Hukum usia minum

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Hukum usia minum adalah usia di mana seseorang dapat mengkonsumsi atau membeli makanan atau minuman beralkohol. Hukum-hukum ini mencakup berbagai isu dan perilaku, menangani kapan dan di mana alkohol dapat dikonsumsi. Alkohol dapat dikonsumsi secara hukum dapat berbeda dari usia ketika dapat dibeli. Hukum-hukum ini bervariasi antara negara-negara yang berbeda dan banyak hukum memiliki pengecualian atau keadaan khusus. Kebanyakan hukum hanya berlaku untuk minum alkohol di tempat umum, dengan konsumsi alkohol di rumah yang sebagian besar tidak diatur. Beberapa negara juga memiliki batasan usia yang berbeda untuk berbagai jenis minuman beralkohol.[1]

Britania Raya adalah satu-satunya negara yang memiliki hukum usia minum untuk minum alkohol di rumah. Beberapa negara Islam melarang kaum Muslim, atau keduanya Muslim dan non-Muslim, dari minum alkohol pada usia berapa pun. Di beberapa negara, itu tidak ilegal untuk anak-anak untuk minum alkohol tetapi alkohol dapat disita tanpa kompensasi. Dalam beberapa kasus, adalah ilegal untuk menjual atau memberikan alkohol kepada anak di bawah umur. Daftar berikut ini menunjukkan usia orang untuk siapa itu legal untuk mengkonsumsi dan membeli alkohol.

Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara/region De jure Catatan
Drinking Age Purchase age
 Algeria 18[2]
 Angola 18[butuh rujukan]
 Botswana 18[2]
 Burundi 18[2] No limit if accompanied by parents.
 Cameroon 18[2] 21[2] 18 on the premises, 21 off the premises
 Cape Verde 18[2]
 Central African Republic 18[2]
 Comoros None[2]
 Egypt 18 (beer), 21 (wine/spirits)[2][3]
 Equatorial Guinea None[2]
 Eritrea 18[2]
 Ethiopia 18[2]
 Gabon 18[2] Ilegal untuk dikonsumsi Muslim
 Gambia 18[2] Ilegal untuk dikonsumsi Muslim
 Ghana 18[4]
 Guinea-Bissau None[2]
 Kenya 18[2]
 Lesotho 18[2]
 Libya Illegal[2]
 Malawi 18[4]
 Mauritius 18[2]
 Morocco None[2] 16[2]
 Mozambique 18[2]
 Namibia 18[2]
 Niger 18[2]
 Nigeria 18[2]
 Republic of the Congo 18[2]
 Rwanda 18[2]
 Seychelles 18[2]
 Somalia None [5]
 South Africa 18[2] Wali orang tua, orang dewasa di bawah umur atau orang yang bertanggung jawab untuk pemberian sakramen agama, mungkin pada kesempatan pasokan untuk kecil yang jumlah moderat minuman keras untuk dikonsumsi oleh anak di bawah umur di hadapan dan di bawah pengawasan orang tua itu, wali atau orang lainnya.[6]
 South Sudan 18[7]
 Swaziland None[2] 18[2]
 Sudan Illegal[8]
 Tanzania 18[9]
 Togo None[2]
 Uganda 18[2]
 Tunisia 18[2]
 Zambia 18[2]
 Zimbabwe 18[2]

Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara / region De jure Catatan
Drinking age Purchase age
 Argentina 18[2][10] Penjualan alkohol dilarang setelah jam 09:00 malam. ID dapat diperlukan.
 Bahamas 18[2]
 Belize 18[2]
 Bermuda 18[2]
 Bolivia 18[2]
 Brazil 18[2] Hukum mengenai kepemilikan atau konsumsi alkohol oleh anak-anak hampir tidak ditegakkan, terutama jika di perusahaan orang tua atau wali, tetapi mereka mengenai penjualan anak di bawah umur alkohol keras yang dikenakan oleh penjaga hukum, dan itu adalah hukum untuk mengingat usia pembelian hukum sementara iklan alkohol minuman. ID Card diperlukan untuk pembelian.
 Canada 18[11] Di Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec, hukum usia minum alkohol adalah 18. Di bawah umur minum 16 - dan 17-year-olds di bawah pengawasan orangtua diperbolehkan di Manitoba,[12] dan di bawah pengawasan orangtua di tempat tinggal atau tempat tinggal sementara di Alberta.[13]
19[11] In Ontario, Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut, the legal drinking age is 19. Underage drinking under parental supervision is permitted, with some restrictions, on one's own property in the provinces of New Brunswick[14] and Ontario[15] and at home in the provinces of Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan.[1] In British Columbia, only children of the supervising parents, not any other minors such as guests, are allowed underage drinking. Consumption of alcohol in another person's home is subject to other laws.[16]
 Chile 18[2] The minimum age is 18 for buying and consuming alcohol. Selling alcohol to a minor may attract a fine. One must provide identification upon request. Residents of Chile over the age of 18 must carry their Chilean identification card issued by the Civil Registry and Identification Service at all times.
 Colombia 18[2]
 Costa Rica 18[2]
 Cuba None[17] 18[18]
 Dominican Republic 18[2]
 Ecuador 18[2]
 El Salvador 18[2]
 Falkland Islands 18[2]
 Guatemala 18[2]
 Guyana 18[2]
 Haiti 16[17]
 Honduras 18[19]
 Jamaica None[2] 18[2]
 Mexico 18[2]
 Nicaragua 19[2]
 Panama 18[2]
 Paraguay 20[2]
 Peru 18[2]
 Puerto Rico 18[20]
 Trinidad and Tobago 18[2]
 United States
(50 states and integral territories)
21[2] The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 withholds revenue from states that allow the purchase of alcohol by anyone under the age of 21. Prior to the effective date of that Act, the drinking age varied from state to state. Some states do not allow those under the legal drinking age to be present in liquor stores or in bars (usually, the difference between a bar and a restaurant is that food is served only in the latter). Contrary to popular belief, since the act went into law, only a few states prohibit minors and young adults from consuming alcohol in private settings. As of January 1, 2010, 15 states and the District of Columbia ban underage consumption outright, 17 states do not ban underage consumption, and the remaining 18 states have family member and/or location exceptions to their underage consumption laws.

Federal law explicitly provides for religious, medical, employment and private club possession exceptions; as of 2005, 31 states have family member and/or location exceptions to their underage possession laws. However, non-alcoholic beer in many (but not all) states, such as Idaho, Texas, and Maryland, is considered legal for those under the age of 21.[21]

By a judge's ruling, South Carolina appears to allow the possession and consumption of alcohol by adults 18 to 20 years of age, but a circuit court judge said otherwise.[22]

The State of Wisconsin allows the consumption of alcohol in the presence of parents. Some U.S. States have legislation that make providing to and possession of alcohol by persons under 21 a gross misdemeanor with a potential of $5,000 and a year in jail (or more).[23]

 United States Virgin Islands 18[24]
 Uruguay None[2] 18[2] Penjualan alkohol dilarang setelah 00:00 tengah malam. ID dapat diperlukan.[butuh klarifikasi][butuh rujukan]
 Venezuela 18[2]

Asia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara / region De jure Catatan
Drinking age Purchase age
 Afghanistan Illegal[25]
 Armenia None[butuh rujukan]
 Azerbaijan 16[2]
 Brunei Illegal[2] Although it is illegal to purchase alcohol, it is legal for non-Muslims aged 17 and above to bring limited amounts of alcohol into the country every 48 hours if it is consumed in their home.[2]
 Bangladesh Illegal[26]
 Cambodia None[27]
 China 18[2] Introduced in January 2006.[28]
 Cyprus 17[2]
 Georgia 16[2]
 Hong Kong 18 [29] The regulation is only applicable to restaurants, bars and clubs, where a liquor license is required. No license is required for selling liquor in other places, and there is no law concerning drinking alcoholic beverages.
 India 18–25 (varies between states).[2]
Consumption of alcohol is prohibited in the states of Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Gujarat.[30]
 Indonesia 18
 Iran Almost entirely illegal[butuh rujukan] Ada larangan alkohol, namun agama minoritas dapat membeli jumlah kecil dari toko-toko yang dimiliki oleh minoritas agama yang sama.[31]
 Iraq 18[2]
 Israel 18[2] Ini adalah ilegal untuk menjual alkohol 23:00-06:00, di luar pub dan restoran. Undang-undang melarang menjual atau melayani alkohol untuk anak di bawah umur, tetapi tidak melarang anak di bawah umur untuk minum.
 Jordan 18[32]
 Japan 20[2]
 Kazakhstan 21[33]
 Kuwait Illegal[34]
 Kyrgyzstan 18[2]
 Lebanon 18[2]
 Macau None[2] None[2][35]
 Malaysia 16[butuh rujukan] 18[butuh rujukan] Di daerah dengan lebih dari 50% dari populasi Muslim, penjualan alkohol dibatasi ke tempat-tempat yang dipilih. Ini adalah ilegal untuk menjual alkohol bagi kaum Muslim dan orang-orang di bawah 18, tetapi tidak ada pembatasan umur minum.
 Maldives 18[2] Sale of alcohol is limited to tourist resorts. It is illegal to sell alcohol to Muslims.
 Mongolia 18[36]
   Nepal 18[butuh rujukan] None
 North Korea 18[butuh rujukan] Alcoholic beverages are served on Saturdays.[butuh rujukan]
 Oman 21[37] Warga perlu lisensi minuman keras pribadi mengkonsumsi alkohol di rumah pribadi mereka.[37]
 Pakistan 21[2] Forbidden by Sharia. Illegal for Muslims[2]
 Palestine 16[2] Legal in most cities
 Philippines None[38]
 Qatar 21[butuh rujukan] Muslim diperbolehkan untuk membeli alkohol, tetapi umumnya tidak diperbolehkan untuk mengkonsumsi. Non Muslim diperbolehkan untuk membeli, dan mengkonsumsi alkohol. Satu-satunya distributor legal alkohol di negara ini adalah Qatar Distribution Company yang berlokasi di Doha.
 Saudi Arabia Illegal[butuh rujukan] Drinking or possessing alcohol is illegal in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Persons who drink or possess alcohol are subject to arrest and trial.[39][apakah terpercaya?]
 Singapore 18[2]
 South Korea 19[2]
 Sri Lanka 21[2]
 Syria 18[butuh rujukan] Selama Perang Sipil Suriah, ekstremis Islam telah membuat konsumsi alkohol ilegal menurut wilayah di bawah kendali mereka.
 Taiwan 18[2][40]
  • It is illegal for anyone under the age of 18 to consume alcohol.[41]
  • Parents, guardians, and others taking care of people under 18 shall prohibit underage drinking,[42] or risk administrative fines of 10000 to 50000 new Taiwan dollars when the situations are serious.[43]
  • One shall not supply alcohol to anyone under the age of 18.[44] A violator shall be administratively fined 3000 to 15000 new Taiwan dollars.[45]
 Tajikistan 21[butuh rujukan] Off-limits to the Muslim majority
 Thailand 20 [46] The Minuman Beralkohol Control Act of 2008 meningkat usia minum di Thailand 18-20. Penjualan alkohol dilarang antara 14:00-17:00 dan antara tengah malam hingga 11:00 dan juga pada hari pemilu dan beberapa hari libur keagamaan.[46]
 Turkmenistan 18[2]
 Turkey 18[2] The government has been steadily restricting alcohol in Turkey, with proposals to create alcohol-free zones,[47] bars on alcohol sold in new packaging,[48] bans on sports advertising, restricting sales, and making it harder to have alcohol at public events.[49] Alcohol is still readily available and the legal age is rarely enforced in bars or convenience stores.
 United Arab Emirates 21[butuh rujukan] Expatriate non-Muslim residents may request a liquor permit to purchase alcoholic beverages, but it is illegal for such holders to provide drinks to others.[50]
 Vietnam None[2] 18[2]
 Yemen Illegal[butuh rujukan] Exception is in Aden Region where it's legal for 21 and up

Europe[sunting | sunting sumber]

Country / region De jure Notes
Drinking age Purchase age
 Albania 18[2]
 Austria 16, 18 for distilled beverages in some areas.[2] Upper Austria, Salzburg and Tirol prohibit the consumption of distilled beverages below the age of 18, while Carinthia and Styria prohibit drinks containing more than 12% or 14% of alcohol respectively in this age bracket. Carinthia also requires adolescents to maintain a blood alcohol level below 0.05%, Upper Austria prohibits "excessive consumption", and Salzburg prohibits consumption that would result in a state of intoxication. Prohibitions in Vienna, Burgenland, Lower Austria and Vorarlberg apply only to alcohol consumption in public. Vienna also prohibits the consumption of alcohol in schools by those under the age of 18.[51]
 Belarus 18[2]
 Belgium 16 for beer and wine, 18 for spirits[2] Since 10 January 2010, it is illegal to "sell, serve, or offer" any form of distilled alcohol to those under the age of 18 or any alcoholic drink to those under 16. So fermented drinks like beer or wine are permitted above 16.[52] Previously, it was illegal to sell alcoholic drinks to under-16s, but accompanying adults could buy drinks for them.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 18[butuh rujukan] 18[butuh rujukan]
 Bulgaria None 18[2] The Health Act prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages to persons under 18 years of age, but not their consumption.[53]
 Croatia 18[2]
 Czech Republic 18[2] The sale of alcohol to minors is illegal, consumption is not prohibited by law.[54]
 Denmark 18 to be served at bars, discos etc.[2] 16[2] To buy alcohol (above 1.2% and below 16.5% ABV) in stores, one must be 16; but to be served alcohol at bars, restaurants and discos, the minimum is 18. For alcohol above 16.5%, the age is 18.[55][56] There is no drinking age, only a purchase age, and an adult may buy alcohol for a minor. By tradition, youths are privately allowed to drink alcohol after their confirmation.[57] If a shop or bar fails to ask for an ID card and is identified having sold alcohol to an underage, it is subject to fine. A national ID card, obtained in the local town hall, can serve as age verification.[58] This card is rarely used though since a passport or moped-licence can sometimes be used.[59]
 Estonia 18[60] Drinking in public is prohibited for everyone. Stores may sell alcohol only between 10 a.m. and 10 p.m.[60]
 Finland 18 for possession and purchase of 1.2–22% ABV
20 for possession and purchase of 23–80% ABV
18 for all in bars, clubs and restaurants[61]
All major grocery chains have implemented the policy to ask for ID if the customer is looking under 30.[62] Stores may refuse to sell if the customer is accompanied by a minor or proxy purchasing is suspected. Purchasing alcohol on behalf of a minor is considered a criminal offence.[61][63]

Police may search minors in public places and confiscate or destroy any alcoholic beverages in their possession. Incidents are reported to the legal guardian and social authorities, who may intervene with child welfare procedures. In addition, those aged 15 or above are subject to a fine.[64]

In private, offering alcohol to a minor is considered a criminal offence if it results in drunkenness and the act can be deemed reprehensible as a whole, considering the minor's age, degree of maturity and other circumstances.[61]

 France 18[2] France has no explicitly stated consumption age,[65] but selling alcohol to a minor (under 18) is illegal[66] and can be fined 7500 euros.[65] This age was raised from 16 to 18 in 2009.[67] Supplying minors with alcohol that results in intoxication is forbidden.[68]
 Germany 16 for beer and wine as some other party drinks without spirits;
18 for spirits[2]
Selling alcohol or permitting minors to drink below the respective drinking age can be fined between €100 and €4000, depending on type of alcohol and points of sale. Fermented alcoholic beverages may be consumed by minors at the age of 14 in public in presence of a legal guardian; drinking in private is allowed. The restrictions on distilled beverages apply also to mixed drinks containing them.[69]
 Gibraltar 18[70] 18[70]
 Greece 18[2] None[2]
 Hungary 18[2]
 Iceland 20[2][71] Possession or consumption of alcohol by minors is not an offence, but supplying them with alcohol is. However, law allows alcohol possessed by a minor to be confiscated.
 Ireland 18[2] It is illegal for minors to buy alcohol, to attempt to buy it for minors or to consume alcohol in a public space in Ireland. Those under 18 may consume alcohol in a private residence when permission is given from a parent or guardian. It is illegal to purchase alcohol for anybody under the age of consent without permission from their guardians. Alcohol can be sold in stores only between 10:30 and 22:00 on weekdays and Saturdays or 12:30 and 22:00 on Sundays.[72]
 Italy 18 [73] The age was raised from 16 to 18 in 2013 by the Health Minister Renato Balduzzi. Selling alcohol to minors carries a fine between €250 and €1000.
 Latvia 18[2] Selling alcoholic beverages in stores, with the exception of bars, clubs and restaurants, is prohibited between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m. Drinking in public is prohibited.
 Liechtenstein 16 for wine, beer and cider
18 for spirits and spirit-based beverages. e.g. alcopops
Wine, beer and ciders as well as some other party drinks sometimes without spirits may be purchased by the age of 16. Spirits as well as alcopops may be sold only to people at least 18.[74]
 Lithuania 18[2] In the Republic of Lithuania drinking in public is prohibited. Selling alcoholic beverages in stores is prohibited between 10 p.m. and 8 a.m and on 1 September of every year. Minors under the age of 18 are prohibited from consuming alcoholic beverages or from having them.
 Luxembourg 16 [75]
 Macedonia 18 [76] Must show an ID card upon request. From May 1 until September 30, alcohol can be sold in stores only between 6:00 and 21:00
 Malta 17 [77] Must provide identification upon request.
 Moldova 18
 Montenegro None 18[butuh rujukan]
 Netherlands 18 If the person is under the age of 25, an identity card has to be shown before buying. Drinking in public is banned by local ordinance in most municipalities. Selling alcohol to underage customers carries a fine of €900–3,600.[butuh rujukan]
 Norway None[78] 18 (<22%)
20 (≥22% ABV)[2]
Selling alcohol to or buying alcohol for minors is illegal. Minors are defined as under 18 for beer and wine, under 20 for drinks that contain 22% ABV or more. Minors who buy alcohol are not held criminally responsible; instead, the crime lies with those who sold it or obtained it for them.

Alcohol may be sold in stores between 08:00 and 20:00 on weekdays, and Saturdays between 08:00 and 18:00. Alcoholic beverages containing more than 4,75 % ABV are sold in Vinmonopolet. In Vinmonopolet alcohol may be sold between 08:00 and 18:00 during week days, and between 08:00 and 15:00 the day before Sunday or religious holidays.

Alcohol with more than 60% ABV is generally not sold in Norway, although exceptions may be made by the government for specific products.[79]

Alcohol possessed by minors may be confiscated as evidence. Drinking in public is prohibited, though this is rarely enforced in recreational areas.[80]

 Poland None 18[81] Article 15 clearly states that buyers must be at least 18 and prove it with ID if they look like they may not be at least that age. Poland has no explicitly stated consumption age.
 Portugal 16 for beer and wine, 18 for spirits[82] Age for spirits increased to 18 in 2012.
 Romania None[83] 18 [84] Menurut hukum 61/1991 diperbarui pada tahun 2008, paragraf 21-25, adalah ilegal untuk melayani atau menjual alkohol kepada anak-anak. Undang-undang juga memberlakukan pembatasan melayani atau menjual alkohol di beberapa lokasi publik (taman, rumah sakit, sekolah, stadion, bandara, transportasi umum, dll) atau selama peristiwa-peristiwa tertentu (pemogokan, pertemuan-pertemuan publik, acara olahraga, dll)
 Russia None 18[85] There is no law or regulation in Russia that prohibits minors from consuming alcohol, but selling alcohol to minors is prohibited by federal and additional regional laws.
 Serbia 18
 Slowakia 18[butuh rujukan]
 Slovenia 18[2] Tidak ada hukum yang mengatur kepemilikan dan konsumsi, tetapi itu adalah ilegal untuk menjual atau menawarkan alkohol dalam bentuk apapun kepada anak di bawah umur. Juga, adalah ilegal untuk menjual alkohol di toko-toko 21:00-7:00, 10:00 di bar dan restoran. Undang-undang juga melarang alkohol untuk melayani pelanggan jelas mabuk serta kurang dari 1 jam sebelum dan selama acara olahraga.[butuh rujukan]
 Spain 18[2] 18 in most regions.[86] 16 in Asturias.[2]

It is illegal to sell alcohol to people under 18, the fine being between €30,000 and €600,000.[87] Stores are not allowed to sell alcohol between 10 p.m. and 9 a.m without a specific license, after a recent law was passed.[88]

 Sweden

None (drinking supervised in private "in moderation")
None (less than 2.25% ABV)
18 (bars and restaurants),
18 (2.25%–3.5% ABV in food shops),
20 (Systembolaget shops[89]),

See also alcohol in Sweden. Many clubs choose to have higher age limits than 18, commonly 20 or 23. It is legal to drink below 18, but it is illegal to sell, lend or give alcohol to someone under that age,[90] and the police can seize alcohol from them. The reason for lower limit in bars than in Systembolaget shops is that bartenders have a legal responsibility for how drunk a guest gets.
 Switzerland 16 for beer, wine and cider with less than 15% ABV; 18 for spirits[2] The canton Ticino prohibits selling and consumption of any type of alcohol by minors under the age of 18. Some shops and supermarkets may not sell alcohol to minors under the age of 18.[91]
 Ukraine 18[2]
 United Kingdom 18[2][92] Usia minimum untuk pembelian alkohol adalah 18.[92] Orang berusia <-! Tidak 14 NB, yang terus mendapatkan ditambahkan di sini. 2003 Undang-undang dicabut tahun 1964 bertindak, dan mengangkat 'dengan makan' usia 13-16. -> 16 atau 17 mungkin mengkonsumsi anggur, bir atau sari di lokal berlisensi ketika diperintahkan dengan makan.[1] In England and Wales, itu harus seorang dewasa yang memesan;[93] Namun, orang dewasa tidak harus hadir untuk memesan alkohol dengan makan di Skotlandia. Usia legal untuk pembelian alkohol dari off-licence (toko / supermarket) adalah 18. (Usia legal untuk membeli minuman keras cokelat adalah 16, tapi ini jarang ditegakkan.)[butuh rujukan]

It is illegal to give children under 5 alcohol unless under medical supervision or in an emergency (Children and Young Persons Act 1933, Children and Young Persons (Scotland) Act 1937).[94][95]

If you're five or over and under 16, there is no legal restriction on you drinking alcohol at home or on other private premises.[96]

Purchasing alcohol on behalf of a minor is illegal in all of the United Kingdom. This means acting as the young person's agent.[97][98]

Under the BBPA's Challenge 21 scheme, customers attempting to buy alcoholic beverages are asked to prove their age if in the retailer's opinion they look under 21 even though the law states they must be a minimum of 18. Many supermarket and off-licence chains display Challenge 21 notices stating that they will not serve persons who look under 21 without ID.

Supermarkets or off-licence chains that are found to have violated the law and have repeatedly sold alcohol to underage persons are then required to adopt the Challenge 25 scheme. Failing to adhere to this may result in revocation of the licence to sell alcohol. (Challenge 25 is standard procedure in Scotland and the main supermarket chains.)

Oceania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Negara / region De jure Catatan
Drinking age Purchase age
 American Samoa 21[butuh rujukan]
 Australia 18[2][99]
Bervariasi oleh negara bagian. Beberapa negara bagian membatasi kepemilikan dan konsumsi lebih dari 18, semua negara membatasi pembelian untuk lebih dari 18. Anak-anak dapat mengkonsumsi alkohol di kediaman pribadi dengan pengawasan orangtua.[100]
 Fiji 18[101] 21[101] Usia minum adalah 21 pada 2006-2009 tapi diturunkan menjadi 18 pada tahun 2009.[101]
 Guam 21[102]
 Micronesia, Federated States of 21[2]
 New Zealand 18[2][103] Usia minimum berlaku untuk minuman dengan 1,15% ABV atau lebih, tidak ada pembatasan pada minuman kurang dari 1,15% ABV.[104]
Orang di bawah 18 mungkin tidak minum di luar rumah pribadi atau fungsi pribadi kecuali ditemani oleh orang tua atau wali hukum mereka. Alkohol mungkin diberikan kepada anak-anak hanya oleh dan dengan izin dari orang tua atau wali hukum mereka, tetapi tidak ada host dewasa fungsi swasta dapat menyediakan alkohol.
 Northern Mariana Islands 21[butuh rujukan]
 Palau 21[2]
 Papua New Guinea 18[2]
 Samoa 18[2]
 Solomon Islands 21[2] None[2]
 Tonga 18[2] None[2]
 Tokelau 16[butuh rujukan]
 Vanuatu 18[2]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b c Drinking Age Limits - International Center for Alcohol Policies
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du "Minimum Age Limits Worldwide". International Center for Alcohol Policies. January 2010. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  3. ^ Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy, Egypt
  4. ^ a b "Global Status Report: Alcohol Policy - Country Profiles". World Health Organization. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  5. ^ http://country-facts.findthedata.org/l/147/Somalia
  6. ^ Department of Trade & Industry (26 April 2004). "The National Liquor Act, 59 of 2003" (PDF). Government Gazette 446 (26294). Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  7. ^ "Sale of alcohol to minors widespread in South Sudan - report". Sudan Tribune. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  8. ^ "Sudan: Country Specific Information". U.S. Department of State. 
  9. ^ Nkwame, Valentine Marc (24 January 2009). "Ugandans ‘drink like fish’". The Arusha Times. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  10. ^ "Ley Nacional De Lucha Contra El Alcoholismo" (dalam Spanish). 31 March 1997. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  11. ^ a b "Drinking Age in Canada". YourLaws.ca. January 2010. Diakses tanggal 2013-01-08. 
  12. ^ Manitoba Drinking Laws
  13. ^ Alberta Gaming and Liquor Act
  14. ^ Liquor Control Act (L-10), Section 137
  15. ^ Ontario Liquor Law Section 30.13
  16. ^ British Columbia Drinking Laws
  17. ^ "Legal Adult Age in Cuba". Havana Times. 
  18. ^ [1][pranala nonaktif]
  19. ^ "Experience Puerto Rico". Experience Puerto Rico. Diakses tanggal 2012-08-11. 
  20. ^ Exceptions to Minimum Age of 21 for Possession of Alcohol as of January 1, 2009, Alcohol Policy Information System
  21. ^ Judge: State law barring underage drinking is unconstitutional
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