Peperangan Utsmaniyah–Persia

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Peperangan Utsmaniyah-Persia atau Peperangan Utsmaniyah-Iran adalah serangkaian perang antara Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah dan dinasti-dinasti Safawiyah, Afshariyah, Zand dan Qajar dari Iran (Persia) sepanjang abad ke-16 sampai ke-19. Utsmaniyah mengkonsolidasikan kekuasaan mereka pada wilayah saat ini dari Turki pada abad ke-15, dan secara bertahap menimbulkan konflik dengan negara tetangga Persia, pimpinan Ismail I dari dinasti Safawiyah. Kedua negara tersebut adalah musuh bebuyutan, dan juga terpisah atas dasar agama, Utsmaniyah memeluk Sunni dan Safawiyah memeluk Syiah. Serangkaian konflik militer terjadi selama berabad-abad dimana kedua kekaisaran tersebut memperebutkan kekuasaan atas Anatolia timur, Kaukasus dan Irak.

Nama perang Sultan Utsmaniyah Shah Persia Traktat untuk mengakhiri perang Pemenang
Pertempuran Kaldiran (1514)[1] Selim I Ismail I Tidak ada Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Perang 1532–1555[2] Suleiman I Tahmasp I Traktat Amasya (1555) Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah[3]
Perang 1578–1590[4] Murad III Mohammad Khodabanda, Abbas I Traktat Konstantinopel (1590) Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Perang 1603–1618, tahap pertama

Kampanye Kakhetian dan Kartlian oleh Abbas I

Ahmed I Abbas I Traktat Nasuh Pasha (1612) Kekaisaran Persia
Perang 1603–1618, tahap kedua[5] Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II Abbas I Traktat Serav (1618) Kekaisaran Persia
Perang 1623–1639[6] Murad IV Abbas I, Safi Traktat Zuhab (1639) Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah
Perang 1730–1735, tahap pertama

Kampanye Tahmasp 1731

Ahmed III, Mahmud I Tahmasp II Traktat Ahmet Pasha (1732) Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah[7][8][9]
Perang 1730–1736, tahap kedua[10] Mahmud I Abbas III, Nader Shah Traktat Konstantinopel (1736) The Persian Empire
Perang 1743–1746[11] Mahmud I Nader Shah Traktat Kerden (1746) Tak mutlak[12]
Perang 1775–1776[13] Abdulhamid I Karim Khan Zand Tidak ada Basra direbut oleh Persia,[14] retaken by Ottomans three years later.[14]
Perang 1821–1823[15] Mahmud II Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar Traktat Erzurum (1823) Seri

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi dan catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 339-340
  2. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 277-281
  3. ^ Gábor Ágoston-Bruce Masters:Encyclopaedia of the Ottoman Empire, ISBN 978-0-8160-6259-1, p.280
  4. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 21-25
  5. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 43-45
  6. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi III, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 78-82
  7. ^ Erewantsʻi, Abraham; Bournoutian, George (1999). History of the wars: (1721-1736). Mazda Publishers. hlm. 2. ISBN 978-1568590851. (...) against Nader's advice, Shah Tahmasp marched against the Turks to force their withdrawal from Transcaucasia. The Ottomans routed the Persian forces in 1731, and in January 1732, the Shah concluded an agreement that left eastern Armenia, eastern Georgia, Shirvan, and Hamadan in Turkish hands. 
  8. ^ Tucker, Spencer C. A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. hlm. 729. ISBN 978-1851096725. Pursued by the Turks, Tahmasp is decisively defeated in the second Battle of Hamadan. In order to prevent a general Turkish invasion, he agrees to cede the territory conquered by Nadir in 1730 and recognizes all Turkish acquisitions 
  9. ^ A ́goston, Ga ́bor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. hlm. 415–416. ISBN 978-1438110257. But while Nadir pursued conquests in the east, Shah Tahmasp reopened hostilities with the Ottomans in an effort to regain his lost territories. He was defeated and agreed to a treaty that restored Tabriz but left Kermanshah and Hamadan in Ottoman hands. Nadir was incensed at the treaty (...) 
  10. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 1-8
  11. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 22-25
  12. ^ Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010), The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire, quote: "This indecisive military conflict resulted in the preservation of the existing borders.", The Scarecrow Press Inc., p. 170
  13. ^ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/karim-khan-zand
  14. ^ a b Fattah, Hala Mundhir (1997). The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf: 1745-1900. SUNY Press. hlm. 34. ISBN 9781438402376. 
  15. ^ Prof.Yaşar Yücel-Prof Ali Sevim:Türkiye tarihi IV, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, 1991, pp 193-195

Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587-1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi.
  • Sicker, Martin (2001). The Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 027596891X.