Perang Pasifik

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Perang Pasifik
Bagian dari Perang Dunia II
Searah jarum jam dari kiri atas:

Marinir AS mengibarkan bendera di Iwo Jima, USS Bunker Hill setelah diserang oleh Kamikaze, Tentara India selama Kampanye Burma, Tentara Jepang di Tiongkok selama Operasi Ichi-Go, Awan jamur menutupi langit kota Nagasaki setelah Amerika Serikat menjatuhkan bom atom di kota tersebut

Tanggal7 Desember 1941 – 2 September 1945
(3 tahun, 8 bulan, 3 minggu dan 5 hari)[b][2]
Lokasi
Hasil

Kemenangan Sekutu

Perubahan
wilayah
  • Pendudukan Sekutu atas Jepang
  • Penarikan pasukan Jepang yang menduduki sebagian Tiongkok dan pengembalian Taiwan kepada pemerintah Tiongkok
  • Pembebasan Korea dan Manchuria dari kekuasaan Jepang, diikuti dengan pembagian Korea
  • Penyerahan pulau-pulau yang dikuasai Jepang di Samudra Pasifik kepada Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa
  • Uni Soviet menganeksasi Sakhalin Selatan dan Kepulauan Kuril yang sebelumnya dikuasai Jepang
  • Wilayah Perwalian Kepulauan Pasifik dibuat oleh Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa dan ditempatkan di bawah otoritas Amerika Serikat. Kemudian, Dewan Keamanan PBB mengakhiri wilayah perwalian secara bertahap dari 19861994, dengan AS mendapatkan wilayah Kepulauan Mariana Utara.
  • Pihak terlibat
    Blok Sekutu:
     Tiongkok[a]
     Amerika Serikat
     Britania Raya
    Blok Poros:
     Jepang
     Thailand
    Tokoh dan pemimpin
    Chiang Kai-shek
    Franklin D. Roosevelt[c]
    Winston Churchill[d]

    Hirohito

    Plaek Pibulsonggram
    Kekuatan
    Bendera Republik Tiongkok (1912–1949) 14,000,000[3]
    Bendera Amerika Serikat 3,621,383+ (1945)[nb 1]
    Bendera Britania Raya 400,000[8]
    Bendera Kemaharajaan Britania 2,000,000[8]
    Bendera Belanda 140,000[9][nb 2]
    Bendera Uni Soviet 1,747,465 (1945)[10]
    Bendera Kekaisaran Jepang 7,800,000-7,900,000 (1945)[11][12][13]
    Bendera Thailand 126,500[14]
    Bendera Manchukuo, Flag of the Republic of China-Nanjing (Peace, Anti-Communism, National Construction).svg, Bendera India dan negara boneka Jepang lainnya: ~1,000,000+ (1945)[15]
    Korban
    • Militer
      5 kapal perang
      11 kapal induk
      25 kapal penjelajah
      84 kapal perusak dan pengawal kapal perusak
      63 kapal selam[16]
      21,555+ pesawat[17]
      4,000,000+ tewas (1937–45)[nb 3]
    • Kematian warga sipil
      26,000,000+ (1937–45)[nb 4]
    • Militer
      11 kapal perang
      25 kapal induk
      39 kapal penjelajah
      135 kapal perusak
      131 kapal selam[35]
      43,125+ pesawat[36]
      2,500,000+ tewas (1937–45)[nb 5]
    • Kematian warga sipil
      1,000,000+[nb 6]
    • a Including its islands and neighboring countries.
    • b Partially and briefly.


    Perang Pasifik atau Perang Asia Pasifik, atau yang dikenal di Jepang dengan nama Perang Asia Timur Raya (Greater East Asia War (大東亜戦争, Dai Tō-A Sensō)) adalah perang yang terjadi di Samudra Pasifik, pulau-pulaunya, dan di Asia. Konflik ini terjadi antara tahun 1937 dan 1945. Namun peristiwa-peristiwa yang lebih penting terjadi setelah 7 Desember 1941, ketika Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor, Amerika Serikat serta koloni negara Sekutu di Asia dan Pasifik, yang membuat Amerika Serikat terlibat dalam Perang Dunia II bersama Sekutu.

    Perang Tiongkok-Jepang Kedua antara Kekaisaran Jepang dan Republik Tiongkok telah berlangsung sejak 7 Juli 1937, dengan permusuhan sejak 19 September 1931, karena Jepang melancarkan invasi ke Manchuria. Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> harus ditutup oleh </ref>}}[44] bahwa Perang Pasifik itu sendiri dimulai pada 7-8 Desember 1941, ketika Jepang menginvasi Thailand dan menyerang koloni Britania di Malaya, Singapura, dan Hong Kong serta serangan mendadak Jepang ke pangkalan militer dan Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat di Pearl Harbor, Pulau Wake, Guam, dan Filipina. [45] [46] [47]

    Peta politik wilayah Asia Pasifik, 1939

    Pada Perang Pasifik ini, terlihat gabungan pasukan Sekutu diadu melawan Jepang, yang terakhir dibantu oleh Thailand dan pada tingkat yang lebih rendah oleh negara sesama blok Poros seperti Jerman dan Italia. Pertempuran terdiri dari beberapa pertempuran laut terbesar dalam sejarah, dan pertempuran yang sangat sengit dan kejahatan perang di seluruh Asia dan Kepulauan Pasifik, yang mengakibatkan hilangnya nyawa manusia yang sangat besar. Perang terus memuncak dengan terjadinya serangan udara di Jepang, dan pengeboman atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, disertai dengan Pernyataan perang Uni Soviet terhadap Jepang, invasi Manchuria dan wilayah lain pada tanggal 9 Agustus 1945, menyebabkan Jepang mengumumkan niatnya untuk menyerah pada tanggal 15 Agustus 1945. Upacara resmi penyerahan Jepang berlangsung di atas kapal perang USS Missouri di Teluk Tokyo pada tanggal 2 September 1945. Setelah perang, Jepang kehilangan semua hak dan hak milik bekas kepemilikan di Asia dan Pasifik, dan kedaulatannya terbatas pada empat pulau utama dan pulau kecil lainnya sebagaimana ditentukan oleh Sekutu. [48]

    Akibat Perang Pasifik[sunting | sunting sumber]

    Berikut ini adalah beberapa akibat dari Perang Asia Pasifik yang terjadi antara tahun 1937 sampai 1945 ini:

    Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

    Sumber[sunting | sunting sumber]

    • Eric M. Bergerud, Fire in the Sky: The Air War in the South Pacific (2000)
    • Blair, Jr., Clay. Silent Victory. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975 (submarine war).
    • Bond, Brian; Tachikawa, Kyoichi (2004). British and Japanese Military Leadership in the Far Eastern War, 1941–1945 Volume 17 of Military History and Policy Series. Routledge. ISBN 9780714685557. 
    • Buell, Thomas. Master of Seapower: A Biography of Admiral Ernest J. King Naval Institute Press, 1976.
    • Buell, Thomas. The Quiet Warrior: A Biography of Admiral Raymond Spruance. 1974.
    • Ch'i, Hsi-Sheng (1992). "The Military Dimension, 1942–1945". Dalam James C. Hsiung and Steven I. Levine. China's Bitter Victory: War with Japan, 1937–45. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-246-5. 
    • Channel 4 (UK). Hell in the Pacific (television documentary series). 2001.
    • Costello, John. The Pacific War. 1982, overview
    • Craven, Wesley, and James Cate, eds. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. 1, Plans and Early Operations, January 1939 to August 1942. University of Chicago Press, 1958. Official history; Vol. 4, The Pacific: Guadalcanal to Saipan, August 1942 to July 1944. 1950; Vol. 5, The Pacific: Matterhorn to Nagasaki. 1953.
    • Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin; Bou, Jean (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (edisi ke-Second). Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195517849. 
    • Drea, Edward J. (1998). In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. 
    • Dunnigan, James F., and Albert A. Nofi. The Pacific War Encyclopedia. Facts on File, 1998. 2 vols. 772p.
    • Evans, David C; Peattie, Mark R (1997). Kaigun: strategy, tactics, and technology in the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1887–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-192-7. 
    • Gailey, Harry A. The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay (1995) online
    • Goldman, Stuart (2012). Nomonhan, 1939: The Red Army's Victory That Shaped World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-61251-098-1. 
    • Gordon, David M. "The China-Japan War, 1931–1945" Journal of Military History (January 2006) v 70#1, pp 137–82. Historiographical overview of major books
    • Seki, Eiji. (2006). Mrs. Ferguson's Tea-Set, Japan and the Second World War: The Global Consequences Following Germany's Sinking of the SS Automedon in 1940. London: Global Oriental. ISBN 978-1-905246-28-1 (cloth) (reprinted by University of Hawaii Press), Honolulu, 2007. previously announced as Sinking of the SS Automedon and the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation Diarsipkan 2008-06-03 di Wayback Machine..
    • Hara, Tameichi (2011). Japanese Destroyer Captain. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-384-0. 
    • Harrison, Simon (2012). Dark Trophies. Hunting and the Enemy Body in Modern War. New York City: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-0-85745-499-7. 
    • Hastings, Max (2008). Retribution. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0307263513. 
    • Saburo Hayashi and Alvin Coox. Kogun: The Japanese Army in the Pacific War. Quantico, Virginia: Marine Corps Assoc., 1959.
    • Hopkins, William B. (2010). The Pacific War: The Strategy, Politics, and Players that Won the War. Zenith Press. ISBN 0-76033-975-9. 
    • Hsiung, James C. and Steven I. Levine, eds. China's Bitter Victory: The War with Japan, 1937–1945 M. E. Sharpe, 1992
    • Hsi-sheng, Ch'i. Nationalist China at War: Military Defeats and Political Collapse, 1937–1945 University of Michigan Press, 1982
    • Hsu Long-hsuen and Chang Ming-kai, History of The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), 2nd Ed., 1971. Translated by Wen Ha-hsiung, Chung Wu Publishing; 33, 140th Lane, Tung-hwa Street, Taipei, Taiwan Republic of China.
    • Inoguchi, Rikihei, Tadashi Nakajima, and Robert Pineau. The Divine Wind. Ballantine, 1958. Kamikaze.
    • James, D. Clayton. The Years of MacArthur. Vol. 2. Houghton Mifflin, 1972.
    • Jansen, Marius B. (2002). The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00334-9. 
    • Jowett, Phillip (2005). Rays of the Rising Sun: Japan's Asian Allies 1931–1945 Volume 1: China and Manchukuo. Helion and Company Ltd. ISBN 1-874622-21-3. 
    • Kirby, S. Woodburn The War Against Japan. 4 vols. London: H.M.S.O., 1957–1965. Official Royal Navy history.
    • L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941–1942". 
    • Leary, William M. We Shall Return: MacArthur's Commanders and the Defeat of Japan. University Press of Kentucky, 1988.
    • Long, Gavin (1963). The Final Campaigns. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army. Volume 7. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 1297619. 
    • McCarthy, Dudley (1959). South-West Pacific Area – First Year. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 1 – Army. Volume 5. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. OCLC 3134247. 
    • McGibbon, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to New Zealand Military History. Auckland: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-558376-0. 
    • Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare 1941–1942, United States Army Center of Military History, Washington, D. C., 1990
    • Stille, Mark (2014). The Imperial Japanese Navy in the Pacific War. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-47280-146-6. 
    • Stevens, Keith (2005). "A Token Operation: 204 Military Mission to China, 1941–1945". Asian Affairs. Risk Management Reference Center, EBSCOhost. 36 (1): 66, 74. doi:10.1080/03068370500039151. 
    • Miller, Edward S. (2007). War Plan Orange: The U.S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897–1945. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-500-7. 
    • Peattie, Mark R (2007). Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power, 1909–1941. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-664-X. 
    • Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Vol. 3, The Rising Sun in the Pacific. Boston: Little, Brown, 1961; Vol. 4, Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Actions. 1949; Vol. 5, The Struggle for Guadalcanal. 1949; Vol. 6, Breaking the Bismarcks Barrier. 1950; Vol. 7, Aleutians, Gilberts, and Marshalls. 1951; Vol. 8, New Guinea and the Marianas. 1962; Vol. 12, Leyte. 1958; vol. 13, The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, the Visayas. 1959; Vol. 14, Victory in the Pacific. 1961.
    • Takemae, Eiji (2003). The Allied Occupation of Japan. Continuum Press. ISBN 0-82641-521-0. 
    • Masatake Okumiya, and Mitso Fuchida. Midway: The Battle That Doomed Japan. Naval Institute Press, 1955.
    • Potter, E. B. and Chester W. Nimitz. Triumph in the Pacific. Prentice Hall, 1963. Naval battles
    • Potter, E. B. Bull Halsey Naval Institute Press, 1985.
    • Potter, E. B. Nimitz. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1976.
    • Potter, John D.Yamamoto 1967.
    • Prange, Gordon W. Donald Goldstein, and Katherine Dillon. At Dawn We Slept. Penguin, 1982. Pearl Harbor
    • ——, et al. Miracle at Midway. Penguin, 1982.
    • ——, et al. Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History.
    • Sarantakes, Nicholas Evan. Allies against the Rising Sun: The United States, the British Nations, and the Defeat of Imperial Japan (2009). 458pp.
    • Seki, Eiji (2007). Sinking of the SS Automedon And the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 1-905246-28-5. 
    • Shaw, Henry, and Douglas Kane. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Vol. 2, Isolation of Rabaul. Washington, D.C.: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1963
    • Shaw, Henry, Bernard Nalty, and Edwin Turnbladh. History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Vol. 3, Central Pacific Drive. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1953.
    • E.B. Sledge, With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawa. Presidio, 1981. Memoir.
    • Smith, J. Douglas, and Richard Jensen. World War II on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites. (2002)
    • Ronald Spector, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War with Japan Free Press, 1985.
    • John Toland, The Rising Sun. 2 vols. Random House, 1970. Japan's war.
    • Ian W. Toll. Pacific Crucible: War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942 (2011)
    • Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-923-0. 
    • Willmott Empires in the Balance. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1982.
    • Willmott, H.P. The Barrier and the Javelin. Annapolis: United States Naval Institute Press, 1983.
    • Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44317-2. (2005).
    • Y'Blood, William. Red Sun Setting: The Battle of the Philippine Sea. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1980.
    • Yenne, Bill (2014). The Imperial Japanese Army: The Invincible Years 1941–42. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-78200-982-5. 
    • Harries, Meirion; Harries, Susie (1994). Soldiers of the Sun : The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-679-75303-6. 
    • Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, The Soviet factor in ending the Pacific War (2003)
    Sumber primer
    • United States War Department. TM 30-480 Handbook On Japanese Military Forces, 1942 (1942) online; 384pp; highly detailed description of wartime IJA by U.S. Army Intelligence.

    Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

    Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

    Templat:States in the sphere of influence of Imperial Japan during World War II

    1. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Hsi-sheng1992
    2. ^ Sun, Youli (15 September 1996). China and the Origins of the Pacific War, 1931–41. Palgrave MacMillan. hlm. 11. ISBN 9780312164546. 
    3. ^ Hastings pg. 205
    4. ^ Coakley and Leighton (1989). Global Logistics and Strategy 1943–1945 pg. 836
    5. ^ US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Table 9.
    6. ^ King, Ernest J. (1945). Third Report to the Secretary of the Navy pg. 221
    7. ^ US Navy Personnel in World War II Service and Casualty Statistics, Naval History and Heritage Command Footnote 2.
    8. ^ a b Hastings pg. 10
    9. ^ "Chapter 10: Loss of the Netherlands East Indies". The Army Air Forces in World War II: Vol. 1 – Plans & Early Operations. HyperWar. Diakses tanggal 31 August 2010. 
    10. ^ Cherevko, "Hammer and Sickle against Samurai Sword" ch. 7 table 7. Combined ground, air, anti-air, and naval personnel.
    11. ^ Cook (1992). Japan at War: an Oral History. New Press. ISBN 978-1-56584-039-3.  pp. 403. Japanese strength is given at 4,335,500 in the Home Islands and 3,527,000 abroad.
    12. ^ Harrison pp. 29 Retrieved 10 March 2016
    13. ^ Australia-Japan Research Project, "Dispositions and Deaths" Retrieved 10 March 2016
    14. ^ Meyer, Milton Walter (1997). Asia: A Concise History. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. hlm. 309. ISBN 9780847680634. 
    15. ^ Jowett, pp. 72
    16. ^ www.navsource.org Retrieved 25 July 2015; www.uboat.net Retrieved 25 July 2015; Major British Warship Losses in World War II. Retrieved 25 July 2015; Chinese Navy Retrieved 26 July 2015.
    17. ^ Hara, Tameichi, with Fred Saito and Roger Pineau. Japanese Destroyer Captain (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2011), p. 299. Figure is for U.S. losses only. China, the British Commonwealth, the USSR and other nations collectively add several thousand more to this total.
    18. ^ a b "Chinese People Contribute to WWII". Diakses tanggal 23 April 2009. 
    19. ^ "United States Dept. of the Army, Army Battle Casualties and Non Battle Deaths in World War II". Cgsc.cdmhost.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 12 May 2010. Diakses tanggal 2011-06-15. 
    20. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p 585
    21. ^ Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2013-2014, page 44. Figures include identified burials and those commemorated by name on memorials.
    22. ^ a b c Dower, John William (1987), War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon
    23. ^ Dear, I.C.B and Foot, M.R.D. (editors) (2005). "Australia". The Oxford Companion to World War II. Oxford: Oxford University Press. hlm. 66. ISBN 978-0-19-280670-3. 
    24. ^ Gruhl, Werner (2007). Imperial Japan's World War Two. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. hlm. 65. ISBN 9780765803528. 
    25. ^ "Honouring NZ's Pacific War dead". Beehive. 15 August 2005. Diakses tanggal 31 October 2010. 
    26. ^ "Russia and USSR in Wars of the 20th Century". И.И.Ивлев. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 May 2008. Diakses tanggal 11 July 2008. 
    27. ^ "Leyte Gulf: The Mexican Air Force". Avalanche Press. Diakses tanggal 1 December 2015. 
    28. ^ "Science and the Pacific War: Science and Survival in the Pacific, 1939–1945". Roy M. MacLeod (2000). p. 51. ISBN 0-7923-5851-1
    29. ^ "Vietnam needs to remember famine of 1945". Mailman.anu.edu.au. Diakses tanggal 31 October 2010. 
    30. ^ Amartya Sen (1981). Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation. London: Oxford University Press. hlm. 203. ISBN 9780195649543. 
    31. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 143-144
    32. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p. 556
    33. ^ McLynn, The Burma Campaign: Disaster into Triumph, 1942–1945, pg. 1.
    34. ^ Ruas, Óscar Vasconcelos, "Relatório 1946-47", AHU
    35. ^ Hara, p. 297.
    36. ^ Hara, p. 299. Figure is for Japanese aircraft only.
    37. ^ Bren, John (3 June 2005) "Yasukuni Shrine: Ritual and Memory" Japan Focus. Retrieved on 5 June 2009.
    38. ^ R. J. Rummel. China's Bloody Century. Transaction 1991 ISBN 0-88738-417-X. Table 5A
    39. ^ Eiji Murashima, "The Commemorative Character of Thai Historiography: The 1942–43 Thai Military Campaign in the Shan States Depicted as a Story of National Salvation and the Restoration of Thai Independence" Modern Asian Studies, v40, n4 (2006) pp. 1053–1096, p1057n:
    40. ^ Michael Clodfelter. Warfare and Armed Conflicts – A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. 2nd Ed. 2002 ISBN 0-7864-1204-6. p 556
    41. ^ STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE: Chapter 13: Death By American Bombing, RJ Rummel, University of Hawaii.
    42. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 19
    43. ^ E. Bruce Reynolds, "Aftermath of Alliance: The Wartime Legacy in Thai-Japanese Relations", Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, v21, n1, March 1990, pp. 66–87. "An OSS document (XL 30948, RG 226, USNA) quotes Thai Ministry of Interior figures of 8,711 air raids deaths in 1944–45 and damage to more than 10,000 buildings, most of them totally destroyed. However, an account by M. R. Seni Pramoj (a typescript entitled 'The Negotiations Leading to the Cessation of a State of War with Great Britain' and filed under Papers on World War II, at the Thailand Information Center, Chulalongkorn University, p. 12) indicates that only about 2,000 Thai died in air raids."
    44. ^ Sun, Youli (15 September 1996). China and the Origins of the Pacific War, 1931–41. Palgrave MacMillan. hlm. 11. ISBN 9780312164546. 
    45. ^ Drea 1998, hlm. 26.
    46. ^ John Costello, The Pacific War: 1941–1945 , Harper Perennial, 1982
    47. ^ Japan Economic Foundation, Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry, Volume 16 , 1997
    48. ^ Takemae 2003, hlm. 516.


    Kesalahan pengutipan: Ditemukan tag <ref> untuk kelompok bernama "lower-alpha", tapi tidak ditemukan tag <references group="lower-alpha"/> yang berkaitan
    Kesalahan pengutipan: Ditemukan tag <ref> untuk kelompok bernama "nb", tapi tidak ditemukan tag <references group="nb"/> yang berkaitan