Islam di Tiongkok

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Pemetaan Islam oleh provinsi Cina menurut sebuah survei yang dilaporkan pada tahun 2010, ada sekitar 23 juta Muslim atau 1,7% dari total penduduk.[1]
Para Sufi mausoleum (gongbei) dari Ma Laichi di Linxia Kota, Cina.

Islam di Cina telah ada melalui 1.400 tahun dari interaksi terus-menerus dengan Cina masyarakat.[2] Saat ini, umat Islam adalah signifikan kelompok minoritas di Cina. Muslim Hui yang mayoritas kelompok Muslim di Cina. Konsentrasi terbesar di Xinjiang, dengan signifikan Uyghur penduduk. Kecil tapi signifikan populasi tinggal di daerah Ningxia, Gansu, dan Qinghai.[3] Berbagai sumber estimasi nomor yang berbeda dari penganut dengan beberapa sumber menunjukkan bahwa 1.5-4% dari total penduduk di Cina adalah Muslim.ef>"The World Factbook". cia.gov. </ref> Dari Cina's 55 resmi diakui masyarakat minoritas, sepuluh kelompok yang didominasi Muslim Sunni.[3]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Dinasti Yuan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selama Mongolmendirikan dinasti Yuan (1271-1368), sejumlah besar umat Islam menetap di Cina. The Mongol, minoritas di Cina, memberikan imigran asing, seperti Muslim, Kristen, dan Yahudi dari Asia barat yang berstatus lebih tinggi dari pribumi Han Cina sebagai bagian dari mereka mengatur strategi, sehingga memberikan umat Islam pengaruh berat. Mongol direkrut dan direlokasi paksa ratusan ribu imigran Muslim dari Barat dan Asia Tengah untuk membantu mereka mengelola kekaisaran mereka yang berkembang pesat. Mongol digunakan persia, Arab dan Buddha Uyghur administrator, umum dikenal sebagai semu [色目]("berbagai warna mata") untuk bertindak sebagai petugas perpajakan dan keuangan. Umat islam yang dipimpin banyak perusahaan-perusahaan di China pada awal Yuan periode.[halaman dibutuhkan] cendekiawan Muslim dibawa untuk bekerja pada kalender membuat dan astronomi. Arsitek Yeheidie'erding (Amir al-Din) belajar dari Han arsitektur dan membantu untuk merancang pembangunan ibukota Dinasti Yuan, Dadu, atau dikenal sebagai Khanbaliq atau Khanbaligh, pendahulu dari hari ini di Beijing. istilah Hui berasal dari bahasa Mandarin "Huihui," sebuah istilah yang pertama kali digunakan dalam Dinasti Yuan untuk menggambarkan Asia Tengah, persia dan Arab penduduk di Cina.

Dinasti Ming[sunting | sunting sumber]

Jerapah dibawa ke China, Zheng He's Harta karun Armada.
Prestasi Zheng He's 7th pelayaran.

Anti babi pembantaian dekrit menimbulkan spekulasi bahwa Zhengde Kaisar mengadopsi Islam karena penggunaan nya Muslim kasim yang ditugaskan produksi porselen dengan persia dan arab prasasti dalam warna putih dan biru. Muslim kasim memberikan kontribusi uang di 1496 untuk memperbaiki Masjid Niujie. Central wanita Asia yang disediakan untuk Zhengde Kaisar oleh seorang Muslim menjaga dan Sayyid Hussein dari Hami. penjaga itu Yu Yung dan wanita Uighur. tidak diketahui siapa yang benar-benar berada di balik anti-babi pembantaian dekrit. spekulasi dia menjadi seorang Muslim dikenang bersama-nya berlebihan dan bermoral perilaku bersama dengan selir asal luar negeri. Muslim Central Asia gadis-gadis yang disukai oleh Zhengde seperti bagaimana gadis-gadis korea yang disukai oleh Xuande. Uighur selir itu disimpan oleh Zhengde. Asing asal Uighur dan Mongol wanita yang disukai oleh Zhengde kaisar. Tatar (Mongol) dan Central Asia wanita bersetubuh dengan Zhengde. Zhengde menerima Central Asia Muslim Semu perempuan dari Muslim penjaga Yu Yong: 錦衣衛都指揮同知於永致仕。特許其子承襲。指揮同知永色目人,善陰道秘戲得幸於豹房,左右皆畏避之。又言回回女晢潤瑳粲大勝中國,上悅之。時都督昌佐亦色目人,永矯旨索佐家回女善西域舞者十二人以進,又諷請召侯伯故色目籍家婦人入內教之,內外切齒。後上欲召永女入,永以鄰人白回子女充名以入,懼事覺,乃求致仕 你兒干 你兒幹 Ni'ergan adalah nama dari salah seorang Muslim selir.

Makam Imam Asim dan Mazaar Zafar Sadiq[sunting | sunting sumber]

Makam Demi-Zu dan Wu-Ko-Shun di Gunung Lingshan, Quanzhou

Dinasti Qing[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lukisan yang menggambarkan seorang Muslim Turki dari Altishahr, selama pemerintahan dinasti Qing.

Ketika dinasti Qing menggantikan dinasti Ming mulai tahun 1644, Muslim Ming loyalis di Gansu yang dipimpin oleh para pemimpin Muslim Milayin dan Ding Guodong memimpin pemberontakan di 1646 terhadap Qing selama Milayin pemberontakan dalam rangka mendorong Qing dan mengembalikan Ming Pangeran Yanchang Zhu tempat shichuan ke tahta sebagai kaisar. Muslim Ming loyalis didukung oleh Hami Sultan Sa'id Baba dan putranya Pangeran Turumtay. Muslim Ming loyalis bergabung dengan orang-orang Tibet dan Han Cina dalam pemberontakan. Setelah pertempuran sengit, dan negosiasi, perjanjian perdamaian yang disepakati di dalam 1649, dan Milayan dan Ding nominal berjanji alleigance ke Qing dan diberi peringkat sebagai anggota militer Qing. Ketika Ming loyalis di Cina selatan membuat kebangkitan dan Qing dipaksa untuk menarik pasukan mereka dari Gansu untuk melawan mereka, Milayan dan Ding sekali lagi mengangkat senjata dan memberontak terhadap dinasti Qing. Muslim Ming loyalis yang kemudian dihancurkan oleh Qing dengan 100.000 dari mereka, termasuk Milayin, Ding Guodong, dan Turumtay tewas dalam pertempuran.

Sekte Islam[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sudah banyak kejadian kekerasan pertempuran sektarian antara berbagai Hui sekte. Pertempuran sektarian antara Hui sekte menyebabkan Jahriyya pemberontakan pada tahun 1780-an dan tahun 1895 pemberontakan. Setelah hiatus setelah Republik Rakyat Cina berkuasa, sektarian dalam pertempuran dilanjutkan pada tahun 1990-an di Ningxia antara sekte-sekte yang berbeda. Beberapa sekte yang menolak untuk kawin dengan satu sama lain. Salah satu sekte Sufi yang beredar anti-Salafi pamflet dalam bahasa arab.

Orang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kelompok etnis[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muslim, Bonan anak-anak.

Umat islam hidup di setiap wilayah di China. konsentrasi tertinggi ditemukan di barat laut provinsi Xinjiang, Gansu, Ningxia, dengan populasi yang signifikan juga ditemukan di seluruh Yunnan provinsi di barat daya Cina dan Henan provinsi di central China. Dari Cina's 55 resmi diakui masyarakat minoritas, sepuluh kelompok yang mayoritas penduduknya Muslim. Kelompok terbesar dalam urutan yang Hui (9.8 juta di tahun 2000 sensus, atau 48% dari resmi tabulasi jumlah Muslim), Uyghur (8.4 juta, 41%), kazakhstan (1.25 juta, 6.1%), Dongxiang (514,000, 2.5%), Kyrgyz (144,000), Uzbek (125,000), Salar (105,000), tajikistan (41,000), Bonan (17,000), dan Tatar (5,000). Namun, masing-masing anggota secara tradisional kelompok-kelompok Muslim yang mungkin memeluk agama-agama lain atau tidak sama sekali. Selain itu, Muslim Tibet yang secara resmi diklasifikasikan bersama dengan orang-orang Tibet. Umat islam umumnya tinggal di daerah-daerah yang berbatasan dengan Asia Tengah, Tibet dan Mongolia, yaitu Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu dan Qinghai, yang dikenal sebagai "Sabuk Quran".

Jumlah Muslim di Cina[sunting | sunting sumber]

99 nama-nama Allah, di Cina Sini.

Culture and heritage[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Niujie Mosque in Beijing

Taking the Mongol Eurasian empire as a point of departure, the ethnogenesis of the Hui, or Sinophone Muslims, can also be charted through the emergence of distinctly Chinese Muslim traditions in architecture, food, epigraphy and Islamic written culture. This multifaceted cultural heritage continues to the present day.

Military[sunting | sunting sumber]

Muslims have often filled Remarkable military positions, and many Muslims have joined the Chinese army. Muslims served extensively in the Chinese military, as both officials and soldiers. It was said that the Muslim Dongxiang and Salar were given to "eating rations", a reference to military service.

Islamic architecture in China[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Chinese, a mosque is called qīngzhēn sì (清真寺) or "pure truth temple." The Great Mosque of Xi'an (first established during the Tang era) and the Great Southern Mosque in Jinan, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, do not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, they follow traditional Chinese architecture. Mosques in western China incorporate more of the elements seen in mosques in other parts of the world. Western Chinese mosques were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.

As in all regions the Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However, in western China the mosques resemble those of the middle east, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of east and west. The mosques have flared Chinese-style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets. The first mosque was the Great Mosque of Xian, or the Xian Mosque, which was created in the Tang Dynasty in the 7th century.

Makanan Halal di Cina[sunting | sunting sumber]

Seorang Muslim yang khas restoran di Linxia Kota.
A halal meat store sign in Hankou, ca. 1934-1935.

Halal food has a long history in China. The arrival of Arabian and Persian merchants during the Tang and Song dynasties saw the introduction of the Muslim diet. Chinese Muslim cuisine adheres strictly to the Islamic dietary rules with mutton and lamb being the predominant ingredient. The advantage of Muslim cuisine in China is that it has inherited the diverse cooking methods of Chinese cuisine for example, braising, roasting, steaming, stewing and many more. Due to China's multicultural background Muslim cuisine retains its own style and characteristics according to regions.

Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to Muslims or cater to the general public but are run by Muslims. In most major cities in China, there are small Islamic restaurants or food stalls typically run by migrants from Western China (e.g., Uyghurs), which offer inexpensive noodle soup. Lamb and mutton dishes are more commonly available than in other Chinese restaurants, due to the greater prevalence of these meats in the cuisine of western Chinese regions. Commercially prepared food can be certified Halal by approved agencies. In Chinese, halal is called qīngzhēncài (清真菜) or "pure truth food." Beef and lamb slaughtered according to Islamic rituals is also commonly available in public markets, especially in North China. Such meat is sold by Muslim butchers, who operate independent stalls next to non-Muslim butchers.

Keuangan islam di Cina[sunting | sunting sumber]

Cina dan Muslim ekonom yang memiliki tradisi panjang dengan keuangan Islam. Resmi terbaru usaha Bank Ningxia, sedangkan Hong Kong sebagai pusat keuangan sedang membahas secara intensif perannya.

Calligraphy[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sini[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sini is a Chinese Islamic calligraphic form for the Arabic script. It can refer to any type of Chinese Islamic calligraphy, but is commonly used to refer to one with thick and tapered effects, much like Chinese calligraphy. It is used extensively in mosques in eastern China, and to a lesser extent in Gansu, Ningxia, and Shaanxi. A famous Sini calligrapher is Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang.

Xiao'erjing[sunting | sunting sumber]

A Chinese-Arabic-Xiaoerjing dictionary from the early days of the People's Republic of China.

Xiao'erjing (also Xiao'erjin or Xiaojing) is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan, and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China (mostly the Hui, but also the Dongxiang, and the Salar), and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia.

Martial arts[sunting | sunting sumber]

There is a long history of Muslim development and participation at the highest level of Chinese wushu. The Hui started and adapted many of the styles of wushu such as bajiquan, piguazhang, and liuhequan. There were specific areas that were known to be centers of Muslim wushu, such as Cang County in Hebei Province. These traditional Hui martial arts were very distinct from the Turkic styles practiced in Xinjiang.

Literature[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Han Kitab was a collection of Chinese Islamic texts written by Chinese Muslim which synthesized Islam and Confucianism. It was written in the early 18th century during the Qing dynasty. Han is Chinese for Chinese, and kitab (ketabu in Chinese) is Arabic for book. Liu Zhi wrote his Han Kitab in Nanjing in the early 18th century. The works of Wu Sunqie, Zhang Zhong, and Wang Daiyu were also included in the Han Kitab.

The Han Kitab was widely read and approved of by later Chinese Muslims such as Ma Qixi, Ma Fuxiang, and Hu Songshan. They believed that Islam could be understood through Confucianism.

Education[sunting | sunting sumber]

A lot of Chinese students including male and females join International Islamic University, Islamabad to gain Islamic knowledge. For some Muslim groups in China, such as Hui and Salars minorities, coeducation is frowned upon; for some groups such as Uyghurs, it is not.

Women Imams[sunting | sunting sumber]

With the exception of China, the world has very few Mosques directed by women. China is alone with having the position of Imam held by women.

Famous Muslims in China[sunting | sunting sumber]

Explorers[sunting | sunting sumber]

Zheng He's voyages to secure the maritime routes, usher urbanization and assist in creating a common identity for trade in an ever increasing globalized world.
  • Zheng He, mariner and explorer.
  • Fei Xin, Zheng He's translator.
  • Ma Huan, a companion of Zheng He.
  • Generals from the Qing era:
  • Generals in the Republic of China:
  • Warlords of the Ma clique during the Republic of China era:
  • Generals from the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army):
  • Du Wenxiu, Ma Hualong and Ma Zhan'ao, leaders of the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan and the Muslim rebellion in northwestern China.
  • Ma Shenglin, great-uncle of Ma Shaowu and rebel during the Panthay Rebellion.
  • Liu Bin Di, Hui Kuomintang officer who died while fighting against Uyghur rebels during the Ili Rebellion.
  • Ma Zhanshan, guerilla during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
  • Ma Xiao, General (Liu Wenhui).
  • Zuo Baogui (左寶貴; 1837–1894), Qing Muslim general from Shandong who died while defending Pingyang, Korea, from the Japanese.

Agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Liu Zhi (kr. 1660 – kr. 1739), Islam penulis (dinasti Qing).
  • Qi Jingyi (1656-1719), guru Sufi yang memperkenalkan Qadiriyyah sekolah ke China.
  • Ma Laichi (1681?-1766?), Guru Sufi yang membawa Khufiyya Naqshbandi gerakan ke China.
  • Ma Mingxin (1719-1781), pendiri Jahriyya Naqshbandi gerakan.
  • Ma Wanfu, pendiri Yihewani.
  • Ma Qixi(1857-1914), pendiri Xidaotang.
  • Ma Yuanzhang, Jahriyya Sufi pemimpin.
  • Wang Jingzhai, salah satu dari empat terkenal Imam dari periode Republik
  • Hu Songshan (1880-1956), Yihewani pembaharu dan Cina nasionalis.

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
  2. ^ "The China Quarterly - Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism? - Cambridge Journals Online". cambridge.org. 
  3. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Armijo1986