Daftar pengatur bahasa

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Lompat ke: navigasi, cari

Halaman ini berisi sebuah daftar badan-badan yang mengatur bahasa baku dari suatu bahasa, biasanya badan tersebut disebut Akademi Bahasa. Akademi / Badan Bahasa tersebut didorong atau berhubungan dekat dengan Purisme bahasa, dan biasanya menerbitkan Kamus,[1] yang maksudnya adalah untuk menjelaskan apakah keresmian sebuah kata, serta menjelaskan makna dan pelafalan kata. Sebuah pengatur bahasa juga dapat menjelaskan ejaan resmi dan menjaga, bukan memaksakan sebuah ejaan misalnya.

Bahasa Alami[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa Wilayah Pengatur
Afrikaans  Afrika Selatan Die Taalkommissie
Akan  Ghana Komite Ortografi Akan
Albania  Albania Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Albania, Tirana
Arab  Aljazair
 Suriah
 Mesir
 Yordania
 Maroko
 Irak
 Tunisia
 Sudan
 Israel
 Somalia
Akademi Bahasa Arab; Aljazair, Suriah, Mesir, Somalia, Yordania, Maroko, Irak, Tunisia, Sudan, Israel
Majelis Internasional Bahasa Arab
Aragon  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spanyol
Armenia  Armenia Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Armenia
Assam Bendera India Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturia  Asturias Akademi bahasa Asturia (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azeri  Azerbaijan Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Azerbaijan
Bengali  Bangladesh Akademi Bangla (বাংলা একাডেমী)
Bendera India Benggala Barat Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Basque Bendera País Vasco País Vasco Euskaltzaindia, seringkali diterjemahkan sebagai Akademi Kerajaan Bahasa Basque
Belarus  Belarus Institut Bahasa dan Literatur Jakub Kolas dan Janka Kupala[2] di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Nasional Belarus
Berber atau Tamazight  Maroko Institut Kerajaan Kebudayaan Amazight (IRCAM)
 Aljazair HCA
Bulgaria  Bulgaria Institut Bahasa Bulgaria di Akademi Ilmu Pengetahuan Bulgaria
Myanmar  Myanmar Komisi Bahasa Myanmar
Catalan  Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
 Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano  Filipina Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters
Mandarin Chinese  Republik Rakyat Tiongkok State Language and Letters Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
 Republik Tiongkok (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
 Singapura Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
 Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish Templat:Country data Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian  Kroasia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Czech  Republik Ceko Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) — Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky)
Danish  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Bendera Swedia Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari  Afganistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi  Maladewa Dhivehi Academy
Dutch  Belanda
 Belgia
 Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha  Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission
Estonian  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese  Kepulauan Faroe Faroese Language Board (Føroyska málnevndin)
Filipino  Filipina Commission on the Filipino Language
Finnish  Finlandia Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French  Perancis Académie française (French Academy)
 Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician  Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega, official)
German  Jerman
 Austria
  Swiss
Templat:Country data South Tyrol
 Belgium
 Liechtenstein
 Luxembourg
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenland  Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek  Greece
 Cyprus
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Haitian Creole  Haiti Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle (Haitian department of education)[butuh rujukan]
Hebrew  Israel The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi  India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar  India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[butuh rujukan]
Hungarian  Hongaria Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic  Islandia Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian  Indonesia Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Irish  Republik Irlandia
 Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian  Italia
Templat:RSM
  Swiss
 Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese  Jepang No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada Bendera India Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian  Polandia Commission of the Kashubian Language (Radzëzna Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka[pranala nonaktif])
Kazakh  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Korean  Korea Selatan The National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원)
Kven  Norwegia Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz  Kirgizstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Ladino  Israel Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (National Authority of Ladino) [2]
Latin  Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (Latin in the Roman Catholic Church)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian  Lituania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian  Makedonia Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик „Крсте Мисирков“, Institut za makedonski jazik „Krste Misirkov“)
Malay  Malaysia
 Brunei
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Malayalam Bendera India Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx  Pulau Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori  Selandia Baru Māori Language Commission
Mirandese  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec  Meksiko Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Mongolian  Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Nepali    Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk)  Norwegia Norwegian Language Council
Occitan  Perancis
 Spanyol
  Monako
 Italia
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[3]
Pashto  Afganistan
 Pakistan
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy
Persian  Iran
 Tajikistan
 Afganistan
 Uzbekistan
Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Polish  Polandia Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)
Portuguese  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
 Brasil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
Quechua  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian  Rumania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
 Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian  Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
 Rusia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots  Skotlandia The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[6]
Scottish Gaelic  Skotlandia Bòrd na Gàidhlig maintains the national plan for Gaelic, to promote its use and make Gaelic culture accessible
Secwepemctsín  Kanada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin  Serbia
 Montenegro
Bendera Republika Srpska (Bendera Bosnia dan Herzegovina B & H)
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi  Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [4]
Sinhala  Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak  Slowakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali Bendera Somalia Somalia Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education
Sorbian  Jerman Serbski institut [5]
Spanish  Spain
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 Mexico
 El Salvador
 Venezuela
 Chile
 Peru
 Guatemala
 Costa Rica
 Filipina
 Panama
 Cuba
 Paraguay
 Dominican Republic
 Bolivia
 Nicaragua
 Argentina
 Uruguay
 Honduras
 Puerto Rico
 United States
Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 21 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world)
Swahili  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
 Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish  Swedia Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
 Finlandia Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil Bendera India Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
Tatar  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu Bendera India Andhra Pradesh Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum  Timor Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai  Thailand Royal Institute of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน)
Turkish  Turki Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian  Ukraina National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Urdu  Pakistan
 India
National Language Authority, Pakistan
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo language  Nigeria [Urhobo Studies Association]
Võro  Estonia Võro Institute
Waray-Waray  Filipina Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian  Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish  United States
 Swedia
 Rusia
YIVO [6]
Yoruba  Nigeria The Yoruba Academy

Bahasa Pembantu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Interlingua[sunting | sunting sumber]

Interlingua tidak memiliki sebuah badan pengatur, karena kosa kata, tatabahasa, dan ortografinya dipandang sebagai sebuah produk dari kekuatan sosial yang sedang berlangsung. Karena itulah Interlingua berkembang secara bebas dari pengatur apapun. Kosa kata Interlingua telah diperiksa dan didata secara dinamis dan menerapkan prinsip-prinsip umum tertentu untuk sebuah bahasa alami dan etimologinya.

Bahasa Buatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa-bahasa seperti Esperanto dan Ido telah dibuat atau dicanangkan oleh seseorang atau sebuah kelompok, sebelum diadopsi dan dikembangkan oleh komunitas pengguna. Badan-badan seperti Akademio de Esperanto melihat pertanyaan akan penggunaan ringan akan tujuan dan dasar asli bahasa tersebut.

Bahasa Pengatur
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Klingon Marc Okrand
Lojban Logical Language Group
Talossa Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca, ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets like Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks – as with so many academies to follow – was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Diakses tanggal 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ... 
  3. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis - Index". Vatican.va. 2012-11-10. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ [1][pranala nonaktif]
  5. ^ Scots language Centre
  6. ^ Scottish Language Dictionaries