McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle

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F-15E Strike Eagle
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F-15E Strike Eagle MAKS-2011 (3).jpg
F-15E Strike Eagle dari 492nd Fighter Squadron 48th Fighter Wing, RAF Lakenheath, Inggris.
Jenis Pesawat tempur serangan, Multirole
Negara asal Amerika Serikat
Pembuat McDonnell Douglas
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
Penerbangan perdana 11 Desember 1986; 35 tahun lalu (1986-12-11)
Diperkenalkan 1988[1][2]
30 September 1989 (IOC)[3]
Status Beroperasi
Pengguna utama United States Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Israel
Angkatan Udara Republik Korea
For other users, see Operators
Dibuat 1985–sekarang
Jumlah 513[N 1]
Harga satuan F-15E: US$31.1 million (flyaway cost, 1998)[5]
F-15K: US$100 million (2006)</ref>"F-15E Eagle." Aerospace web. Retrieved: 27 February 2012.</ref>
F-15EX: US$138 million (2020)</ref>[1] Retrieved: 15 May 2020.</ref>
Dikembangkan dari McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

F-15E Strike Eagle buatan McDonnell Douglas (kini menyatu dengan Boeing) adalah pesawat tempur multiperan segala cuaca Amerika</ref>"Boeing: F-15E Strike Eagle". Boeing Defense, Space & Security. The Boeing Company. Diakses tanggal 2015-01-18. </ref> berasal dari McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle. F-15E dirancang pada 1980-an untuk jarak jauh, larangan kecepatan tinggi tanpa berdasar pada pengawalan atau pesawat perang elektronik. Pesawat Tempur F-15E Milik United States Air Force (USAF) secara umum dapat dibedakan dari varian Eagle AS lainnya dengan kamuflase pesawat yang lebih gelap, tangki bahan bakar konformal (CFTs) yang dipasang di sepanjang jalur masuk mesin (walaupun CFT juga dapat dipasang pada F-15 varian sebelumnya) dengan konfigurasi kokpit kursi tandem (Kokpit Khusus 2 Pilot)

Pesawat strike eagle telah dikerahkan untuk operasi militer di Irak, Afghanistan, Suriah, dan Libya, antara lain. Selama operasi ini, pesawat tempur telah melakukan serangan mendalam terhadap target bernilai tinggi dan Patroli Udara Pesawat tempur, dan telah memberikan dukungan untuk udara jarak dekat untuk para pasukan sekutu. Bahkan pesawat ini sudah diekspor ke beberapa negara.

Pengembangan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle diperkenalkan oleh USAF untuk menggantikan armada McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs. Berbeda dengan F-4, F-15 dirancang untuk misi superioritas udara dengan sedikit pertimbangan untuk peran serangan darat; Kantor Proyek Khusus F-15 menentang gagasan F-15 melakukan misi larangan, sehingga menimbulkan ungkapan "Bukan satu pon untuk udara ke darat."[6] F-15 Saat ini Dalam pelayanan, F-15 telah menjadi pesawat tempur yang sukses, mencetak lebih dari 100 kemenangan pertempuran udara dan nol kerugian dalam pertempuran udara-ke-udara pada tahun 2007.</ref>Davies and Dildy 2007, inside cover.</ref>

Meskipun kurangnya minat resmi, McDonnell Douglas diam-diam mengerjakan pesawat tempur interdictor yang diturunkan dari F-15. Perusahaan membayangkan pesawat itu sebagai pengganti General Dynamics F-111 dan sisa F-4, serta untuk menambah F-15 yang ada.</ref>Donald 1995, p. 40.</ref> Pada tahun 1978, USAF memprakarsai Tactical All-Weather Requirement Study, yang melihat proposal McDonnell Douglas dan opsi lain seperti pembelian F-111F lebih lanjut. Studi ini merekomendasikan F-15E sebagai platform serangan masa depan USAF.[7] Pada tahun 1979, McDonnell Douglas dan Hughes memulai kerjasama erat pada pengembangan kemampuan udara-ke-darat F-15E.</ref>Davies 2003, pp. 15–16.</ref>

Untuk membantu pengembangan F-15E, McDonnell Douglas memodifikasi prototipe TF-15A kedua dengan nomor seri 71-0291, yang dipakai untuk pesawat demonstrasi. Pesawat yang dikenal sebagai Advanced Fighter Capability Demonstrator ini pertama kali diterbangkan pada 8 Juli 1980.[7] Itu sebelumnya digunakan untuk menguji tangki bahan bakar konformal (CFTs), awalnya dirancang untuk F-15 di bawah persyaratan "FAST Pack", dengan singkatan FAST untuk "Bahan Bakar dan Sensor, Taktis.[7] Itu kemudian dilengkapi dengan Pave Tack, Penanda laser, Targeting pod untuk memungkinkan pengiriman bom yang dipandu secara independen.</ref>Jenkins 1997, p. 42.</ref> Demonstran ditampilkan di Farnborough Airshow 1980.[8]

Petarung Taktis yang Di tingkatkan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada bulan Maret 1981, USAF mengumumkan program Enhanced Tactical Fighter untuk mendapatkan pengganti F-111. Program ini kemudian berganti nama menjadi kompetisi Dual-Role Fighter (DRF). Konsep ini membayangkan sebuah pesawat yang mampu meluncurkan misi air interdiction tanpa memerlukan dukungan tambahan oleh fighter escort atau Sistem Radar Menipu.</ref>Rininger 2009, pp. 85, 88.</ref> General Dynamics telah mengajukan proposal F-16XL, sementara McDonnell Douglas mengajukan F-15E. Jet Tempur Panavia Tornado juga merupakan kandidat, tetapi karena pesawat itu tidak memiliki kemampuan tempur superioritas udara yang kredibel, ditambah dengan fakta bahwa itu bukan buatan Amerika, itu tidak dipertimbangkan secara serius.[8]

The second TF-15A, AF Ser. No. 71-0291, used as an F-15E demonstrator

Tim evaluasi DRF, di bawah arahan Brigadier General Ronald W. Yates, melakukan riset dari tahun 1981 hingga 30 April 1983, di mana F-15E mencatat lebih dari 200 penerbangan, menunjukkan berat lepas landas lebih dari 75.000 pound (34 t), dan memvalidasi 16 konfigurasi membawa senjata yang berbeda.[9][10] McDonnell Douglas, untuk membantu 71-0291 dalam evaluasi, ditambahkan ke programlainnya, yang ditunjuk 78-0468, 80-0055,dan 81-0063. F-16XL bermesin tunggal adalah desain yang menjanjikan, yang dengan sayap Delta, yang didesain ulang secara radikal, sangat meningkatkan kinerja; Jika terpilih, versi single dan dua kursi harus ditunjuk masing-masing F-16E dan F-16F.[10] Pada tanggal 24 Februari 1984, USAF memilih F-15E; Faktor kunci dalam keputusan tersebut adalah biaya pengembangan F-15E yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan F-16XL (US $ 270 juta versus US $ 470 juta), keyakinan bahwa F-15E memiliki potensi pertumbuhan di masa depan, dan memiliki redundansi mesin kembar.[9][3] USAF awalnya diperkirakan akan mendapatkan 400 pesawat, angka yang kemudian direvisi menjadi 392.[10][11]

Pembangunan tiga F-15E pertama dimulai pada bulan Juli 1985. Yang pertama, 86-0183,melakukan penerbangan perdananya pada tanggal 11 Desember 1986.[9][3] Dikemudikan oleh Gary Jennings, pesawat mencapai kecepatan maksimum Mach 0,9 dan ketinggian 40.000 kaki (12.000 m) selama penerbangan 75 menit.[9] Pesawat ini memiliki suite avionik F-15E penuh dan badan pesawat depan yang didesain ulang, tetapi bukan badan pesawat belakang dan teluk mesin umum.[9] Yang terakhir ditampilkan pada 86-0184,sementara 86-0185 menggabungkan semua perubahan F-15E dari F-15.[9] Pada tanggal 31 Maret 1987, F-15 pertama yang secara resmi menyelesaikan penerbangan pertamanya.</ref>Rininger 2009, p. 89.</ref>

Produk pertama F-15 dikirim ke 405th Tactical Training Wing, Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, Pada April tahun 1988.[3] Produksi berlanjut hingga tahun 2000-an dengan 236 diproduksi untuk USAF hingga tahun 2001.[12]

Pergantian dan Pengmuktahiran Program[sunting | sunting sumber]

First production F-15E, 86-0183

F-15E ditingkatkan dengan radar Raytheon APG-82 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) setelah 2007, dan radar uji pertama dikirim ke Boeing pada tahun 2010.</ref>Frost, Patricia. "Boeing Receives 1st F-15E Radar Modernization Program Test Asset from Raytheon." Boeing. Retrieved: 27 February 2012.</ref> menggabungkan prosesor APG-79 yang digunakan pada F/A-18E/F Super Hornet dengan antena APG-63(V)3 AESA yang dipasang pada F-15C;</ref>Trimble, Stephen. "Raytheon claims AESA upgrade contract for F-15E." Flightglobal.com, 1 November 2007.</ref> itu bernama APG-63 (V) 4 sampai menerima penunjukan APG-82 pada tahun 2009.</ref>Trimble, Stephen. "Raytheon trumps Northrop with new AESA designation." Flight Daily News, 17 June 2009.</ref> Radar baru ini akan menjadi bagian dari Program Modernisasi Radar F-15E,</ref>Frost, Patricia. "Boeing Selects Raytheon to Provide AESA Radar for U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles." Diarsipkan 6 July 2009 di Wayback Machine. Boeing, 1 November 2007.</ref> yang juga mencakup radome wideband (memungkinkan operasi pada frekuensi radar lebih) dan kontrol lingkungan dan perbaikan peperangan elektronik.</ref>"F-15E, B-1B Modernization and Upgrades." Defense Update, 23 July 2012.</ref>

Memiliki badan pesawat yang lebih kokoh yang dinilai dua kali lipat dari varian sebelumnya, F-15E diperkirakan akan tetap beroperasi melewati 2025.</ref>Tirpak, John A. "Making the Best of the Fighter Force." Air Force, March 2007.</ref> Hingga Desember 2012, Armada F-15E USAF memiliki usia rata-rata 21 tahun dan waktu terbang badan pesawat rata-rata 6.000 jam. Pada tahun 2012, USAF dilaporkan mempertimbangkan opsi masa depan; Tidak ada pengganti untuk F-15E yang dijadwalkan. Salah satu pilihannya adalah F-35 Lightning II, diatur untuk menggantikan pesawat lain seperti F-16 Falcon; Varian F-35E dipelajari. Menambahkan kursi kedua ke F-35 adalah kompleks dan mahal, terutama untuk mempertahankan profil silumannya; Menyediakan jangkauan dan muatan yang lebih besar juga akan menjadi tugas yang sulit. Atau, peran itu bisa ditutupi oleh kombinasi pesawat tempur dan pembom, seperti Pengebom jarak jauh. F-15E juga direncanakan dapat digantikan oleh desain pesawat tempur generasi ke-6.</ref>USAF mulls options for replacement of Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle – Flightglobal.com, 13 December 2012.</ref>What will replace the F-15E Strike Eagle? – Flightglobal.com, 17 December 2012.</ref>

Pada 2017, produksi diperkirakan akan berakhir pada 2022, 50 tahun setelah penerbangan pertama jenis tersebut.</ref>"Paris Air Show 2017: Boeing officials reveal production plans for Qatari Eagles". Jane's 360. 19 June 2017. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 21 June 2017. Diakses tanggal 26 June 2017.  </ref>

ALASA[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 24 Maret 2014, Boeing memenangkan kontrak $30.6 juta dari DARPA sebagai bagian dari program Airborne Launch Assist Space Access (ALASA). Tujuan dari program ini adalah untuk memotong biaya menempatkan microsatellites ke orbit sebesar 66% melalui kemajuan dalam sistem peluncuran. Di bawah kontrak 11 bulan, Boeing akan membangun 12 kendaraan peluncuran 24 ft (7,3 m), masing-masing dengan kemampuan muatan hingga {{convert|100|lb|kg|abbr=on} }. Sebuah kendaraan ALASA akan dipasang di bawah F-15E, yang akan naik ke ketinggian 40.000 kaki, kemudian dilepaskan dan menembakkan empat mesinnya untuk mencapai orbit rendah Bumi. Pemberian kontrak kepada Boeing akan menggunakan F-15E sebagai kendaraan pengangkut, sebagaimana kontrak desain sebelumnya telah diberikan kepada Lockheed Martin untuk menggunakan F-22 Raptor dan Virgin Galactic untuk menggunakan [[ [SpaceShip Dua]] pesawat. DARPA sebelumnya bersikeras bahwa mereka ingin memilih pesawat yang tidak perlu mereka modifikasi berat untuk membawa dan meluncurkan muatan ALASA.</ref>Boeing memenangkan kontrak untuk merancang DARPA Airborne Satellite Launch Vehicle – Siaran pers Boeing, 27 Maret 2014</ref></ref>-space/40023boeing-targets-66-percent-launch-cost-reduction-with-alasa Boeing Targetkan Pengurangan Biaya Peluncuran 66 Persen dengan ALASA – Spacenews.com, 28 Maret 2014</ref>

Desain[sunting | sunting sumber]

Forward cockpit of an F-15E

Misi deep-strike F-15E adalah keberangkatan radikal dari tujuan awal F-15 karena dirancang sebagai pesawat tempur superioritas udara di bawah mantra "bukan satu pon untuk udara-ke-darat."</ref>Hallion , Dr. Richard P. "Masa Lalu yang Merepotkan: Akuisisi Pesawat Tempur Angkatan Udara sejak 1945." Diarsipkan 25 Oktober 2016 di Wayback Machine. ' 'Airpower Journal, Musim Dingin 1990. Diakses: 1 September 2011.</ref> Badan pesawat dasar, bagaimanapun, terbukti cukup fleksibel untuk menghasilkan pesawat tempur yang sangat mumpuni. F-15E, meskipun dirancang untuk serangan darat, mempertahankan daya mematikan F-15 dari udara ke udara, dan dapat mempertahankan diri terhadap pesawat musuh.[13]

Prototipe F-15E adalah modifikasi dari F-15B dua kursi. Terlepas dari asal-usulnya, ini mencakup perubahan struktural yang signifikan serta mesin yang lebih bertenaga. Badan pesawat belakang dirancang untuk menggabungkan mesin yang lebih bertenaga dengan struktur dan pintu ruang mesin yang canggih, yang menggabungkan teknologi Pembentukan superplastik dan ikatan difusi. Kursi belakang dilengkapi untuk weapon systems officer (WSO, diucapkan "wizzo") untuk menjalankan air-to-ground avionics melalui beberapa layar; ini melihat radar, perang elektronik, atau kamera termografis, memantau status pesawat atau senjata dan kemungkinan ancaman, memilih target, dan menggunakan peta bergerak elektronik untuk bernavigasi. Kontrol dua tangan digunakan untuk memilih tampilan baru dan menyaring informasi penargetan; tampilan dapat dipindahkan dari satu layar ke layar lainnya menggunakan menu opsi tampilan. Tidak seperti jet dua tempat sebelumnya (misalnya F-14 Tomcat dan varian Angkatan Laut dari F-4), yang kursi belakangnya dihilangkan kontrol terbang, kursi belakang F-15E dilengkapi dengan tongkat dan throttle sendiri sehingga WSO dapat mengambil alih terbang, meskipun dengan jarak pandang yang berkurang.Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> harus ditutup oleh </ref>

The APG-70 radar allows crews to detect ground targets from longer ranges; one feature is that, after a sweep of a target area, the crew may freeze the air-to-ground map then switch to air-to-air mode to scan for aerial threats. During air-to-surface weapon delivery, the pilot is capable of detecting, targeting, and engaging air-to-air targets while the WSO designates ground targets. The APG-70 is to be replaced by the AN/APG-82(v)1 active electronically scanned array radar, which began flight tests in January 2010 with initial operational capability expected in 2014.[14]

Sistem inersia navigasi menggunakan laser gyroscope untuk terus memantau posisi pesawat dan memberikan informasi ke komputer pusat dan sistem lainnya, termasuk peta bergerak digital di kedua kokpit. Sistem navigasi ketinggian rendah dan inframerah penargetan untuk malam hari (LANTIRN) dipasang secara eksternal di bawah saluran masuk mesin; memungkinkan pesawat terbang di ketinggian rendah, di malam hari, dan dalam kondisi cuaca apa pun, untuk menyerang target darat dengan berbagai senjata berpemandu presisi dan tidak terarah. Sistem LANTIRN memberikan akurasi luar biasa pada F-15E dalam pengiriman senjata siang atau malam hari dan dalam cuaca buruk, dan terdiri dari dua pod yang dipasang di bagian luar pesawat. Pada malam hari, gambar video dari LANTIRN dapat diproyeksikan pada head-up display (HUD), menghasilkan gambar inframerah tanah.[15]

An underside view of an F-15E Strike Eagle with landing gear down

The AN/AAQ-13 navigation pod contains a terrain-following radar which allows the pilot to safely fly at a very low altitude following cues displayed on a HUD; it also can be coupled to the autopilot to provide "hands off" terrain-following capability. This pod also contains a forward-looking infrared system which is projected on the HUD, typically used during nighttime or low-visibility operations. The nav pod is installed beneath the right engine intake. The targeting pod contains a laser designator and a tracking system that mark an enemy for destruction as far away as 10 mi (16 km). Once tracking has started, targeting information is automatically handed off to infrared homing air-to-surface missiles or laser-guided bombs. The targeting pod is mounted beneath the left engine intake; configurations may be either the AN/AAQ-14 Target Pod, AN/AAQ-28 LITENING Target Pod, or the AN/AAQ-33 Sniper Advanced Targeting Pod.[butuh rujukan]

The F-15E carries the most air-to-ground weapons in the USAF inventory. It is also armed with AIM-9 Sidewinders and AIM-120 AMRAAMs, retaining the counter-air capabilities of its Eagle lineage, being fully capable of Offensive-Counter-Air operations. Like the F-15C, it also carries an internally mounted General Electric M61A1 20 mm cannon with 500 rounds, which is effective against enemy aircraft and "soft" ground targets.[butuh rujukan]

Since 2004, South Korean firm LIG Nex1 has been manufacturing the F-15's Head-up display; a total number of 150 HUDs were delivered by 2011.[16][17] LIG Nex1 had been a participant in the F-15K program as a subcontractor to Rockwell Collins.[16][17] LIG Nex1 is also preparing to manufacture F-15's new multi-function display and flight control computer.[16] Also since 2004, Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) has produced the F-15's wings and forward fuselages; in 2008, KAI established another production line for Singapore's F-15SG.[18] KAI is involved in the design and manufacture of the Conformal Weapons Bay (CWB) for the F-15 Silent Eagle.[19]

The engines used on early aircraft are Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220. Later batches feature the more powerful P&W F100-PW-229 engines.[20] Saudi Arabian and Israeli aircraft originally used P&W F100-229 engines.[21][22] In 2008, Saudi Arabia decided to re-engine their F-15S and F-15SA fleets with General Electric F110-GE-129 engines.[23][24] The South Korean F-15K had two different engines; the first batch are powered by GE F110 engines, while the second batch are powered by P&W F100 engines.[25] The Singapore Air Force equipped their F-15SG fleet with GE F110 engines.[26][27]

Sejarah Operasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

United States[sunting | sunting sumber]

The F-15E was first delivered to the U.S. Air Force operational units in 1988.[2] The F-15E reached initial operational capability on 30 September 1989 at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base in North Carolina with the 4th Tactical Fighter Wing, 336th Tactical Fighter Squadron.[3]

Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm[sunting | sunting sumber]

USAF F-15Es, accompanied by an F-15C and two F-16s, flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells.

The F-15E was deployed in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990 for Operation Desert Shield. The 336th Tactical Fighter Squadron flew to Seeb Air Base in Oman to begin training exercises in anticipation of an Iraqi attack on Saudi Arabia; in December, the 335th and 336th squadrons relocated to Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia, closer to Iraq's border.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 14.</ref> At the start of Operation Desert Storm, 24 F-15Es launched an attack on five fixed Scud installations in western Iraq on 17 January 1991. Missions against Scud sites continued through that night with a second strike of 21 F-15Es. At night-time, F-15Es flew hunter missions over western Iraq, searching for mobile SCUD launchers. By conducting random bombings in suspected areas, it was hoped to deter the Iraqis from setting up for a Scud launch.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 22.</ref>

On the war's opening night, an F-15E failed to hit a MiG-29 with an AIM-9 Sidewinder; other F-15Es also unsuccessfully engaged this lone MiG-29, which was eventually brought down by a missile of unknown origin.[28][29] On 18 January, during a strike against a petrol oil and lubricant plant near Basrah, an F-15E was lost to enemy fire, killing both pilot and WSO. F-15E crews described this mission as the most difficult and dangerous of the war as it was heavily defended by SA-3s, SA-6s, SA-8s and Rolands as well as by anti-aircraft artillery. Two nights later, a second and final F-15E was downed by an Iraqi SA-2; the crew survived and evaded capture for several days and made contact with coalition aircraft, but a rescue was not launched due to security issues over an airman who failed to identify himself with proper codes. The Iraqis later captured both airmen.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 25.</ref>

F-15Es destroyed 18 Iraqi jets on the ground at Tallil air base using GBU-12s and CBU-87s. On 14 February, an F-15E scored its only air-to-air kill of the war: a Mil Mi-24 helicopter. While responding to a request for help by US Special Forces, five Iraqi helicopters were spotted. The lead F-15E of two, via its FLIR, acquired a helicopter in the process of unloading Iraqi soldiers, and released a GBU-10 bomb. The F-15E crew thought the bomb had missed its target and were preparing to use a Sidewinder when the helicopter was destroyed. The Special Forces team estimated that the Hind was roughly 800 kaki (240 m) over the ground when the 2.000 pon (910 kg) bomb hit its target.</ref>Davies 2005, pp. 29–30.</ref> As another Coalition bombing operation had commenced, the F-15Es disengaged from combat with the remaining helicopters.[28]

F-15Es struck heavily defended targets throughout Iraq, prioritizing SCUD missile sites. Missions aimed at killing Iraqi President Saddam Hussein were undertaken by F-15Es, bombing several suspected locations. Prior to the ground war, F-15Es flew tank plinking missions against Iraqi vehicles in Kuwait. After 42 days of combat, a cease fire came into effect on 1 March 1991, leading to the creation of Northern and Southern no-fly zones over Iraq.[30]

Operations Southern Watch and Northern Watch[sunting | sunting sumber]

An F-15E over Iraq in 1999 for Operation Northern Watch

Following Desert Storm, two no-fly zones over Iraq were set up, and enforced typically by US and UK aircraft. In one incident, an attack on up to 600 Kurdish refugees by Iraqi helicopters at Chamchamal, northern Iraq, was observed by a flight of F-15Es. As they were not allowed to open fire, the F-15Es instead conducted several high speed passes as close as possible to the Iraqi helicopters to create severe wake-turbulence, while aiming lasers at the helicopter's cockpits to attempt to blind their crews; this caused the crash of one Hind. Afterwards, USAF leadership ordered F-15Es not to fly below 10.000 kaki (3.000 m) to deter a repetition.[30]

F-15Es of the 391st Fighter Squadron, 492d Fighter Squadron, and 494th Fighter Squadron regularly deployed to Turkey throughout the 1990s. In January 1993, in breach of the ceasefire agreement, Iraqi targets below the 32nd parallel north were attacked; 10 F-15Es conducted a punitive strike days later.[31] Most missions were of a defensive nature, the Strike Eagles carried a flexible range of weapons on a typical mission. AWACS aircraft were in close contact with F-15E crews, who would receive new taskings while airborne and thus could fly unplanned attacks on Iraqi targets.[31] After 1993, no-fly zone violations were minimal as Iraq staged a minor withdrawal; in 1997, Turkey approved the creation of Operation Northern Watch (ONW) and permitted US forces to use the Incirlik air base.[butuh rujukan]

In December 1998, Operation Desert Fox was conducted when Iraq refused UNSCOM inspections. On 28 December 1998, three F-15Es struck an SA-3 tracking radar and optical guidance unit, each dropping two GBU-12 500-pound precision-guided munitions (PGMs).</ref>"Operation Northern Watch 1998 Events." GlobalSecurity.org, 5 June 2011.</ref> After Desert Fox, Iraq frequently violated the no-fly zones, thus F-15Es conducted several pre-planned retaliatory strikes; in ONW alone, weapons were expended on at least 105 days.</ref>Davies 2005, pp. 35–36.</ref> Between 24 and 26 January 1999, F-15Es expended several AGM-130s and GBU-12s against SAM sites near Mosul, northern Iraq.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 35.</ref> They also flew in support of Operation Provide Comfort and Operation Provide Comfort II.[30]

Operations in the Balkans[sunting | sunting sumber]

F-15E departing Aviano Air Base, Italy, for a strike mission in Operation Allied Force on 28 March 1999

Operation Deny Flight was a United Nations-enforced no-fly zone over Bosnia and Herzegovina due to the deteriorating situation in the Balkans. In August 1993, F-15Es from 492d and 494th FS deployed to Aviano, Italy. In late 1993, NATO ordered a limited F-15E strike at Udbina airfield, targeting Serbian forces in neighboring Croatia. Eight F-15Es armed with GBU-12s took off to attack an SA-6 anti-aircraft vehicle; the mission was cancelled mid-flight over the application of stringent Rules of Engagement.[32] In December 1993, F-15Es launched to destroy a pair of SA-2s which had fired upon two Royal Navy Sea Harrier FRS 1s.[33] In August 1995, F-15Es of 90th Fighter Squadron were also deployed. The 492d and 494th flew over 2,500 sorties since starting Deny Flight, 2,000 of these by 492d. In August 1995, in support of NATO's Operation Deliberate Force, F-15Es flew strike missions against Serbian armor and logistics around the Bosnian capital, Sarajevo. On 9 September, an F-15E deployed the type's first GBU-15 bomb; dropping nine on Bosnian-Serb ground forces and air defense targets near Banja Luka.[33]

In response to the displacement of Kosovars and the Serbian government's rejection of a NATO ultimatum, Operation Allied Force was launched in March 1999. A total of 26 F-15Es flew the first strikes of Allied Force against Serb surface-to-air-missile sites, anti-aircraft batteries and early warning radar stations.[34] Strike Eagles were deployed to Aviano as well as RAF Lakenheath in the UK. In-theater, F-15Es conducted close air support (CAS) missions, a popular concept within the USAF.[35] Missions typically lasted around 7.5 hours, included two aerial refuelings; F-15Es would carry a mix of air-to-air and air-to-ground munitions to perform both combat air patrol duties as well as strike missions in the same mission.[35] Mobile SAM launchers posed a considerable threat to NATO aircraft and had made successful shoot-downs, most notably of a Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk. In order to strike from increased distances, the F-15E was equipped with the AGM-130, which provided a stand-off strike capability.[36]

Operation Enduring Freedom[sunting | sunting sumber]

An F-15E over Afghanistan during Operation Mountain Lion, 2006.

Weeks after the September 11 attacks in 2001, the 391st Fighter Squadron deployed to Ahmad al-Jaber air base, Kuwait, to support Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. F-15Es met little resistance during initial missions. On the first night, the main targets were Taliban military structures, supply depots, and al-Qaeda training camps and caves. Both the AGM-130 and GBU-15 2.000 pon (910 kg) bombs were expended; this was the GBU-15's first combat usage.[37] GBU-24s and GBU-28s were used against reinforced targets, command and control centers and cave entrances. F-15Es often operated in pairs alongside pairs of F-16Cs. Within weeks of the start of combat operations, there was a lack of targets to strike as nearly all targets had been already destroyed. The Taliban had access to SA-7 and FIM-92 Stinger portable surface-to-air missiles, posing no threat to most aircraft flying above 7.000 kaki (2.100 m). Additionally, fixed SAM sites near cities as Mazar-i-Sharif and Bagram were struck early on; Afghanistan had rapidly become a low-threat environment for air operations.[38]

Aircraft commonly flew on-call support missions for allied ground forces, F-15Es usually carried MK-82 and GBU-12 bombs in this role, other weapons were sometimes carried, during one mission a GBU-28, two GBU-24s and six GBU-12s were released.[38] Frequent targets during the rest of the war were individual insurgents, light vehicles and supply convoys; cannon fire was often expended as well as bombs from F-15Es.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 65.</ref> It was during combat over Afghanistan that four 391st crews conducted the longest fighter mission in history; lasting a total of 15.5 hours, nine of those hours spent flying over the target area. Two F-15Es attacked two Taliban command and control facilities, two buildings suspected of being used by Taliban fighters, and a road block; the F-15Es refueled 12 times during the mission.</ref>Davies 2005, pp. 68–69.</ref>

An F-15E of the 391st Expeditionary Fighter Squadron launching heat decoys over Afghanistan, 2008

On 4 March, another incident known as the Battle of Roberts’ Ridge involved several F-15Es performing a CAS mission. Aircraft destroyed a Taliban observation post and responded to nearby enemy mortar fire upon Navy SEAL forces searching for an ambushed MH-47E Chinook in the Shah-i-Kot Valley.[39] Several bombs were dropped as the SEAL team took fire, however one bomb missed due to the aircrew using incorrect coordinates.[39] An MH-47 carrying a rescue team was downed by an RPG while attempting to support the SEALs.[40] Following refueling, the F-15Es dropped a further 11 GBU-12s in coordination with ground forces, and fired their cannons on Taliban forces in close proximity to the survivors of the downed MH-47.[40] F-16s of 18th Fighter Squadron also made strafing passes until cannon ammunition was depleted, then resorting to further bomb drops. The F-15Es suffered technical issues involving both radio and weapon failures, several GBU-12s were dropped before returning to Al Jaber in Kuwait.</ref>Davies 2005, p. 76.</ref>

Years later, several incidents occurred. On 23 August 2007, a friendly fire incident involved an F-15E mistakenly dropping a 500 pon (230 kg) bomb on British forces, killing three soldiers;</ref>Harding, Thomas, Tom Coghlan and Aislinn Simpson. "Outcry as 'friendly fire' kills three UK soldiers." The Telegraph, 25 August 2007.</ref> the stated cause was confusion between the air controller and the F-15E on the bombing coordinates.</ref>"Grid reference confusion led to death of Anglian soldiers." Diarsipkan 23 March 2012 di Wayback Machine. hmsolicitors.co.uk, 16 December 2009.</ref> On 13 September 2009, an F-15E shot down a non-responsive MQ-9 Reaper drone over Northern Afghanistan to prevent it entering foreign airspace.</ref>Harwood, Matthew. "USAF Shoots Down Out-of-Control Reaper Over Northern Afghanistan." Diarsipkan 23 September 2009 di Wayback Machine. Securitymanagement.com, 16 September 2009.</ref>

Operasi Pembebasan Negara Irak[sunting | sunting sumber]

An F-15E disengaging from a KC-10 during Operation Iraqi Freedom. Note the visible wingtip vortices.

Pada akhir tahun 2002, selama ketegangan atas dugaan kepemilikan Irak atas senjata pemusnah massal, 4th Fighter Wing di Pangkalan Angkatan Udara Seymour Johnson diperintahkan untuk mempertahankan setidaknya satu skuadron yang siap dikerahkan ke Teluk Persia. Selama Januari 2003, 336 dikerahkan ke Pangkalan Udara Al Udeid, Qatar, berkoordinasi dengan para perencana Combined Air Operations Center di Pangkalan Udara Pangeran Sultan, Arab Saudi.[41] Pada akhir Januari, F-15E mulai terbang di Operation Southern Watch, biasanya melakukan misi pengawasan dan pengintaian. Peran tambahan termasuk simulasi pertempuran melawan target Irak potensial dan sosialisasi regional dengan prosedur lokal dan aturan keterlibatan.[41] Selama OSW, F-15Es menyerang sasaran di Irak selatan dan barat, termasuk radar, stasiun radio, situs komando dan kontrol, dan pertahanan udara. Pada suatu malam, empat F-15E melepaskan beberapa GBU-24 di markas Iraqi Republican Guard/Baath Party di Basrah sementara penerbangan lain dari empat menghancurkan markas Sektor Pertahanan Udara di dekatnya dengan enam GBU-10.[42]

Pada akhir Februari, ke-336 menerima awak udara tambahan, banyak yang direkrut dari dua skuadron yang tidak dapat dikerahkan di Seymour Johnson (333d dan 334th Fighter Squadrons) dan Skuadron Tempur di Pangkalan Angkatan Udara Rumah Gunung, dengan total empat awak pesawat per F-15E.[42] Pada bulan Maret, personel dan pesawat Skuadron Tempur ke-335 bergabung dengan ke-336 di Al Udeid. Salah satu tujuannya adalah penghancuran pertahanan udara Irak dan jaringan radar Peringatan Dini di dekat perbatasan Yordania, yang memungkinkan F-16 dan helikopter beroperasi dari Yordania sejak awal perang. Beberapa situs radar dan stasiun relai radio diserang di Irak barat dekat lapangan terbang "H3", menghadapi tembakan antipesawat berat.[43]

Pada 19 Maret, ketika F-117 Nighthawks menjatuhkan bom di atas Baghdad, menargetkan sebuah rumah tempat Saddam Hussein diyakini berada; F-15E menjatuhkan GBU-28 di sekitar lapangan terbang H3. Pada 20 Maret, efektif perang, F-15E menembakkan AGM-130 ke gedung-gedung komunikasi, komando dan kontrol, dan target-target penting lainnya di Baghdad; beberapa senjata meleset dari target yang dimaksudkan, mungkin karena macet oleh EA-6B Prowlers di sekitar.</ref>Davies 2005, hlm. 83.</ref> Pada tanggal 3 April 2003, sebuah F-15E mengira M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) sebagai situs rudal permukaan-ke-udara Irak dan menjatuhkan 500 pon (230 kg) bom berpemandu laser, menewaskan tiga orang dan melukai lima lainnya.</ref>Dao, James. "Jejak Rasa Sakit Dari Serangan Gagal di Irak pada tahun 2003." The New York Times, 15 April 2005.</ref>

Pada tanggal 7 April 2003, sebuah F-15E, yang diawaki oleh Kapten Eric Das dan Mayor William Watkins, melakukan misi larangan utama untuk mendukung pasukan khusus;[44] kemungkinan ditembak jatuh oleh tembakan AAA saat pengeboman menargetkan sekitar Tikrit.</ref>"Das and Watkins." Halaman Arlington National Cemetery tidak resmi. Diperoleh: 27 Februari 2012.</ref></ref>Serflek, Szabolcs. .f-15e.info/joomla/history/2296-f-15e-losses#0-6-airframe-88-1694 "Referensi dan referensi Strike Eagle - F-15E.info - F-15E Losses" Periksa nilai |url= (bantuan). www.f-15e.info. </ref> Das dan Watkins dianugerahkan secara anumerta Distinguished Flying Cross dan Purple Heart.[44] During the war, F-15Es were credited with destroying 60% of the Iraqi Medina Republican Guard's total force; they also struck 65 MiGs on the ground,[43] and destroyed key air defense and command buildings in Baghdad. F-15Es worked with other jets deployed to Al Udeid, including RAAF F/A-18s, USAF F-16s and F-117s, RAF Panavia Tornados and US Navy F-14s.[butuh rujukan]

Operation Odyssey Dawn[sunting | sunting sumber]

Following the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 on 17 March 2011, 18 USAF F-15Es were amongst other NATO and allied aircraft were deployed to enforce the Libyan no-fly zone as part of Operation Odyssey Dawn. On 21 March 2011, an F-15E from the 492d FS crashed near Bengazi, Libya.</ref>Crilly, Rob. "Libya: US fighter jet crash lands in field near Benghazi." The Telegraph, 22 March 2011.</ref> Both crew members parachuted into territory held by resistance elements of the Libyan population and were eventually rescued by US Marines.</ref>"U.S. F-15 fighter crashes in Libya." CNN, 22 March 2011. Retrieved: 27 February 2011.</ref></ref>Meyer, Sebastian. "Libyan residents discover wreckage of US plane." The Daily Telegraph, 22 March 2011.</ref> Equipment problems caused a weight imbalance and contributed to the crash when leaving the target area.</ref>"United States Air Force Aircraft Accident Investigation Board Report – F-15E Strike Eagle, T/N 91-000304." Diarsipkan 21 January 2012 di Wayback Machine. USAF, 26 October 2011.</ref>

Operations against Islamic State (2014–present)[sunting | sunting sumber]

F-15E USAF telah berpartisipasi dalam Operation Inherent Resolve melawan militan Negara Islam (IS) di Irak dan Suriah. Pada pagi hari tanggal 23 September 2014, banyak pesawat Amerika dan Arab melakukan serangan udara di Suriah terhadap pejuang IS, kompleks pelatihan, markas besar dan fasilitas komando dan kontrol, fasilitas penyimpanan, pusat keuangan, truk pasokan, dan kendaraan bersenjata.</ref>Air Force fighters, bombers conduct strikes against ISIL targets in Syria – AF.mil, 23 September 2014</ref> Pentagon merilis video target yang terkena persenjataan yang dikerahkan oleh F-15E, yang diambil oleh pod penargetan AN/AAQ-33 Sniper mereka sendiri.</ref>F-15E Strike Eagle Decimates ISIL Compound in Syria – Freebeacon.com, 28 September 2014</ref></ref>Watch an ISIS compound be wiped out through an F-15E Strike Eagle's SNIPER advanced targeting pod – Theaviationist.com, 30 September 2014</ref> Antara Agustus 2014 dan Januari 2015, F-15E menerbangkan 37 persen dari semua sorti USAF.</ref>A-10 Performing 11 Percent of Anti-ISIS Sorties – Defensenews.com, 19 January 2015</ref>

A 492 FS F-15E of the 48th Fighter Wing taking off from RAF Lakenheath

USAF F-15Es based at RAF Lakenheath in the United Kingdom performed several long range surgical strikes against IS camps and prominent figures in Libya. On 13 November 2015, a pair of F-15Es killed Abu Nabil al-Anbari, the leader of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in Libya, in a strike near Darnah, Eastern Libya.</ref>Dzimwasha, Taku (14 November 2015). "Isis: US F-15 jet fighters kill Islamic State's Libyan chief Abu Nabil". </ref> On 20 February 2016, USAF F-15Es</ref>Sanchez, Raf (19 February 2016). "US 'targets Tunisia beach massacre organiser' in strikes against Islamic State in Libya" – via www.telegraph.co.uk. </ref> hit an IS training camp near Sabratha where foreign fighters were based, reportedly killing Noureddine Chouchane, a 36-year-old Tunisian jihadist linked to the 2015 Sousse attacks. Sources said that 49 people were killed and 6 wounded;</ref>Alastair Jamieson. "U.S. Fighter Jets Target ISIS in Libya's Sabratha; Dozens Killed". NBC News. </ref></ref>Greg Botelho and Barbara Starr, CNN (19 February 2016). "U.S. strikes ISIS camp in Libya; 49 killed". CNN. </ref> two Serbians kidnapped by IS in 2015 were also reportedly killed.</ref>Greg Botelho and Barbara Starr, CNN (20 February 2016). "U.S. strikes ISIS camp in Libya; 49 killed". CNN. </ref>

On 8 June 2017, an F-15E shot down a pro-Syrian Regime UAV near Al Tanf, Syria;</ref>Gordon, Michael R. (8 June 2017). "U.S. Says It Shot Down Drone That Attacked Fighters in Syria". The New York Times. </ref> according to OIR officials, it was downed after deploying "one of several weapons it was carrying near a position occupied by Coalition personnel... [It was] similar in size to a U.S. MQ-1 Predator".</ref>"Coalition statement on At Tanf". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 12 June 2017. Diakses tanggal 8 June 2017.  </ref> The drone may have been a Shahed 129;</ref>"Iranian-Backed Militias Employ Drone Against U.S. Forces in Syria". </ref> on 20 June 2017, a second Shahed-129 was downed by an F-15E near the 50 mile exclusion zone around Al-Tanf.</ref>Ryan Browne; Barbara Starr (20 June 2017). "First on CNN: US shoots down another pro-regime drone in Syria". CNN. </ref>

On 21 August 2021, a USAF F-15E shot down an unidentified drone with an AIM-9X Sidewinder missile as the drone approached US forces in Eastern Syria.</ref>"US-led coalition aircraft shoots down drone over Syria". </ref>

Israel[sunting | sunting sumber]

Israeli Air Force F-15I Ra'am

The F-15I is operated by the Israeli Defense Force/Air Force No 69 Squadron, succeeding the F-4 Phantom II. It is used akin to a strategic bomber due to its long range, high munition capacity and advanced systems.

After the Gulf War in 1991, in which Israeli towns were attacked by SCUD missiles based in Iraq, the Israeli government decided a long range strike aircraft was needed, issuing a Request for Information (RFI). In response, Lockheed Martin offered a version of the F-16 Fighting Falcon, while McDonnell Douglas offered both the F/A-18 Hornet and the F-15E. On 27 January 1994, the Israeli government announced their intention to buy 21 modified F-15Es, designated F-15I. On 12 May 1994, the US Government authorized the purchase of up to 25 F-15Is by Israel. In November 1995, Israel ordered four extra F-15Is; 25 were built from 1996 to 1998.[45] Some of the air-to-air missiles aircraft can carry: the AIM-9L, Rafael Python 4 and the Rafael Python 5 infrared-homing missiles; and the AIM-7 Sparrow and the AIM-120 AMRAAM radar-guided missiles.[butuh rujukan] In 1999, Israel announced its intention to procure more fighters and that a possible contender was the F-15I. However, the contract went to the F-16I.[46]

Arab saudi[sunting | sunting sumber]

In November 2009, Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) F-15s, along with Saudi Tornados, performed air raids amid the Houthi insurgency in north Yemen. It was the RSAF's first military action over hostile territory since Operation Desert Storm.[47] In October 2010, Saudi Arabia requested 84 F-15SA (Saudi Advanced) fighters, upgrading of its existing F-15S fleet to F-15SA standard, and related equipment and weapons through a Foreign Military Sale (FMS).[48] On 29 December 2011, the U.S. signed a $29.4 billion contract to sell 84 F-15SAs, as well as the F-15S upgrades.[49] In June 2012, an FMS contract for 68 F-15S to F-15SA modification kits was placed with Boeing.[50] On 20 February 2013, the maiden flight of the first new-build F-15SA occurred.[51]

Saudi led in intervention in Yemen (2015–present)[sunting | sunting sumber]

On 26 March 2015, Saudi F-15Ss, along with other Arab coalition assets, started striking targets in Yemen as part of the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen, called Operation Decisive Storm. Opposing a joint force composed of former Houthi rebels and Yemeni Army forces, the strikes, at least initially, were met by ineffective anti-aircraft fire that reportedly only caused damage when falling to the ground.[52] Early strikes were aimed at air defense sites, Army HQs, military airports, ballistic missiles depots, and launchers.[53] During these attacks, a Saudi F-15S crashed into the Gulf of Aden after circling over the sea; its two pilots ejected safely and were recovered from the sea by a USAF HH-60G rescue helicopter; Arab coalition reports claimed enemy fire was not involved,[54] while Houthi and Iranian sources claimed they had shot it down.[55] On 8 January 2018, a RSAF F-15S was reportedly shot down by a Houthi surface-to-air missile; a Houthi-released video shows the F-15 increasing speed and releasing decoy flares before being struck by a projectile and apparently suffering major damage.[56][57] On 9 January 2017, the Houthi media, Al-Masirah, announced that the F-15 had been damaged but did not crash.[58]

On 21 March 2018, Houthi rebels released a video allegedly showing a RSAF F-15 being hit in Saada province by a R-27 air to air missile adapted for surface to air use.[59] As in the video of the previous similar hit recorded on 8 January, the target, while clearly hit, seems not falling to the sky when the video stops. Saudi forces confirmed the hit, while saying the jet safely landed at a Saudi base.[60] Saudi sources confirmed the incident involved a surface-to-air missile being launched at the jet from inside Saada airport.[61][62]

Varian[sunting | sunting sumber]

A USAF F-15E refueling over the mountains of Afghanistan
F-15E
Two-seat all-weather long-range strike and ground-attack aircraft for the USAF. A total of 236 were built from 1985 to 2001.[12][45]
An IAF F-15I (Ra'am) of the No 69 "Hammers" Squadron maneuvers away after receiving fuel from a KC-135 during Red Flag 2004
F-15I
The F-15I is operated by the Israeli Air Force where it is known as the Ra'am (רעם – "Thunder"). It is a dual-seat ground attack aircraft powered by two Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 engines, and is based on the F-15E.
The F-15I Ra'am is similar to the F-15E, featuring some different avionic systems to meet Israeli requirements. Initially, Sharpshooter targeting pods designed for Israeli F-16s were fitted for night-time strikes, but were less capable than the LANTIRN pods used on USAF F-15Es; Israel later bought 30 LANTIRN pods. The F-15Is initially lacked Radar Warning Receivers; Israel installed its own Elisra SPS-2110 electronic warfare equipment as well as a new central computer and embedded GPS/INS system. All sensors can be slaved to the Display and Sight Helmet (DASH) helmet-mounted sight, providing both crew members a means of targeting which the F-15E lacks. The F-15I uses the APG-70I radar; its terrain mapping capability can locate targets difficult to spot while under adverse weather conditions. The radar can detect large airliner-sized targets at 150 mil laut (170 mi; 280 km), and fighter-sized targets at 56 nmi (64 mi; 104 km); it has a reduced resolution one-third below the standard USAF APG-70.[63] In January 2016, Israel approved F-15I upgrades such as structural changes, an AESA radar, updated avionics, and new weapons.[64]
F-15K
The F-15K Slam Eagle (Korean: F-15K 슬램 이글) is a derivative of the F-15E, operated by the Republic of Korea Air Force. Several major components were outsourced to South Korean companies under an offset agreement, wherein South Korea was responsible for 40% of production and 25% of assembly.[65] The fuselage and wings are supplied by Korea Aerospace Industries,[66] flight control actuator by Hanwha Corporation,[67] electronic jammer and radar warning receiver by Samsung Thales,[68] head-up display, airborne communication system, and radar by LIG Nex1,[17][69] and engines by Samsung Techwin under license[70] before final assembly at Boeing's St. Louis facility.
F-15K at Nellis AFB, Nevada, 2008 for the Red Flag 08-4 exercise
In 2002, ROKAF selected the F-15K for its F-X fighter program, during which the F-15K, the Dassault Rafale, the Eurofighter Typhoon and Sukhoi Su-35 were evaluated. A total of 40 aircraft were ordered, deliveries began in 2005.[71] On 25 April 2008, a second batch of 21 F-15Ks were ordered, worth 2.3 trillion Korean won (US$2.3 billion). This second batch differs from first batch aircraft in having Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-229 (EEP) engines, license-produced by Samsung Techwin, for commonality with the KF-16 fleet.[72][73] ROKAF had received 50 F-15Ks by June 2011.[74] ROKAF expects the F-15K to be in service until 2060.[75]
The F-15K has several features not typical to the F-15E, such as an AAS-42 Infra-red search and track,[76] a customized Tactical Electronics Warfare Suite to reduce weight and increase jamming effectiveness,[76] cockpit compatibility with night vision devices, ARC-232 U/VHF radio with Fighter Data Link system, and advanced APG-63(V)1 mechanical-scanned array radar. The APG-63(V)1 radar has common digital processing equipment with the APG-63(V)3 AESA radar, and thus is upgradable to an AESA radar via antenna replacement.[63] The F-15K is equipped with the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System[76] and weapons such as AGM-84K SLAM-ER, AGM-84H Harpoon Block II, and KEPD 350.
F-15S
The F-15S is a variant of the F-15E supplied to the Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) in the 1990s. Saudi Arabia previously sought to buy up to 24 F-15Fs, a proposed single-seat variant, but was blocked by the U.S. Congress.[77] The F-15S, initially referred to as F-15XP, is almost identical to the USAF F-15E, the only major difference in the AN/APG-70 radar's performance in synthetic aperture mode.[45][77] 72 were built from 1996 to 1998.[45] In October 2007, GE announced a US$300 million contract with Saudi Arabia for 65 GE F110-GE-129C engines for the F-15S.[78]
F-15SG
F-15SG on approach to Darwin International Airport, 2011
The F-15SG (formerly F-15T) is a variant of the F-15E, ordered by the Republic of Singapore Air Force (RSAF) after a seven-year evaluation period involving five other fighters under consideration. The F-15SG was chosen on 6 September 2005 over the Dassault Rafale, the only other remaining aircraft in contention.[79][80] On 22 August 2005, the US Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) notified Congress of a potential Foreign Military Sale (FMS) of weapons, logistics and training to Singapore; options included AIM-120C and AIM-9X missiles; GBU-38 JDAM and AGM-154 JSOW air-to-ground weapons, Night Vision Goggles and Link 16 terminals.[81][82] The F-15F designation was also reserved.[83] An order for 12 F-15SGs was placed in December 2005.[84]
On 22 October 2007, the Singapore Ministry of Defence exercised an option for eight more F-15SGs within the original contract. Four more were later bought, increasing the total to twenty-four.[85] The first F-15SG was rolled out on 3 November 2008; deliveries began in 2009;[86] all 24 were declared operational in September 2013.[87] Further F-15SGs were ordered, including 8 in 2010 and 8 in 2014, for a total of 40 F-15SGs by 2018.[88][89][90]
F-15 Advanced Eagle
The F-15 Advanced Eagle variant is an upgrade over previous models in that it features two additional underwing weapons hardpoints (increasing the number from nine to eleven); the option of a large area display cockpit; fly-by-wire controls; the Raytheon AN/APG-82(V)1 or AN/APG-63(V)3 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar; General Electric General Electric F110-129 engines; digital Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing Systems in both cockpits; and a digital electronic warfare system among other enhancements. In a typical escort configuration, the Advanced Eagle can carry 16 AIM-120 AMRAAM; four AIM-9X Sidewinder short-range missiles; and two AGM-88 HARMs. For precision strike, it can carry 16 Small-Diameter Bombs (SDBs); four AMRAAMs; one 2,000 lb Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM); two HARMs; and two fuel drop tanks.[91]
F-15SA
The F-15SA (Saudi Advanced) is a version for the RSAF. It has a new fly-by-wire flight control system in place of the hybrid electronic/mechanical system used by previous F-15s, which allows for weapons carriage on the previously unused outer wing hardpoints.[92] The F-15SA includes the APG-63(v)3 active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, digital electronic warfare systems (DEWS), and infrared search and track (IRST) systems. It also had a redesigned cockpit once intended for the F-15SE.[48][93][94]
F-15QA
The F-15QA (Qatar Advanced)[91] Ababil[95] is a variant for the Qatar Air Force. In November 2016, the US State Department approved the sale of up to 72 F-15QAs to Qatar in a $21.1 billion deal that included weapons, support, equipment, and training.[96][97] In June 2017, Qatar signed a deal to buy 36 F-15QAs for US$12 billion.[98] On 13 April 2020, the first F-15QA took its maiden flight.[99] On 22 June 2021, Boeing announced that it will integrate an Elbit Systems anti-jamming systems into F-15QA, the anti-jamming systems allow F-15QA to fly into heavy electromagnetic interference environment uninterrupted.[100]
F-15IA
F-15IA (Israel Advanced) adalah varian yang diusulkan untuk Angkatan Udara Israel berdasarkan F-15EX dan Advanced Eagle. Pasukan Pertahanan Israel menyetujui rencana untuk mengakuisisi 25 F-15IA yang baru dibangun dan meningkatkan 25 F-15I ke standar F-15IA pada Februari 2020.[101]
F-15X/EX Eagle II
An F-15EX Eagle II from the 40th Flight Test Squadron flies in formation during an aerial refueling operation above the skies of Northern California, May 14 2021.
In 2018, the USAF and Boeing discussed a proposed F-15X, a single-seat variant based on the F-15QA intended to replace the USAF's F-15C/Ds. Improvements includes the AMBER weapons rack to carry up to 22 air-to-air missiles, infrared search and track, advanced avionics and electronics warfare equipment, AESA radar, and revised structure with a service life of 20,000 hours.[102][103] In the FY 2020 budget, the United States Department of Defense requested US$1.1 billion to procure 8 F-15EXs of a total planned procurement of 144 F-15EXs.[104][105] The USAF opted for the F-15EX to maintain fighter numbers after the premature termination of F-22 production, its aging F-15C fleet, and F-35 delays. Although it is not expected to be survivable against modern air defenses by 2028, the F-15EX could perform homeland and airbase defense, no-fly zone enforcement against limited or no air defense systems, and deploying standoff munitions.[106] In July 2020, the U.S. Defense Department ordered eight fighters over three years for $1.2 billion.[107][108] In August 2020, the Air Force announced plans to replace the aging F-15Cs in the Florida and Oregon Air National Guards with F-15EXs.[109] The F-15EX made its maiden flight on 2 February 2021.[110] The first F-15EX was delivered to the USAF on 10 March 2021, and was flown to Eglin Air Force Base in Florida for further testing.[111] On 7 April 2021, it was announced that the aircraft has been officially named Eagle II.[112]

Varian yang diusulkan[sunting | sunting sumber]

F-15H
The F-15H Strike Eagle (H for Hellas) was a 1990s proposed export version of F-15E for Greece, which was selected by the Greek Ministry of Defence and the Greek Air Force,[113] but the government chose new F-16s and Mirage 2000-5s instead.[114]
F-15G
F-15G Wild Weasel adalah versi dua kursi yang diusulkan untuk menggantikan F-4G Wild Weasel dalam peran Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD). F-15G dipelajari pada tahun 1986. Modifikasi yang diusulkan untuk F-15C untuk peran SEAD dipelajari pada tahun 1994-1995, tetapi F-16C dimodifikasi untuk melakukan peran ini sebagai gantinya.[115] F-15E mampu membawa ARM seperti AGM-88 HARM dan melakukan peran SEAD.[butuh rujukan]
F-15SE Silent Eagle
The F-15SE Silent Eagle was a proposed variant with fifth generation fighter features, such as internal weapons carriage and radar-absorbent material. The Silent Eagle featured conformal weapons bays (CWB) to hold weapons internally instead of conformal fuel tanks, the twin vertical tails are canted outward 15 degrees to reduce radar cross section; the majority of the CWB's area is for weapons storage, a minority is used for fuel storage.[116] The F-15SE was optimized for air-to-air missions, lacking all-aspect stealth features for missions inside areas protected by ground-based anti-aircraft systems.[117] The first production F-15E, s/n "86-0183", was modified to become a Silent Eagle demonstrator. It first flew in July 2010 with a left-side conformal weapons bay,[118] and successfully launched an AMRAAM missile from the CWB in July 2010.[119] Potential customers were Saudi Arabia, Israel, Japan, and South Korea;[116] however the Saudis chose to procure the F-15SA,[120] while Israel,[121] Japan,[122] and South Korea selected the F-35.[123]
F-15GA
Boeing offered 90 F-15GA (German Advanced) fighters to Germany as replacements for its Tornado IDSs and ECRs.[124] Luftwaffe chose 40 Eurofighter Typhoon Tranche 4, 30 F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and 15 EA-18G Growler.[125][126]

Operators[sunting | sunting sumber]

Current operators of the F-15 in light blue, F-15E Strike Eagle in red, both in dark blue
A F-15K of the South Korean Air Force
A F-15SG of the Singapore Air Force
 Israel
 Republik Korea
 Qatar
 Arab Saudi
 Singapura
 Amerika Serikat
4th Fighter WingSeymour-Johnson AFB, North Carolina
333d Fighter Squadron
334th Fighter Squadron
335th Fighter Squadron
336th Fighter Squadron
48th Fighter Wing - RAF Lakenheath, United Kingdom
492d Fighter Squadron
494th Fighter Squadron
53d Wing - Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
85th Test and Evaluation Squadron
422d Test and Evaluation Squadron (Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada)
57th Wing - Nellis AFB, Nevada
17th Weapons Squadron
96th Test Wing - Eglin AFB, Florida
40th Test Squadron
366th Fighter Wing - Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho
389th Fighter Squadron
391st Fighter Squadron
414th Fighter Group - Seymour-Johnson AFB, NC
307th Fighter Squadron

Insiden dan Kegagalan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Spesifikasi (F-15E)[sunting | sunting sumber]

An F-15E undergoing maintenance showing the M61 Vulcan Gatling gun with its cover removed.
An F-15E releasing a GBU-28 "Bunker Buster" during a test
LANTIRN pods mounted underneath the engine intakes of an F-15E Strike Eagle, the AN/AAQ-13 navigation pod to the left with the AN/AAQ-14 targeting pod to the right

Data from USAF fact sheet,[5] Davies[133] & Boeing[134]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 (pilot and weapon systems officer)
  • Length: 63 ft 96 in (21,64 m)
  • Wingspan: 42 ft 96 in (15,24 m)
  • Height: 18 ft 6 in (5,64 m)
  • Wing area: 608 sq ft (56,5 m2)
  • Airfoil: root: NACA 64A006.6; tip: NACA 64A203[135]
  • Empty weight: 31.700 pon (14.379 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 81.000 pon (36.741 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220 afterburning turbofan, 14.590 lbf (64,9 kN) thrust each dry, 23.770 lbf (105,7 kN) with afterburner
    (or 2 × F100-PW-229, thrust: 17,800 lb dry; 29,160 lb with afterburner each)

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 1.434 kn (1.650 mph; 2.656 km/h) / M2.5+ at high altitude
782 kn (900 mph; 1.448 km/h) / M1.2 at low altitude
  • Combat range: 687 nmi (791 mi; 1.272 km)
  • Ferry range: 2.100 nmi (2.400 mi; 3.900 km) with conformal fuel tanks and three external fuel tanks
  • Service ceiling: 60.000 ft (18.000 m)
  • G limits: +9
  • Rate of climb: 50.000 ft/mnt ([convert: unit mismatch]) +
  • Thrust/weight: 0.93

Armament

Avionics

Lihat juga[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengembangan yang berhubungan
Pesawat sebanding dalam peran, konfigurasi, dan era

Daftar terkait

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Number built for F-15E= 237,[4] F-15I= 25,[4] F-15S= 72,[4] F-15K= 61, F-15SG= 40, and F-15SA= 78;</ref>"Saudi F-15 fleet to be armed with SLAM-ER | Times Aerospace". </ref> total= 513.

Sumber Kutipan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Splendid Vision, Unswerving Purpose: Developing Air Power for the United States Air Force During the First Century of Powered Flight, Dept. of the Air Force (18 March, 2003), P. 253
  2. ^ a b Russian Air Power, Airlife Pub Ltd (July 1, 2002), p. 37
  3. ^ a b c d e Ciborski, James R. "The F-15 Eagle: A Chronology." Diarsipkan 20 September 2007 di Wayback Machine. History Office, Aeronautical Systems Center, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, June 2002.
  4. ^ a b c Davies 2002, p. 90.
  5. ^ a b F-15E Strike Eagle fact sheet, US Air Force. Retrieved: 13 May 2017.
  6. ^ Davies and Dildy 2007, pp. 9, 15, 20, 35.
  7. ^ a b c Donald 1995, p. 42.
  8. ^ a b Donald 1995, p. 44.
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  10. ^ a b c Donald 1995, p. 45.
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Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Davies, Steve. Combat Legend, F-15 Eagle and Strike Eagle. London: Airlife Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1-84037-377-6.
  • Davies, Steve. Boeing F-15E Strike Eagle, All-Weather Attack Aircraft. London: Airlife Publishing, 2003. ISBN 1-84037-378-4.
  • Davies, Steve. F-15C/E Eagle Units of operation Iraqi Freedom (Osprey Combat Aircraft #47). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2004. ISBN 978-1-84176-802-1.
  • Davies, Steve. F-15E Strike Eagle Units In Combat 1990–2005. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing Limited, 2005. ISBN 1-84176-909-6.
  • Davies, Steve and Doug Dildy. F-15 Eagle Engaged: The World's Most Successful Jet Fighter. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2007. ISBN 1-84603-169-9.
  • Donald, David. "F-15E Strike Eagle". World Airpower Journal. 21. AIRtime Publishing, 1995. 
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, Supreme Heavy-Weight Fighter. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-85780-081-8.
  • Rininger, Tyson. F-15 Eagle at War. St. Paul, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2009. ISBN 0-7603-3350-5.
  • Spick, Mike, ed. The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4.

Link Eksternal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Video luar
Boeing's Official YouTube channel (dalam bahasa Inggris)
The Advanced F-15: Ready for the Fight di YouTube

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Templat:US fighters Templat:USAF system codes