Dua-jiwa

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Jump to navigation Jump to search
PawaiThe two spirit contingent marches at San Francisco Pride 2014.

Dua-jiwa (juga dua jiwa) adalah sebuah istilah payung, modern, dan pan-Indian yang digunakan oleh beberapa penduduk asli Amerika Utara untuk menjelaskan orang tertentu dalam komunitas mereka yang memenuhi peran seremonial gender ketiga tradisional (atau varian gender lainnya) dalam budaya mereka.[1][2][3] Banyak orang salah mengaitkannya dengan istilah "Pribumi LGBT", istilah dan identitas dua-jiwa "tidak masuk akal" kecuali dalam konteks kerangka Pribumi Amerika atau Bangsa-Bangsa Pertama dan pemahaman budaya tradisional. Istilah ini digunakan setelah kesepakatan pada tahun 1990 dalam sebuah pertemuan internasional lesbian dan gay pribumi yang mendorong penggantian istilah antropologis berdache yang sudah ketinggalan zaman dan kurang pantas.[4][5][6][7]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Estrada, Gabriel (2011). "Two Spirits, Nádleeh, and LGBTQ2 Navajo Gaze". American Indian Culture and Research Journal. 35 (4): 167–190. doi:10.17953/aicr.35.4.x500172017344j30. 
  2. ^ "A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out". The New York Times. 8 Oct 2006. Diakses tanggal 28 July 2016. 'The elders will tell you the difference between a gay Indian and a Two-Spirit,' [Criddle] said, underscoring the idea that simply being gay and Indian does not make someone a Two-Spirit. 
  3. ^ Pruden, Harlan; Edmo, Se-ah-dom (2016). "Two-Spirit People: Sex, Gender & Sexuality in Historic and Contemporary Native America" (PDF). National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center. 
  4. ^ "A Spirit of Belonging, Inside and Out". The New York Times. 8 Oct 2006. Diakses tanggal 28 July 2016. 
  5. ^ "Two Spirit 101 Archived 2014-12-10 at the Wayback Machine." at NativeOut: "The Two Spirit term was adopted in 1990 at an Indigenous lesbian and gay international gathering to encourage the replacement of the term berdache, which means, 'passive partner in sodomy, boy prostitute.'" Accessed 23 Sep 2015
  6. ^ Pember, Mary Annette (Oct 13, 2016). "'Two Spirit' Tradition Far From Ubiquitous Among Tribes". Rewire. Diakses tanggal Oct 17, 2016. Non-Native anthropologist Will Roscoe gets much of the public credit for coining the term two spirit. However, according to Kristopher Kohl Miner of the Ho-Chunk Nation, Native people such as anthropologist Dr. Wesley Thomas of the Dine or Navajo tribe also contributed to its creation. (Thomas is a professor in the School of Dine and Law Studies.) 
  7. ^ Medicine, Beatrice (August 2002). "Directions in Gender Research in American Indian Societies: Two Spirits and Other Categories". Online Readings in Psychology and Culture. International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. 3 (1): 7. doi:10.9707/2307-0919.1024. ISSN 2307-0919. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2012-12-08. Diakses tanggal 2016-06-25. At the Wenner Gren conference on gender held in Chicago, May, 1994... the gay American Indian and Alaska Native males agreed to use the term "Two Spirit" to replace the controversial "berdache" term. The stated objective was to purge the older term from anthropological literature as it was seen as demeaning and not reflective of Native categories. Unfortunately, the term "berdache" has also been incorporated in the psychology and women studies domains, so the task for the affected group to purge the term looms large and may be formidable.