Yahudi Ashkenazi

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Yahudi Ashkenazi
(יהודי אשכנז Y'hude Ashk'naz in Ibrani; Y'hudey Ashknoz in Ashkenazi)
Moses Isserles Vilna Gaon Heinrich Heine Sigmund Freud Theodore Herzl Gustav Mahler Albert Einstein Emmy Noether Lise Meitner Franz Kafka Golda Meir Mikhail Botvinnik Sholem Aleichem Leonard Bernstein
Jumlah populasi

8[1][2]–11.2[3] million

Kawasan dengan populasi yang signifikan
Bendera Amerika Serikat United States of America 5–6 million[4]
Bendera Israel State of Israel 2.8–4 million[4][5]
Bahasa
Historical: Yiddish, German
Modern: Local languages, primarily: English, Hebrew, Russian
Agama
Judaism, some irreligious
Kelompok etnik terdekat
Other Levantines,[6][7][8][9] Samaritans,[8] Assyrians,[8][9] Arabs, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews etc.
Yahudi di Eropa Tengah (1881)

Ashkenazim adalah bentuk jamak daripada 'Ashkenaz' dari bahasa Ibrani אשׁכנזי yang berarti "Jerman". Dalam bahasa Ibrani juga dikenal bentuk אשׁכנזים.

Ini mengartikan orang Yahudi Eropa, terutama dari Eropa Timur, bahasa yang mereka pakai biasanya adalah bahasa Yiddish. Zaman sekarang kaum Ashkenazim di Eropa sudah hampir punah, mereka banyak didapati di Amerika Serikat dan Israel.

Kaum Ashkenazim, sebagai sebuah kaum yang cukup tertutup banyak yang mengidap penyakit turunan. Tetapi salah satu penyakit turunan yang berhubungan dengan penyakit otak, membuat mereka memiliki skor IQ tertinggi di dunia.

Yang mengherankan secara genetik bangsa Palestina memiliki hubungan genetik lebih dekat dengan kaum Ashkenazim dibandingkan dengan kaum Yahudi-Timur Tengah.[10]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Behar, Doron M.; Ene Metspalu, Toomas Kivisild, Alessandro Achilli, Yarin Hadid, Shay Tzur, Luisa Pereira, Antonio Amorim, Lluı's Quintana-Murci, Kari Majamaa, Corinna Herrnstadt, Neil Howell, Oleg Balanovsky, Ildus Kutuev, Andrey Pshenichnov, David Gurwitz, Batsheva Bonne-Tamir, Antonio Torroni, Richard Villems, and Karl Skorecki (March 2006). "The Matrilineal Ancestry of Ashkenazi Jewry: Portrait of a Recent Founder Event" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 78 (3): 487–97. doi:10.1086/500307. PMC 1380291. PMID 16404693. 
  2. ^ Nebel, Almut; Filon, Dvora; Faerman, Marina; Soodyall, Himla; Oppenheim, Ariella (2005). "Y chromosome evidence for a founder effect in Ashkenazi Jews". European Journal of Human Genetics 13: 388–391. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201319. "Ashkenazim have an elevated frequency of R-M17, the dominant Y chromosome haplogroup in Eastern Europeans, suggesting possible gene flow. In the present study of 495 Y chromosomes of Ashkenazim, 57 (11.5%) were found to belong to R-M17. [...] Since R-M17 haplogroup is also found at moderate to high frequencies in Central Asia and southern Russia/Ukraine, this haplogroup could have been present in the Khazars." 
  3. ^ John Hopkins Gazette, September 8, 1997.
  4. ^ a b Gabriel E. Feldman, Do Ashkenazi Jews have a Higher than expected Cancer Burden?PDF (650 KB) , Israel Medical Association Journal, Volume 3, 2001.
  5. ^ "Ashkenazi Jews", Hebrew University of Jerusalem website. Retrieved November 10, 2009.
  6. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/10/science/10jews.html?_r=0
  7. ^ http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Nebel-HG-00-IPArabs.pdf
  8. ^ a b c http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf
  9. ^ a b http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/05/000509003653.htm
  10. ^ Most of the Palestinians are Jews? (Part 1)