böwering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Mirza, Mahan (January 1, 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. pp. 410–411. 
  9. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth: The Ghaznavids. Edinburgh, 1963
  10. ^ C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition 2006
  11. ^ a b C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007
  12. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Ghaznavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007
  13. ^ David Christian: A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia; Blackwell Publishing, 1998; pg. 370: "Though Turkic in origin […] Alp Tegin, Sebuk Tegin and Mahmud were all thoroughly Persianized".
  14. ^ J. Meri (Hg.), Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, "Ghaznavids", London u.a. 2006, p. 294: "The Ghaznavids inherited Samanid administrative, political, and cultural traditions and laid the foundations for a Persianate state in northern India. ..."
  15. ^ Sydney Nettleton Fisher and William Ochsenwald, The Middle East: a history: Volume 1, (McGraw-Hill, 1997); "Forced to flee from the Samanid domain, he captured Ghaznah and in 961 established the famed Persianate Sunnite Ghaznavid empire of Afghanistan and the Punjab in India".
  16. ^ Meisami, Julie Scott, Persian historiography to the end of the twelfth century, (Edinburgh University Press, 1999), 143. Nizam al-Mulk also attempted to organise the Saljuq administration according to the Persianate Ghaznavid model..
  17. ^ B. Spuler: The Disintegration of the Caliphate in the East; in: P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (Hrsg.): The Central Islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War; The Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. 1a; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970; pg. 147: "One of the effects of the renaissance of the Persian spirit evoked by this work was that the Ghaznavids were also Persianized and thereby became a Persian dynasty."
  18. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition: "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  19. ^ "GHAZNAVIDS". iranicaonline.org. 
  20. ^ B. Spuler, "The Disintegration of the Caliphate in the East", in the Cambridge History of Islam, Vol. IA: The Central islamic Lands from Pre-Islamic Times to the First World War, ed. by P.M. Holt, Ann K.S. Lambton, and Bernard Lewis (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970). pg 147: One of the effects of the renaissance of the Persian spirit evoked by this work was that the Ghaznavids were also Persianized and thereby became a Persian dynasty.
  21. ^ Anatoly M Khazanov, André Wink, "Nomads in the Sedentary World", Routledge, 2padhte padhte to pagla jayega aadmi, A History of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia, Blackwell Publishing, 1998. pg 370: "Though Turkic in origin and, apparently in speech, Alp Tegin, Sebuk Tegin and Mahmud were all thoroughly Persianized"
  22. ^ Robert L. Canfield, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991. pg 8: "The Ghaznavids (989–1149) were essentially Persianized Turks who in manner of the pre-Islamic Persians encouraged the development of high culture"
  23. ^ John Perry. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN. Excerpt: "We should distinguish two complementary ways in which the advent of the Turks affected the language map of Iran. First, since the Turkish-speaking rulers of most Iranian polities from the Ghaznavids and Seljuks onward were already iranized and patronized Persian literature in their domains, the expansion of Turk-ruled empires served to expand the territorial domain of written Persian into the conquered areas, notably Anatolia and Central and South Asia. Secondly, the influx of massive Turkish-speaking populations (culminating with the rank and file of the Mongol armies) and their settlement in large areas of Iran (particularly in Azerbaijan and the northwest), progressively turkicized local speakers of Persian, Kurdish and other Iranian languages."(John Perry. Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5, (2001), pp. 193–200. THE HISTORICAL ROLE OF TURKISH IN RELATION TO PERSIAN OF IRAN)
  24. ^ The early Ghaznavids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, ed. C. E. Bosworth, (Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 170
  25. ^ Truths and Lies: Irony and Intrigue in the Tārīkh-i Bayhaqī, Soheila Amirsoleimani, Iranian Studies, Vol. 32, No. 2, The Uses of Guile: Literary and Historical Moments (Spring, 1999), 243.
  26. ^ Ghaznawids, B. Spuler, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol II, Ed. B.Lewis, C. Pellat and J. Schacht, (Brill, 1991), 1051.