Modernitas

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Modernitas adalah jargon yang digunakan dalam ilmu humaniora dan ilmu sosial untuk menyebut sebuah periode sejarah (era modern) dan campuran norma, perilaku, dan praktik sosial-budaya tertentu yang muncul di Eropa pasca-abad pertengahan dan berkembang di seluruh dunia sejak saat itu. Meski turut mencakup berbagai proses sejarah dan fenomena budaya yang saling terkait (dari tata busana sampai perang modern), modernitas juga dapat mengacu pada pengalaman subjektif atau eksistensial terhadap suasana yang ada serta dampaknya terhadap kebudayaan manusia, lembaga, dan politik (Berman 2010, 15–36).

Sebagai peristiwa sejarah, modernitas mengacu pada masa-masa yang dipenuhi kritik atau penolakan tradisi; pengutamaan individualisme, kebebasan, dan kesetaraan hukum; keyakinan terhadap kemajuan sosial, ilmiah, dan teknologi, dan keparipurnaan manusia; rasionalisasi dan profesionalisasi, peralihan dari feodalisme (atau agrarianisme) ke kapitalisme dan ekonomi pasar; industrialisasi, urbanisasi, dan sekularisasi; pembentukan negara-bangsa dan lembaga bawahannya (misalnya demokrasi perwakilan, pendidikan umum, birokrasi modern); dan berbagai bentuk pengintaian (Foucault 1995, 170–77). Sejumlah penulis berpendapat bahwa jumlah modernitas bisa lebih dari satu karena definisi istilah dan sejarahnya sendiri belum tetap.

Charles Baudelaire diakui sebagai pencipta istilah "modernitas" (modernité) dalam esainya tahun 1864, "The Painter of Modern Life". Ia menciptakan istilah tersebut untuk menyebut pengalaman hidup yang cepat usai di tengah kota dan tugas seniman untuk menggambarkan pengalaman tersebut. Artinya, modernitas mengacu pada hubungan terhadap waktu, hubungan yang ditandai oleh terputusnya seseorang dengan masa lalu, keterbukaan terhadap hal-hal baru di masa depan, dan naiknya tingkat kesadaran terhadap hal-hal unik di masa kini (Kompridis 2006, 32–59).

Sebagai konsep analitis dan gagasasn normatif, modernitas sangat berkaitan dengan etos modernisme filosofis dan estetis; arus politik dan intelektual yang bersinggungan dengan Renaisans; dan berbagai perkembangan selanjutnya seperti Marxisme, eksistensialisme, seni modern, dan ilmu sosial. Modernitas juga mencakup hubungan sosial yang berhubungan dengan bangkitnya kapitalisme, dan peralihan perilaku yang berhubungan dengan sekularisasi dan kehidupan pasca-industri (Berman 2010, 15–36).

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