Monako

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Motto"Deo Juvante"
"Dengan Bantuan Tuhan"
Lagu kebangsaanHymne Monégasque
Inggris: Monégasque Anthem

Peta lokasi  Monako  (Hijau)

di Eropa  (Abu-abu gelap)  —  [Legenda]

Ibu kota Monaco[a]
43°43′LU 7°25′BT / 43,717°LU 7,417°BT / 43.717; 7.417
Quartier terbesar Monte Carlo
Bahasa resmi Perancis[1]
Bahasa
Kelompok etnik 
Demonim
  • Monegasque
  • Monacans[c]
Pemerintahan Kesatuan konstitutional kepangeranan
 -  Pangeran Albert II
 -  Menteri Negara Michel Roger
 -  Presiden Dewan Nasional Jean-François Robillon
Legislatif Dewan Nasional
Kemerdekaan
 -  Rumah Grimaldi 1297 
 -  Perjanjian Franco-Monegasque 1861 
 -  Konstitusi 1911 
 -  Perjanjian Franco-Monegasque 2002 
Luas
 -  Total 2.02 km2 (ke-248)
 -  Perairan (%) dapat diabaikan[2]
Penduduk
 -  Perkiraan 2011 36,371[3] (ke-217)
 -  Sensus 2008 35.352[2] 
 -  Kepadatan 15.142/km2 (ke-1)
PDB (KKB) Perkiraan 2010[b]
 -  Total $4.694 billion[4][5] (ke-156)
 -  Per kapita $132.571[4][5] (ke-1)
PDB (nominal) Perkiraan 2010[b]
 -  Total $5.424 billion[4] (ke-148)
 -  Per kapita $153.177[4] (ke-1)
IPM (1997) 0,946 (ke-1)
Mata uang Euro () (EUR)
Zona waktu CET (UTC+1)
 -  Musim panas (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Lajur kemudi kanan[6]
Ranah Internet .mc
Kode telepon +377

Monako /ˈmɒnək/, secara resmi Kepangeranan Monako (bahasa Perancis: Principauté de Monaco (pengucapan bahasa Perancis: [prɛ̃.si.po.te.d(ə).mɔ.na'ko]) ; Monégasque: Principatu de Múnegu; bahasa Italia: Principato di Monaco; bahasa Occitan: Principat de Mónegue), adalah sebuah negara kota berdaulat, yang terletak di Côte d'Azur di Eropa Barat. Berbatasan dengan Perancis di tiga sisi, dan satu sisi berbatasan dengan Laut Tengah, pusatnya adalah sekitar 16 km (9.9 mil) dari Italia, dan hanya 13 km (8.1 mil) dari timur laut Nice, Perancis.[7] Monako mempunyai luas wilayah 202 km2 (78 mil²),[8] dan populasi sebesar 36,371,[3] dan membuat Monako menjadi negara kedua terkecil, dan paling padat penduduk di dunia.[9] Monako mempunyai perbatasan darat hanya 44 km (27 mil), dan garis pantai 41 km (25 mil), dan lebar yang bervariasi antara 17 km (11 mil), dan 349 meter (382 yard).[10][11] Titik tertinggi dari negara ini adalah jalur sempit yang bernama Chemin des Révoires di lereng gunung Mont Agel, di distrik Les Révoires, yang tingginya 161 meter (528 feet) di bawah permukaan laut.[12] Quartier terpadat di Monako adalah Monte Carlo, dan Ward terpadat adalah Larvotto/Bas Moulins.[8] Monaco terkenal dengan reklamasi tanahnya, yang telah meningkat ukurannya sekitar 20%. Proyek reklamasi tanah yang sekarang meliputi, memperluas distrik Fontvieille sekitar 008 km2 (3.1 mil²) atau 8 ha (19.8 akre).[13][14][15][16][17]

Monako adalah sebuah kepangeranan yang diatur dalam monarki konstitusional, dengan Pangeran Albert II sebagai kepala negara.[18] Meskipun Pangeran Albert II adalah raja konstitutional, ia masih punya kekuatan politik yang sangat besar.[19] Rumah Grimaldi telah memerintah Monako, dengan interupsi singkat, sejak 1297.[20] Bahasa resminya adalah Perancis, tetapi Monégasque, Italia, dan Inggris banyak dituturkan dan dimengerti secara luas.[note 1] Kedaulatan negara secara resmi diakui dalam Perjanjian Franco-Monegasque (1861), dengan Monako menjadi anggota voting penuh PBB pada tahun 1993, setelah banyak perdebatan politik.[9] Meskipun kemerdekaan Monaco dan kebijakan luar negeri yang terpisah, pertahanan adalah tanggung jawab Perancis.[21] Meskipun demikian, Monako tetap mempertahakan dua unit militer, berjumlah 263 orang, Corps des Sapeurs-Pompiers, dan Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince.[22][23]

Pembangunan ekonomi Monako didorong pada akhir abad ke-19 dengan kereta api menuju Perancis, dan pembukaan kasino pertama, Monte Carlo.[24] Sejak itu, iklim yang nyaman, pemandangan yang indah, dan fasilitas perjudian telah membuat Monako terkenal di dunia sebagai wisata, dan pusat rekreasi untuk orang kaya dan terkenal.[11][25] Namun, dalam beberapa tahun terakhir Monako telah menjadi pusat perbankan utama yang memegang lebih dari dana senilai 100 miliar,[26] dan telah berhasil berupaya untuk mendiversifikasi ekonominya ke Layanan dan kecil, nilai tambah tinggi, dan industri non-polusi.[27] The state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.[28] Monako menjadi GDP nominal per kapita tertinggi di dunia, $ 153.177,[4] GDP PPP per kapita at $132.571,[4] and GNI per capita at $183,150.[29][30][31] Monaco also has the world's highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years,[32] and the lowest unemployment rate at 0%,[33] with over 48,000 workers who commute from France and Italy each day.[8][34] For the fourth year in a row, Monaco in 2012 had the world's most expensive real estate market, at $58,300 per square metre.[35][36][37] According to the CIA World Factbook, Monaco has the world's lowest poverty rate,[27] and the highest number of millionaires and billionaires per capita in the world.[38][39]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Place d'Armes di La Condamine.
Patung François Grimaldi, "il Malizia" ("yang licik"), menyamar sebagai pendeta dengan belati tersembunyi di bawah jubahnya

Nama Monako datang dari sekitar abad ke-6 SM koloni Yunani Phokaia. Mengacu dari bahasa Liguria Monoikos, dari bahasa Yunani "μόνοικος", "satu rumah", dari "μόνος" (monos) "sendiri" [40] + "οἶκος" (oikos) "rumah",[41] yang menanggung rasa orang-orang baik menetap di "satu tempat tinggal" atau "hidup terpisah" dari orang lain. Menurut mitos kuno, Hercules melewati daerah Monako dan mengusir para dewa sebelumnya.[42] Hasilnya, sebuah kuil dibangun di sana, kuil Herkules Monoikos. Karena satu-satunya candi di daerah ini adalah "Rumah" Hercules, kota ini disebut Monoikos.[43][44]

Setelah penghibahan tanah dari Kaisar Henry VI pada 1191, Monako didirikan kembali pada tahun 1215 sebagai koloni Genoa.[45][46] Monaco pertama kali diperintah oleh Rumah Grimaldi pada tahun 1297, ketika Francesco Grimaldi, yang dikenal sebagai "Il Malizia" (diterjemahkan dari bahasa Italia baik sebagai "si berbahaya" atau "si licik"), dan anak buahnya menangkap benteng melindungi Batu Monako dan berpakaian sebagai biarawan Fransiskan- sebuah Monako dalam bahasa Italia, meskipun ini adalah kebetulan karena daerah tersebut sudah dikenal dengan nama ini.[47] Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genovese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century.[48][49]

Pada 1419, Grimaldi membeli Monako dari mahkota Aragon dan menjadi penguasa resmi dan tak terbantahkan dari "Batu Monako", dan pada tahun 1612 Honore II mulai menggelari dirinya sebagai "Pangeran" dari Monako.[50] In the 1630s, Honore II sought French protection against the Spanish forces and was eventually, in 1642, received at the court of Louis XIII as "Duc et Pair Etranger".[51] The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes.[52] As successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and through marriages with French nobilities, the House of Grimaldi, though Italian in origin, became thoroughly French in character.[53] The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.[54]

Pada 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldis returned to the throne.[51] The principality was reestablished that year, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.[55] Monaco remained in this position until 1860 when, by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy) was ceded to France.[56] Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Prior to this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldis. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia, France protested. The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns, (some 95% of the principality at the time) which had been ruled by the Grimaldis for over 500 years.[57] These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs.[58] The transfer and Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents—an indulgence the Grimaldis could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino.[59] This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favoured place for them to live.[60]

Abad ke-20[sunting | sunting sumber]

Hingga Revolusi Monegasque of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers.[61] The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldis and in any case Albert I soon suspended it.

During World War Monaco was officially neutral. Despite this by declaration, hospitals and convalescent home were established for Allied soldiers in the principality’s hotels. French crew of Hirondelle II(prince yacht) had to respond to the mobilization order, ship at sea was set on a direct course to Monaco. Prince Louis returned to active duty in the French Army as Captain of Cavalry in the 5th Army(under General Franchet d’Esperey). Prince Albert in August 1914 suspended the constitution to allow rule by decree. On 17 November 1917, under pressure from French press and more confidency of Allied victory constitution was reinstituted. In fact there was no directly known war operations in Monaco, with the notable events like The Monte Carlo Opera presenting the premier performance of Giacomo Puccini’s romantic opera La Rondine.[62]

In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis.[63]

In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a Fascist administration.[53] Shortly thereafter, following the collapse of Mussolini, the German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and the Nazi deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum (Paris, 13 March 1878 – Auschwitz, 30 April 1943), the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside Paris, thence he was then transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was later killed.[64] Blum's colleague Raoul Gunsbourg, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the French Resistance, escaped arrest and fled to Switzerland.[65]

Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.[66]

A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties. In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.[56] In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.[67]

On 31 March 2005, Prince Rainier III, too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Prince Albert II.[68] Prince Rainier died on 6 April 2005 after a reign of 56 years. His son Prince Albert II succeeded him and was thereafter titled Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.[69]

Following a period of official mourning, Prince Albert II formally assumed the princely crown on 12 July 2005,[70] in a celebration that began with a solemn Mass at Saint Nicholas Cathedral, where his father had been buried three months earlier. His accession to the Monegasque throne was a two-step event, with a further ceremony, drawing heads of state for an elaborate Levée, held on 18 November 2005, at the historic Prince's Palace in Monaco-Ville.[71]

Pemerintahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monako telah diatur di bawah monarki konstitusional sejak tahun 1911, dengan Pangeran Monako sebagai kepala negara. Badan eksekutif terdiri dari Menteri Negara sebagai kepala pemerintahan, yang memimpin lima anggota dewan pemerintahan.[72] Hingga 2002, menteri negara adalah warga negara Perancis yang ditunjuk oleh pangeran dari calon yang diajukan oleh pemerintah Perancis, sejak amandemen konstitusi tahun 2002, menteri negara dapat berupa orang Perancis ataupun Monegasque[45] Namun, pada tanggal 3 Maret 2010, Pangeran Albert II mengangkat seorang Perancis bernama Michel Roger sebagai menteri negara.[73]

Berdasarkan konstitusi 1962, pangeran berbagi hak vetonya dengan Dewan Nasional.[74] 24 anggota dewan nasional dipilih untuk masa jabatan lima tahun; 16 yang dipilih melalui sistem pemilihan mayoritas dan 8 oleh perwakilan proporsional.[75] Semua undang-undang memerlukan persetujuan dari dewan nasional, yang saat ini didominasi oleh Uni Monako (UPM), yang berpusat-kanan yang memegang dua puluh satu kursi.[75] Satu-satunya partai lain yang diwakili di dewan nasional adalah Reli dan Isu untuk Monako (REM), yang bersayap-kanan yang memegang hanya tiga kursi.[75] Urusan kota Monako diarahkan oleh Dewan Komunal,[76] yang terdiri dari empat belas anggota yang dipilih dan dipimpin oleh walikota.[77] Berbeda dengan Dewan Nasional, anggota dewan yang dipilih untuk masa empat tahun,[78] adalah non-partisan secara ketat, bagaimanapun, oposisi di dalam dewan sering dibentuk.[76][79]

Pembagian administratif[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ikhtisar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ward Monako.

Monako adalah negara kedua terkecil di dunia (berdasarkan ukuran) di dunia; hanya Vatikan yang lebih kecil.[80][81] Monako juga merupakan negara monarki kedua terkecil di dunia[82] dan paling padat di dunia.[83] Monako hanya memiliki satu munisipalitas.[84] Tidak ada perbedaan geografis antara negara dan kota Monako, meskipun tanggung jawab pemerintah (tingkat negara) dan dari munisipalitas (tingkat kota) berbeda.[73] Berdasarkan konstituti pada tahun 1911, Monako dibagi menjadi tiga munisipalitas:[85]

Munisipalitas itu digabung menjadi satu pada tahun 1917, setelah tuduhan bahwa pemerintah bertindak sesuai dengan motto "membagi dan menaklukkan" dan mereka diberikan status sebagai ward atau quartiers.[86]

  • Fontvieille, ditambahkan sebagai ward keempat, daerah yang baru dibangun dari reklamasi tanah pada tahun 1970-an;
  • Moneghetti, menjadi ward kelima, dibuat dari sebagian La Condamine;
  • Larvotto, menjadi ward keenam, dibuat dari sebagian Monte Carlo;
  • La Rousse/Saint Roman (termasuk Le Ténao), menjadi ward ketujuh, juga dibuat dari sebagian Monte Carlo.
Di depan adalah La Condamine, ke kanan dengan pelabuhan kecil Fontvieille, dengan "Batu" (kota tua, benteng, dan istana) yang menonjol keluar antara dua pelabuhan, ke kiri dengan bangunan bertingkat tinggi La Rousse/Saint Roman.

Selanjutnya, ada tiga ward tambahan dibuat:

Sebuah ward tambahan direncanakan akan direklamasi dari lahan baru yang diselesaikan awal tahun 2014;[87] tetapi Pangeran Albert II mengumumkan dalam pidato tahun baru 2009 bahwa ia telah mengakhiri rencana karena iklim ekonomi saat itu.[88] Namun, Pangeran Albert II pada pertengahan 2010 dengan tegas memulai kembali program tersebut.[89][90]

Quartier tradisional dan area geografis baru[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keempat quartiers tradisional Monako adalah: Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo dan Fontvieille.[91][92] Namun, Moneghetti, bagian tingkat tinggi dari La Condamine, umumnya dipandang sebagai Quartier efektif kelima dari Monako, yang memiliki suasana yang sangat berbeda dan topografi bila dibandingkan dengan La Condamine.[93]

Ward[sunting | sunting sumber]

Saat ini Monako dibagi menjadi sepuluh Ward, dengan angka resmi mereka, baik Fontvieille II atau Le Portier, akan menjadi ward efektif yang kesebelas, jika dibangun:[90][94][95]

No. Ward Area
(km²)
Populasi
(Sensus
tahun 2008)
Kepadatan
(km²)
Blok Kota
(îlots)
Keterangan
Bekas munisipalitas Monaco
05 Monaco-Ville 0.19 1,034 5597 19 Kota Tua
Bekas munisipalitas Monte Carlo
01 Monte Carlo/Spélugues (Bd. Des Moulins-Av. de la Madone) 0.30 3,834 10779 20 Area resor dan kasino
02 La Rousse/Saint Roman (Annonciade-Château Périgord) 0.13 3,223 30633 17 daerah timur laut, termasuk Le Ténao
03 Larvotto/Bas Moulins (Larvotto-Bd Psse Grace) 0.34 5,443 16570 17 Area pantai timur
10 Saint Michel (Psse Charlotte-Park Palace) 0.16 3,907 26768 24 Area pemukiman tengah
Bekas munisipalitas La Condamine
04 La Condamine 0.28 3,947 16213 28 Area pelabuhan barat laut
07 La Colle (Plati-Pasteur-Bd Charles III) 0.11 2,829 15005 15 Di perbatasan barat dengan Cap d'Ail
08 Les Révoires (Hector Otto-Honoré Labande) 0.09 2,545 33203 11 Teramasuk Jardin Exotique de Monaco
09 Moneghetti/ Bd de Belgique (Bd Rainier III-Bd de Belgique) 0.10 3,003 28051 17 Area pemukiman tengah-utara
Tanah yang baru direklaim dari laut
06 Fontvieille 0.35 3,901 10156 10 Mulai 1981
11(1) Fontvieille II 0.08(1) - 6(1) Pembangunan akan dimulai pada 2013[94]
11(1) Le Portier 0.05(1) - 4(1) Proyek diluncurkan kembali pada tahun 2012[96]
10 Monako[8][97] 2.05 35,352 16217 178  
(1) Tidak termasuk dalam total, karena hanya diusulkan

Catatan: untuk keperluan statistik, Ward di Monako kemudian dibagi lagi menjadi 178 blok kota (îlots), yang sebanding dengan blok sensus di Amerika Serikat.[8]

Keamanan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengawal istana di Monako

Pertahanan bangsa yang lebih luas disediakan oleh Perancis. Monako tidak memiliki angkatan laut atau angkatan udara, tetapi pada kedua basis per-kapita dan per-area, Monako memiliki kepolisian terbesar (515 petugas polisi untuk 35.000 orang) dan kehadiran polisi di dunia. [98]

Ada juga kekuatan militer yang kecil yang terdiri dari unit pengawal pribadi pangeran dan istana di Monako-Ville yang disebut Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince (Perusahaan Carabiniers Pangeran), yang dilengkapi dengan senjata modern seperti senapan M16A2 dan pistol 9 mm (Glock 17),[99] dan semua yang bersama-sama dengan korps militer, senjata api dan pertahanan sipil (pemadam kebakaran) membentuk sejumlah pasukan publik Monako.[100] Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince diciptakan oleh Pangeran Honoré IV pada tahun 1817 untuk melindungi kerajaan dan keluarga pangeran. Perusahaan tersebut memiliki jumlah 116 perwira dan laki-laki, sedangkan perwira dan tentara bersifat lokal, petugas umumnya melayani di Tentara Perancis. Selain tugas menjaga mereka seperti yang dijelaskan, Carabiniers juga mematroli pantai kerajaan dan perairan pesisir.

Geografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Citra satelit Monako, dengan perbatasan Monegasque-Perancis terlihat dalam warna kuning.

Monako adalah sebuah negara-kota yang berdaulat, dengan 5 quartier dan 10 ward,[101] terletak di Côte d'Azur di Eropa Barat. Berbatasan dengan Perancis di tiga sisi, dan satu sisi berbatasan dengan Laut Tengah, pusatnya adalah sekitar 16 km (9.9 mil) dari Italia, dan hanya 13 km (8.1 mil) dari timur laut Nice, Perancis.[102] Monako mempunyai luas wilayah 202 km2 (78 mil²),[8] dan populasi sebesar 36,371,[3] dan membuat Monako menjadi negara kedua terkecil, dan paling padat penduduk di dunia. Monako mempunyai perbatasan darat hanya 44 km (27 mil), dan garis pantai 41 km (25 mil), dan lebar yang bervariasi antara 17 km (11 mil), dan 349 meter (382 yard).

Titik tertinggi dari negara ini adalah jalur sempit yang bernama Chemin des Révoires di lereng gunung Mont Agel, di distrik Les Révoires, yang tingginya 161 meter (528 feet) di bawah permukaan laut. [12] Titik terendah dari negara ini adalah Laut Tengah yang berada di permukaan laut.[103][104] Saint-Jean is the longest flowing body of water, around 019 km ()Templat:Convert/test/Ain in length, and Fontvieille is the largest lake, approximately 05 ha (12.36 acre) in size.[105] Monaco's most populated Quartier is Monte Carlo, and the most populated Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins.[8] After a recent expansion of Port Hercules,[16] Monaco's total area grew to 202 km2 (78 mil²) or 202 ha (499 acres),[8] consequently, new plans have been approved to extend the district of Fontvieille, with land reclaimed from the Mediterranean Sea.[13][14] There are two ports in Monaco, Hercules and Fontvieille, as well as the neighboring French port of Cap d'Ail.[106] Monaco's only natural resource is fishing;[107] with almost the entire country being an urban area, Monaco lacks any sort of commercial agriculture industry.[108]

Iklim[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monaco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa), which is influenced by the oceanic climate and the humid subtropical climate. As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.[109] Cool and rainy interludes can interrupt the dry summer season, the average length of which is also shorter. Summer afternoons are infrequently hot (indeed, temperatures > Templat:Convert/LoffAoffDorSoffT are rare) as the atmosphere is temperate because of constant sea breezes. On the other hand, the nights are very mild, due to the fairly high temperature of the sea in summer. Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20 °C (68 °F) in this season. In the winter, frosts and snowfalls are extremely rare and generally occur once or twice every ten years.[110][111]

Data iklim Monaco
Bulan Jan Feb Mar Apr Mei Jun Jul Agt Sep Okt Nov Des Tahun
Rata-rata tertinggi °C (°F) 12.3 12.5 14.0 16.1 19.4 23.0 25.8 25.9 23.8 19.9 16.1 13.4 18.5
Rata-rata harian °C (°F) 10.2 10.4 11.8 13.9 17.1 20.8 23.5 23.7 21.6 17.8 14.0 11.4 16.4
Rata-rata terendah °C (°F) 8.1 8.2 9.6 11.6 14.8 18.5 21.2 21.5 19.3 15.6 11.9 9.3 14.1
Presipitasi mm (inci) 82.7 76.4 70.5 62.2 48.6 36.9 15.6 31.3 54.4 108.2 104.2 77.5 768.5
Rata-rata hari hujan 6.8 6.4 6.1 6.3 5.2 4.1 1.9 3.1 4.0 5.8 7.0 6.0 62.7
Rata-rata sinar matahari bulanan 148.8 152.6 201.5 228.0 269.7 297.0 341.0 306.9 240.0 204.6 156.0 142.6 2668.7
Sumber: Situs web Monako[112]

Ekonomi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fontvieille dan pelabuhan yang baru.

Salah satu sumber utama penghasilan Monako adalah pariwisata. Setiap tahun banyak wisatawan tertarik denagn kasinonya (yang warga dilarang) dan iklim yang nyaman. Pada tahun 2001, sebuah proyek konstruksi baru yang besar memperpanjang dermaga yang digunakan oleh kapal-kapal pesiar di pelabuhan utama. Monako telah berhasil mendiversifikasi basis ekonomi dalam layanan dan kecil, nilai tambah tinggi, industri non-polusi, seperti kosmetik dan biotermik.

Monako mempertahankan monopoli di berbagai sektor, termasuk tembakau dan layanan pos. Jaringan telepon (Monako Telecom) digunakan untuk dimiliki sepenuhnya oleh negara; sekarang hanya memiliki 45%, sedangkan 55% sisanya dimiliki oleh Cable & Wireless Communications (49%) dan Compagnie Monégasque de Banque (6%). Hal ini masih, bagaimanapun, monopoli. Standar hidup di Monako tinggi, kira-kira sebanding dengan di wilayah metropolitan Perancis. [113]

Monaco bukanlah anggota dari Uni Eropa. Meskipun demikian, it is very closely linked via a customs union with France, and as such, its currency is the same as that of France, the euro. Before 2002, Monaco minted its own coins, the Monegasque franc. Monaco has acquired the right to mint euro coins with Monegasque designs on its national side.

Industri perjudian[sunting | sunting sumber]

The plan for casino gambling was mooted during the reign of Florestan I in 1846. Under Louis-Philippe's petite-bourgeois regime, however, a dignitary such as a Prince of Monaco was not allowed to operate a gambling house.[45] All this changed in the dissolute Second French Empire under Napoleon III. The House of Grimaldi was in dire need to generate cash. Menton and Roquebrune, which had been main source of income for the Grimaldis for centuries, now accustomed to much improved standard of living and lenient taxation thanks to Sardinian intervention, clamored for financial and political concession, even for separation. The Grimaldis hoped the newly legal industry would help alleviate the difficulties they faced, above all the crushing debt the family had incurred, but Monaco's first casino would not be ready to operate until after Charles III assumed the throne in 1856.

The grantee of the princely concession (licence) was unable to attract enough business to sustain the operation and, after relocating the casino several times, sold the concession to French casino magnates François and Louis Blanc for 1.7 million francs. The Blancs had already set up a highly successful casino (in fact the biggest in Europe) in Bad-Homburg in the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Homburg, a small German principality comparable to Monaco, and quickly petitioned Charles III to rename a depressed seaside area known as "Les Spelegures (Den of Thieves)" to "Monte Carlo (Mount Charles)."[114] They then constructed their casino in the newly dubbed "Monte Carlo" and cleared out the area's less-than-savory elements to make the neighborhood surrounding the establishment more conducive to tourism.

The Blancs opened Le Grand Casino de Monte Carlo in 1858, and the casino benefited from the tourist traffic the newly built French railway system created.[115] Due to the combination of the casino and the railroads, Monaco finally recovered from the previous half century of economic slump, and the principality's success attracted other businesses.[116] In the years following the casino's opening Monaco founded its Oceanographic Museum and the Monte Carlo Opera House, 46 hotels sprang up and the number of jewelers operating in Monaco increased by nearly 500 percent. By 1869, the casino was making such a vast sum of money that the principality could afford not to collect tax from the Monegasques; a master stroke that was to attract affluent residents from all over Europe.

Today, Société des bains de mer de Monaco, which owns Le Grand Casino still operates in the original building the Blancs constructed, and has since been joined by several other casinos, including the Le Casino Café de Paris, the Monte Carlo Sporting Club & Casino, and the Sun Casino. The most recent addition in Monte Carlo, is the Monte Carlo Bay Casino, which sits on 4 hectares of the Mediterranean Sea, and among other things, offers 145 slot machines, all equipped with "Ticket-In, Ticket-Out" (TITO); it is the first Mediterranean casino to use this technology.[117]

Tax haven[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monaco levies no income tax on individuals.[118] The absence of a personal income tax in the principality has attracted to it a considerable number of wealthy "tax refugee" residents from European countries who derive the majority of their income from activity outside Monaco; celebrities such as Formula One drivers attract most of the attention, but the vast majority of them are less well-known business people.[39][119] This applies to all residents of Monaco of any nationality except French citizens whose residency started after 1957. These French citizens still must pay French income tax.

In 1998, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued a first report on the consequences of the tax havens' financial systems.[120] Monaco did not appear in the list of these territories until 2004, when OECD became indignant regarding the Monegasque situation and denounced it in its last report, as well as Andorra, Liechtenstein, Liberia and the Marshall Islands, underlining its lack of co-operation regarding financial information disclosure and availability.[121][122]

In 2000, a report by the French parliamentarians, Arnaud Montebourg and Vincent Peillon, alleged that Monaco had lax policies with respect to money laundering, including within its famed casino, and that the government of Monaco had been placing political pressure on the judiciary, so that alleged crimes were not being properly investigated.[123]

In 2000, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) stated: "The anti-money laundering system in Monaco is comprehensive. However, difficulties have been encountered with Monaco by countries in international investigations on serious crimes that appear to be linked also with tax matters. In addition, the FIU of Monaco (SICCFIN) suffers a great lack of adequate resources. The authorities of Monaco have stated that they will provide additional resources to SICCFIN."[124] The Principality is no longer blamed in the 2005 FATF report, as well as all other territories.[125][126] However, since 2003, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has identified Monaco, along with 36 other territories, as a tax haven.[127]

The Council of Europe also decided to issue reports naming tax havens. Twenty-two territories, including Monaco, were thus evaluated between 1998 and 2000 on a first round. Monaco is the only territory that refuses to perform the second round, initially forecast between 2001 and 2003, whereas the 21 other territories are implementing the third and last round, planned between 2005 and 2007.[128]

However, Monaco has high social insurance taxes payable by both employer and employee. The employer's contribution is between 28%–40% (averaging 35%) of gross salary including benefits and the employee pays a further 10%–14% (averaging 13%).[129]

Mata uang[sunting | sunting sumber]

In Monaco, the euro was introduced in 2002, having been preceded by the Monegasque franc.[130] In preparation for this date, the minting of the new euro coins started as early as 2001. Like Belgium, Finland, France, the Netherlands and Spain, Monaco decided to put the minting date on its coins. This is why the first euro coins from Monaco have the year 2001 on them, instead of 2002, like the other countries of the Eurozone that decided to put the year of first circulation (2002) on their coins.[131][132] Three different designs were selected for the Monegasque coins.[133] However, In 2006, the design was changed after the death of ruling Prince Rainier to have the effigy of Prince Albert.[133][134]

Monaco also has a rich and valuable collection of collectors' coins, with face value ranging from €5 to €100.[135] These coins are a legacy of an old national practice of minting silver and gold commemorative coins.[136][137] Unlike normal issues, these coins are not legal tender in all the Eurozone. For instance, a Monegasque commemorative coin cannot be used in any other country.[138] The same practice concerning commemorative coins is exercised with all eurozone countries. Commemorative coins are legal tender only in their country of issue, unlike normal circulation coins, which are accepted in all euro-zone countries.

Demografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Matahari terbenam di Monte Carlo.

Populasi Monako tidak biasa bahwa orang asli Monegasque adalah minoritas di negara mereka sendiri yang terdiri dari 21,6% dari populasi Monako. Kelompok terbesar adalah warga negara Perancis 28,4%, diikuti oleh Monegasque (21,6%), Italia (18,7%), Inggris (7,5%), Belgia (2,8%), Jerman (2,5%), Swiss (2,5%) dan warga negara Amerika Serikat (1,2%).[139]

Warga naturalisasi Monako disebut Monacans, sedangkan Monegasque merupakan istilah yang tepat untuk menggambarkan seseorang yang lahir di Monako. [140]

Bahasa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bahasa resmi Monako adalah Perancis, sedangkan Italia dituturkan oleh komunitas Italia yang cukup besar. Inggris digunakan oleh orang Amerika, Inggris, Kanada, dan Irlandia. Bahasa nasional Monégasque, sekarang dituturkan oleh hanya sebagian kecil penduduk. Bahasa ini menyerupai Liguria, yang diucapkan di Genoa. Di Monaco-Ville, tanda-tanda jalan yang dicetak dalam bahasa Perancis dan Monégasque. [141][142]

Agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Agama di Monako (2012)[143][note 2]
Kristen
  
83.2%
Tidak beragama
  
12.9%
Yahudi
  
2.9%
Islam
  
0.8%
Lainnya
  
0.5%

Katolik Roma[sunting | sunting sumber]

Agama resmi Monako adalah Katolik Roma, dengan kebebasan beragama lain yang dijamin oleh konstitusi. [143] Ada lima gereja paroki Katolik Roma di Monako dan satu Katedral, yang merupakan tempat kedudukan uskup agung di Monako. Keuskupan, yang telah ada sejak pertengahan abad ke-19, diangkat ke keuskupan agung pada tahun 1981 sebagai Keuskupan Agung Monako. Santo Pelindung Monako adalah Santo Devota.

Kristen terdiri dari total 83,2% dari populasi Monako.[143]

Anglikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ada satu gereja Anglikan, gereja St. Paul, yang terletak di Avenue de Grande Bretagne di Monte Carlo. Pada tahun 2007 gereja ini memiliki keanggotaan formal dari 135 penduduk Anglikan di Monako, tetapi juga melayani sejumlah anggota yang jauh lebih besar dari penganut Anglikan sementara di dalam negeri, sebagian besar sebagai wisatawan. Situs gereja juga mengakomodasi perpustakaan bahasa Inggris lebih dari 3.000 buku. [144] Gereja ini adalah bagian dari Keuskupan Eropa Anglikan.

Yahudi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asosiasi Culturelle Israélite de Monaco (didirikan 1948) adalah rumah konversi yang berisi sebuah sinagoga, sebuah sekolah komunitas Ibrani, dan toko makanan halal, yang terletak di Monte Carlo.[145] Komunitas ini (sekitar 1.000) terutama terdiri dari orang-orang pensiunan Yahudi dari Inggris (40%) dan Afrika Utara. [146] Dua pertiga dari penduduk Yahudi adalah Sephardi, terutama dari Afrika Utara, sementara sepertiga lainnya adalah Ashkenazi.[147]

Olahraga dan hiburan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Formula Satu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Formasi balap untuk Monaco Grand Prix 1996

Since 1955, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco.[148] It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete, and the removal after the race takes another three weeks.[148] The circuit has many elevation changes and tight corners, along with a tunnel. This together with being incredibly narrow and tight makes it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track.[149] Only two drivers have ever crashed into the harbour, the most famous being Alberto Ascari in the 1955 Monaco Grand Prix, just four days before losing his life at Monza. The other was Paul Hawkins, during the 1965 Monaco Grand Prix.[148]

Reli Monte Carlo[sunting | sunting sumber]

The Monte Carlo Rally has been held since 1911, having originally been held at the behest of Prince Albert I, and is considered to be like the principality's Grand Prix, organised by the Automobile Club de Monaco. It has long been considered to be one of the toughest and most prestigious events in rallying, and from 1973 to 2008 was the opening round of the World Rally Championship.[150] From 2009 until 2011, the rally served as the opening round of the Intercontinental Rally Challenge, having most recently been run on the 19–22 January 2011 in celebration of the event's centenary.[151]

2012 marked the return of the Monte Carlo Rally to the WRC calendar with the event taking place from the 20–22 January 2012.[152]

Sepak bola[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monaco hosts two major football teams in the principality; men's football club AS Monaco FC, and women's football club OS Monaco. AS Monaco plays at the Stade Louis II, and competes in Ligue 1, the first division of French football. The club is historically one of the most successful clubs in France. However, it suffered relegation in the 2010–11 season. Because of the popular appeal of living in Monaco, and the lack of income tax, many international stars have played for the club, such as Marcelo Gallardo, Jürgen Klinsmann, Oliver Bierhoff, George Weah, John Collins, Fernando Morientes, Thierry Henry, Fabien Barthez, Rafael Márquez, Javier Saviola, Akis Zikos, David Trezeguet, John Arne Riise, Patrice Evra, Shabani Nonda, Emmanuel Adebayor, Eiður Guðjohnsen, Jan Koller, Victor Ikpeba, Park Chu-Young and Mahamadou Diarra.

The club reached the 2004 UEFA Champions League Final, led by the likes of Dado Pršo, Fernando Morientes, Jérôme Rothen, Akis Zikos, and Ludovic Giuly, losing 3–0 to Portuguese team F.C. Porto. The Stade Louis II also plays host to the annual UEFA Super Cup, which is played between the winners of the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League. The women's team, OS Monaco, competes in the women's French football league system. The club currently plays in the local regional league deep down in the league system, however once played in the Division 1 Féminine in the 1994–95 season, but were quickly relegated. Current French women's international goalkeeper Sarah Bouhaddi had a short stint at the club before going to the Clairefontaine academy.

The Monaco national football team represents the nation in association football, and is controlled by the Monegasque Football Federation, the governing body for football in Monaco. However, Monaco is the only sovereign state in Europe that is not a member of UEFA, and so does not take part in any UEFA European Football Championship or FIFA World Cup competitions. The team play their home matches in the Stade Louis II.

Rugbi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monaco's national rugby team, as of March 2012, is 90th in the International Rugby Board rankings.[153]

Olahraga lainnya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemandangan Pelabuhan Hercules, La Condamine, Monako
Pemandangan Monte Carlo

The Monte-Carlo Masters is currently held annually in neighbouring Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, France, as a professional tournament for men as part of tennis' ATP Masters Series.[154] The tournament has been held since 1897. Golf's Monte Carlo Open was also held at the Monte Carlo Golf Club at Mont Agel in France between 1984 and 1992. Monaco has also competed in the Olympic Games, although, as of 2012, no athlete from Monaco has ever won an Olympic medal.

In 2009, the Tour de France, the world's premier bicycle race, started from Monaco with a 15 km closed-circuit individual time trial starting and finishing there on the first day (4 July) and the 182 km second leg starting there on the following day and ending in Brignoles, France.[155]

Monaco also stage part of the Global Champions Tour (International Show-jumping). Acknowledged as the most glamorous of the series, Monaco will be hosting the world's most celebrated riders, including Monaco's own Charlotte Casiraghi, in a setting facing out over the world's most beautiful yachts, and framed by the Port Hercule and Prince's palace.[156] In 2009, the Monaco stage of the Global Champions tour took place between 25–27 June.

The Monaco Marathon is the only marathon in the world to pass through three separate countries, those of Monaco, France and Italy. The 2010 event took place on 21 March. Runners complete the race by returning to the Stade Louis II.

The Monaco Ironman 70.3 triathlon race is an annual event with over 1000 athletes competing and attracts top professional athletes from around the world. The race includes a 1.9 km swim, 90 km bike ride and 21.1 km run.

Since 1993, the headquarters of the International Association of Athletics Federations,[157] the world governing body of athletics, is located in Monaco.[158] An IAAF Diamond League meet is annually held at Stade Louis II.[159]

Pendidikan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sekolah Dasar dan Menengah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Monaco memiliki sepuluh sekolah yang diatur negara, termasuk: tujuh taman kanak-kanak dan sekolah dasar; satu sekolah menengah, Collège Charles III;[160] satu lycée yang menyediakan pelatiahn umum dan teknologi, Lycée Albert 1er;[161] dan satu lycée yang menyediakan pelatihan kejuruan dan hotel, Lycée technique et hôtelier de Monte-Carlo.[162] Ada juga dua sekolah hibah yang dibantu denominasi swasta, termasuk Institution François d'Assise Nicolas Barré dan Ecole des Sœurs Dominicaines, dan satu sekolah internasional, International School of Monaco.[163]

Universitas[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ada satu universitas yang terletak di Monako, yaitu Universitas Internasional Monako (International University of Monaco), sebuah sekolah berbahasa Inggris yang mengkhususkan diri dalam pendidikan bisnis dan dioperasikan oleh kelompok sekolah Institut des hautes études économiques et commerciales (INSEEC).

Bendera[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bendera Monako adalah salah satu desain bendera nasional tertua di dunia. Bendera Monako identik dengan Bendera Indonesia, kecuali untuk rasio tinggi dan lebar. [164]

Transportasi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Stasiun Monaco-Monte Carlo dilayani oleh SNCF, sistem rel nasional Perancis. Heliport Monako menyediakan pelayanan helikopter ke bandar udara terdekat, Bandar Udara Côte d'Azur di Nice, Perancis.

Panorama di La Condamine, Monako

Lihat Juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Informasi lebih lanjut lihat Bahasa di Monako.
  2. ^ Persentase berdasarkan pada populasi 35.000 orang.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Pranala Luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemerintah
Informasi Umum
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Koordinat: 43°43′58″LU 7°25′11″BT / 43,73278°LU 7,41972°BT / 43.73278; 7.41972