Rudolf Steiner

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian
Rudolf Steiner
Steiner um 1905.jpg
Rudolf Steiner pada sekitar tahun 1905
LahirRudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner
(1861-02-27)27 Februari 1861[1]
Murakirály, Kerajaan Hongaria, Kekaisaran Austria (kini Donji Kraljevec, Kroasia)
Meninggal30 Maret 1925(1925-03-30) (umur 64)
Dornach, Swiss
PendidikanInstitut Teknologi Wina
Universitas Rostock (PhD, 1891)
Suami/istri
EraFilsafat abad ke-20
KawasanFilsafat Barat
AliranMonisme
Holisme dalam sains
Ilmu Goethean
Antroposofi
Pembimbing akademikKarl Julius Schröer[2]
Minat utama
Metafisika, epistemologi, filsafat sains, esoterisisme, Kekristenan
Gagasan penting
Antroposofi, kedokteran antroposofi, pertanian biodinamika, euritmi, tiga lipatan sosial, ilmu spiritual, pendidikan Waldorf, holisme dalam sains

Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner (27 (atau 25) Februari 1861[1] – 30 Maret 1925) adalah seorang filsuf, reformator sosial, arsitek, esoterisis,[8][9] dan orang yang diklaim sebagai penglihat asal Austria.[10][11] Steiner meraih pengakuan awal pada akhir abad kesembilan belas sebagai kritikus sastra dan menerbitkan karya-karya filsafat yang meliputi Filsafat Kebebasan. Pada permulaan abad kedua puluh, ia membentuk sebuah gerakan spiritual esoterik, antroposofi, yang berakar dalam filsafat idealis Jerman dan teosofi; pengaruh lainnya meliputi ilmu Goethean dan Rosikrusianisme.[12]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Steiner's autobiography gives his date of birth as 27 February 1861. However, there is an undated autobiographical fragment written by Steiner, referred to in a footnote in his autobiography in German (GA 28), that says, "My birth fell on 25 February 1861. Two days later I was baptized." See Christoph Lindenberg, Rudolf Steiner, Rowohlt 1992, ISBN 3-499-50500-2, p. 8. In 2009 new documentation appeared supporting a date of 27 February : see Günter Aschoff, "Rudolf Steiners Geburtstag am 27. Februar 1861 – Neue Dokumente" Diarsipkan 28 June 2014 di Wayback Machine., Das Goetheanum 2009/9, pp. 3ff
  2. ^ Peter Selg (2014), Rudolf Steiner, Life and Work: Volume 1 (1861-1890): Childhood, Youth, and Study Years, SteinerBooks. ISBN 978-1-62148-084-6. Chapter 2
  3. ^ Carlson, Maria (2015). No Religion Higher Than Truth: A History of the Theosophical Movement in Russia, 1875–1922. hlm. 33. ISBN 978-0-69160781-8. 
  4. ^ Helmut Zander, Anthroposophie in Deutschland, Göttingen, 2007, ISBN 3-525-55452-4.
  5. ^ Preparata, Guido Giacomo (Fall 2006), "Perishable Money in a Threefold Commonwealth: Rudolf Steiner and the Social Economics of an Anarchist Utopia", Review of Radical Economics, 38 (4): 619–48, doi:10.1177/0486613406293226  .
  6. ^ Paddock & Spiegler 2005
  7. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Tarkovsky
  8. ^ Some of the literature regarding Steiner's work in these various fields: Goulet, P: "Les Temps Modernes?", L'Architecture D'Aujourd'hui, December 1982, pp. 8–17; Architect Rudolf Steiner Diarsipkan 24 September 2015 di Wayback Machine. at GreatBuildings.com; Rudolf Steiner International Architecture Database; Brennan, M.: Rudolf Steiner ArtNet Magazine, 18 March 1998; Blunt, R.: Waldorf Education: Theory and Practice – A Background to the Educational Thought of Rudolf Steiner. Master Thesis, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 1995; Ogletree, E.J.: Rudolf Steiner: Unknown Educator, Elementary School Journal, 74(6): 344–352, March 1974; Nilsen, A.:A Comparison of Waldorf & Montessori Education Diarsipkan 10 October 2013 di Wayback Machine., University of Michigan; Rinder, L: Rudolf Steiner's Blackboard Drawings: An Aesthetic Perspective Diarsipkan 29 November 2005 di Wayback Machine. and exhibition of Rudolf Steiner's Blackboard Drawings Diarsipkan 2 February 2007 di Wayback Machine., at Berkeley Art Museum, 11 October 1997 – 4 January 1998; Aurélie Choné, "Rudolf Steiner's Mystery Plays: Literary Transcripts of an Esoteric Gnosis and/or Esoteric Attempt at Reconciliation between Art and Science?", Aries, Volume 6, Number 1, 2006, pp. 27–58(32), Brill publishing; Christopher Schaefer, "Rudolf Steiner as a Social Thinker", Re-vision Vol 15, 1992; and Antoine Faivre, Jacob Needleman, Karen Voss; Modern Esoteric Spirituality, Crossroad Publishing, 1992.
  9. ^ "Who was Rudolf Steiner and what were his revolutionary teaching ideas?" Richard Garner, Education Editor, The Independent
  10. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama CorrDoc
  11. ^ Ruse, Michael (12 November 2018). The Problem of War: Darwinism, Christianity, and Their Battle to Understand Human Conflict. Oxford University Press. hlm. 97. ISBN 978-0-19-086757-7. 
  12. ^ Paull, John (2018). "The Library of Rudolf Steiner: The Books in English". Journal of Social and Development Sciences. 9 (3): 21–46. doi:10.22610/jsds.v9i3.2475alt=Dapat diakses gratis. 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Almon, Joan (ed.) Meeting Rudolf Steiner, firsthand experiences compiled from the Journal for Anthroposophy since 1960, ISBN 0-9674562-8-2
  • Anderson, Adrian: Rudolf Steiner Handbook, Port Campbell Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-9581341-2-5
  • Childs, Gilbert, Rudolf Steiner: His Life and Work, ISBN 0-88010-391-4
  • Davy, Adams and Merry, A Man before Others: Rudolf Steiner Remembered. Rudolf Steiner Press, 1993.
  • Easton, Stewart, Rudolf Steiner: Herald of a New Epoch, ISBN 0-910142-93-9
  • Hemleben, Johannes and Twyman, Leo, Rudolf Steiner: An Illustrated Biography. Rudolf Steiner Press, 2001.
  • Kries, Mateo and Vegesack, Alexander von, Rudolf Steiner: Alchemy of the Everyday, Weil am Rhein: Vitra Design Museum, 2010. ISBN 3-931936-86-4
  • Lachman, Gary, Rudolf Steiner: An Introduction to His Life and Work, 2007, ISBN 1-58542-543-5
  • Lindenberg, Christoph, Rudolf Steiner: Eine Biographie (2 vols.). Stuttgart, 1997, ISBN 3-7725-1551-7
  • Lissau, Rudi, Rudolf Steiner: Life, Work, Inner Path and Social Initiatives. Hawthorne Press, 2000.
  • McDermott, Robert, The Essential Steiner. Harper Press, 1984
  • Prokofieff, Sergei O., Rudolf Steiner and the Founding of the New Mysteries. Temple Lodge Publishing, 1994.
  • Seddon, Richard, Rudolf Steiner. North Atlantic Books, 2004.
  • Shepherd, A. P., Rudolf Steiner: Scientist of the Invisible. Inner Traditions, 1990.
  • Schiller, Paul, Rudolf Steiner and Initiation. SteinerBooks, 1990.
  • Selg, Peter, Rudolf Steiner as a Spiritual Teacher. From Recollections of Those Who Knew Him, SteinerBooks Publishing, 2010.
  • Sokolina, Anna, ed. Architecture and Anthroposophy. 2 editions. 268p. 348 ills. (In Russian with the Summary in English.) Moscow: KMK, 2001 ISBN 5873170746; 2010 ISBN 5873176604
  • Tummer, Lia and Lato, Horacio, Rudolf Steiner and Anthroposophy for Beginners. Writers & Readers Publishing, 2001.
  • Turgeniev, Assya, Reminiscences of Rudolf Steiner and Work on the First Goetheanum, ISBN 1-902636-40-6
  • Villeneuve, Crispian, Rudolf Steiner: The British Connection, Elements from his Early Life and Cultural Development, ISBN 978-1-906999-29-2
  • Wachsmuth, Guenther, The Life and Work of Rudolf Steiner: From the Turn of the Century to his Death, Whittier Books 1955.
  • Welburn, Andrew, Rudolf Steiner's Philosophy and the Crisis of Contemporary Thought, ISBN 0-86315-436-0
  • Wilkinson, Roy, Rudolf Steiner: An Introduction to his Spiritual World-View, ISBN 1-902636-28-7
  • Wilson, Colin, Rudolf Steiner: The Man and His Vision. An Introduction to the Life and Ideas of the Founder of Anthroposophy, The Aquarian Press, 1985, ISBN 0-85030-398-2

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Umum
Penulisan
Artikel dan siaran tentang Steiner