Sekulerisme Yahudi

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Sekulerisme Yahudi meliputi orang etnis Yahudi non-relijius dan sejumlah karya yang dibuat oleh mereka. Di kalangan Yahudi sekuler, hari-hari raya Yahudi tradisional dapat dirayakan sebagai perayaan sejarah atau alam, sementara upacara-upacara yang berkaitan dengan siklus kehidupan, seperti kelahiran, perkawinan dan kematian, dilakukan dengan cara sekuler.

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Yahudi-Yahudi berpengaruh yang menjadi sekuler meliputi David Ben-Gurion,[1] Emma Goldman,[2] Sigmund Freud,[3] Bernie Sanders,[4][5] Noam Chomsky,[6] Karl Marx,[7] Leon Trotsky,[8] Gustav Mahler,[9][10] Billy Joel,[11][12] Marc Chagall,[13][14] Henri Bergson,[15] Alan Dershowitz,[16][17] Heinrich Heine,[18] Albert Einstein,[19][20] Theodor Herzl,[21] Louis Brandeis,[22] Micha Josef Berdyczewski,[23][24] Hayim Nahman Bialik,[25][26] Ludwig Wittgenstein,[27][28] Jerry Seinfeld,[29][30] Larry David,[31][32] Boris Pasternak,[33] Stan Lee,[34] Stephen Fry,[35][36] Marilyn Monroe,[37] J. Robert Oppenheimer,[38] Baruch Spinoza,[39] Igor Guberman,[40] dan Ayn Rand.[41][42]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Aronson, Shlomo (2010). David Ben-Gurion and the Jewish Renaissance (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cambridge, England and New York: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 48. ISBN 9781139492447. 
  2. ^ Ferguson, Kathy E. (2011). Emma Goldman: Political Thinking in the Streets. 20th Century Political Thinkers (dalam bahasa Inggris). Lanham, MD, Boulder, CO, New York, Toronto, Plymouth, England: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. hlm. 289. ISBN 9781442210486. 
  3. ^ Edmundson, Mark (2007). The Death of Sigmund Freud: The Legacy of His Last Days (dalam bahasa Inggris). New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA. hlm. 227. ISBN 9781582345376. 
  4. ^ Berger, Joseph (24 February 2016). "Bernie Sanders Is Jewish, but He Doesn't Like to Talk About It". The New York Times (dalam bahasa Inggris). ISSN 0362-4331. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  5. ^ Sellers, Frances Stead; Wagner, John (27 February 2016). "Why Bernie Sanders Doesn't Participate in Organized Religion". The Washington Post. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  6. ^ Enayat, Hadi (2017). Islam and Secularism in Post-Colonial Thought: A Cartography of Asadian Genealogies (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. hlm. 18. ISBN 9783319526119. 
  7. ^ Hoselitz, B. F. (1990). "Chapter 23: Karl Marx on Secular and Social Development: a Study in the Sociology of the Nineteenth-Century Social Science". Dalam Jessop, Bob; Malcolm-Brown, Charlie. Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments of Leading Political Philosophers (dalam bahasa Inggris). Volume V: Marx's Life and Theoretical Development (edisi ke-Second Series). London and New York: Taylor & Francis. hlm. 445. ISBN 9780415193276. 
  8. ^ Luehrmann, Sonja (2011). Secularism Soviet Style: Teaching Atheism and Religion in a Volga Republic (dalam bahasa Inggris). Bloominton, IN: Indiana University Press. hlm. 6. ISBN 9780253005427. 
  9. ^ Lange, Nicholas Robert Michael De; Lange, Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies Faculty of Divinity Nicolas de; Freud-Kandel, Miri; Freud-Kandel, Lecturer in Modern Judaism Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies Miri (2005). Modern Judaism: An Oxford Guide (dalam bahasa Inggris). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. hlm. 107. ISBN 9780199262878. 
  10. ^ Jobani, Yuval (20 August 2008). "Three Basic Models of Secular Jewish Culture". Israel Studies (dalam bahasa Inggris). 13 (3): 160–169. ISSN 1084-9513. 
  11. ^ White, Timothy (3 December 1994). "A Portrait of the Artist". Billboard. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  12. ^ JTA (22 August 2017). "Billy Joel Wears Yellow Star of David During New York Concert". The Times of Israel. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. Joel’s parents are Jewish but he was not brought up religious. He has been described as a secular Jew and an atheist. 
  13. ^ Efros, A.; Tugendhold, Ya. (2003). Harshav, Benjamin, ed. Marc Chagall on Art and Culture: Including the First Book on Chagall's Art by A. Efros and Ya. Tugendhold (Moscow, 1918) (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diterjemahkan oleh Harshav, Barbara; Harshav, Benjamin. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. hlm. 5 – 6. ISBN 9780804748315. 
  14. ^ Hoffman, Matthew B. (2007). From Rebel to Rabbi: Reclaiming Jesus and the Making of Modern Jewish Culture. Stanford Studies in Jewish History and Culture (dalam bahasa Inggris). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. hlm. 9. ISBN 9780804753715. 
  15. ^ Latta, Corey (2014). When the Eternal can Be Met: The Bergsonian Theology of Time in the Works of C.S. Lewis, T.S. Eliot and W.H. Auden (PDF). Lutterworth Press. ISBN 9780718893606. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 2020-02-16. Diakses tanggal 2019-09-05. 
  16. ^ Kreidler, Marc (21 October 2011). "Harvard Prof. Alan Dershowitz on Secularism". Center for Inquiry (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  17. ^ Ledewitz, Bruce (2007). American Religious Democracy: Coming to Terms with the End of Secular Politics (dalam bahasa Inggris). Westport, CT and London: Greenwood Publishing Group. hlm. 18. ISBN 9780275994600. 
  18. ^ Weir, Todd H. (2014). Secularism and Religion in Nineteenth-Century Germany: The Rise of the Fourth Confession (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cambridge, England and New York: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 123. ISBN 9781107041561. 
  19. ^ Muraskin, Bennett. "Albert Einstein as a Secular Humanistic Jew". Congress of Secular Jewish Organizations (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  20. ^ Vosse, Patrick (2010). Secular Humanism: The Force Behind the Creation-Evolution Debate and Much More (dalam bahasa Inggris). Summerville, SC: Holy Fire Publishing. hlm. 140. ISBN 9781603832793. 
  21. ^ Singh, Amardeep (2008). Literary Secularism: Religion and Modernity in Twentieth-Century Fiction (dalam bahasa Inggris). Newcastle, England: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. hlm. 75. ISBN 9781443802697. 
  22. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (2016). Louis D. Brandeis: American Prophet. Jewish Lives (dalam bahasa Inggris). New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press. hlm. 168. ISBN 9780300160444. 
  23. ^ Schweid, Eliezer (2008). Levin, Leonard, ed. The Idea of Modern Jewish Culture (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diterjemahkan oleh Handary, Amnon. Boston: Academic Studies Press. hlm. 135. ISBN 9781934843055. 
  24. ^ Feinstein, Sara (2005). Sunshine, Blossoms and Blood: H.N. Bialik in His Time, a Literary Biography (dalam bahasa Inggris). Lanham, MD, Boulder, CO, New York, Toronto, Oxford: University Press of America. hlm. 34. ISBN 9780761831426. 
  25. ^ Biale, David (2012). "God's Language and the Making of Secular Jewish Culture". Dalam Heller, Zachary I.; Gordis, David M. Dr. Jewish Secularity: The Search for Roots and the Challenges of Relevant Meaning (dalam bahasa Inggris). Lanham, MD and Plymouth, England: University Press of America. hlm. 57. ISBN 9780761857952. 
  26. ^ Dan, Joseph (2003). "Chapter 24: Bialik. Mystical Poetry and Mystical Language". The Heart and the Fountain: An Anthology of Jewish Mystical Experiences (dalam bahasa Inggris). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. hlm. 251. ISBN 9780195139792. 
  27. ^ Blond, Philip (2005) [1998]. Post-Secular Philosophy: Between Philosophy and Theology (dalam bahasa Inggris). London and New York: Routledge. hlm. 20. ISBN 9781134860418. 
  28. ^ Redner, Harry (2016). Malign Masters Gentile Heidegger Lukács Wittgenstein: Philosophy and Politics in the Twentieth Century (dalam bahasa Inggris). London and New York: Springer. hlm. 160. ISBN 9781349257072. 
  29. ^ Keysar, Ariela (2018). "The Persistence of American Secular Judaism: Jewish Millenials". Dalam DellaPergola, Sergio; Rebhun, Uzi. Jewish Population and Identity (dalam bahasa Inggris). Cham, Switzerland: Springer. hlm. 88. ISBN 9783319774466. 
  30. ^ Shapiro, Edward S. (2014). "The Decline and Rise of Secular Judaism: Edward S Shapiro Asks if Judaism is Necessary for Jewishness". First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life. 241: 41. 
  31. ^ Levine, Josh (2010). Pretty, Pretty, Pretty Good: Larry David and the Making of Seinfeld and Curb Your Enthusiasm (dalam bahasa Inggris). Toronto: ECW Press. ISBN 9781554906970. 
  32. ^ Berlinerblau, Jacques (12 September 2012). "Untangling the Oxymoron of the Secular Jew". The Forward. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  33. ^ Katsman, Roman (January 2014). "Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago in the Eyes of the Israeli Writers and Intellectuals (A Minimal Foundation of Multilingual Jewish Philology)". Around the Point: Studies in Jewish Multilingual Literature (dalam bahasa Inggris): 643–686. 
  34. ^ Lund, Martin (2016). Re-Constructing the Man of Steel: Superman 1938–1941, Jewish American History, and the Invention of the Jewish–Comics Connection. Contemporary Religion + Popular Culture (dalam bahasa Inggris). New York: Springer. hlm. 45. ISBN 9783319429601. 
  35. ^ Knott, Kim; Poole, Elizabeth; Taira, Teemu (2013). "Chapter 3: Christianity, Secularism and Religious Diversity in the British Media". Dalam Gillespie, Marie; Herbert, David Eric John; Greenhill, Anita. Social Media and Religious Change (dalam bahasa Inggris). Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter. hlm. 37. ISBN 9783110270488. 
  36. ^ Smith, Joan (29 March 2014). "Fed Up? Just Listen to Stephen Fry's Humanist Secret of Happiness". The Independent. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. 
  37. ^ Stanley-Becker, Isaac (16 October 2018). "Jewish Prayer Book Annotated by Marilyn Monroe, Who Converted in 1956, Could Fetch Thousands in Auction". The Washington Post. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. The movie star described herself as a “Jewish atheist,” according to Meyers. And after her divorce from Miller in 1961, she maintained only a few trappings of the Jewish faith, including a mezuzah — a tiny box containing Hebrew texts — on her door frame. 
  38. ^ Day, Michael A. (2015). The Hope And Vision Of J. Robert Oppenheimer (dalam bahasa Inggris). Singapore, Hackensack, NJ and London: World Scientific. hlm. 34. ISBN 9789814656764. 
  39. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama :0
  40. ^ Shneer, David; Gershenson, Olga (2011-02-23). "Soviet Jewishness and Cultural Studies". Journal of Jewish Identities (dalam bahasa Inggris). 4 (1): 129–146. doi:10.1353/jji.2011.0005. ISSN 1946-2522. 
  41. ^ Burns, Jennifer (November 2004). "Godless Capitalism: Ayn Rand and the Conservative Movement". Modern Intellectual History (dalam bahasa Inggris). 1 (3): 359–385. doi:10.1017/S1479244304000216. ISSN 1479-2451. 
  42. ^ Burke, Daniel (2 June 2011). "The Anti-Gospel of Ayn Rand". The Christian Century. Diakses tanggal 4 September 2019. Biographer Anne C. Heller says Rand was raised a secular Jew in Russia at a time when Jews were persecuted by the Russian Orthodox Church. Early on, Rand decided that the existence of God and the Christian ideal of self-sacrifice were untenable ideas, Heller said. 

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