Sejarah Yahudi di Spanyol

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Yahudi Spanyol sempat menjadi salah satu komunitas Yahudi paling penting dan terbesar di dunia. Masa tersebut berakhir ketika terjadi kerusuhan anti-Yahudi 1392 dan dekret Alhambra 1492, yang mengakibatkan sebagian besar Yahudi di Spanyol (antara 200,000 dan 250,000) berpindah ke Katolik dan sisanya (antara 50,000 dan 100,000) diasingkan paksa.

Sekitar 13,000 sampai 50,000 Yahudi tinggal di Spanyol pada saat ini, terkonsentrasi di provinsi Malaga, Madrid dan Barcelona serta memiliki pengaruh sejarah di kota otonomi Ceuta dan Melilla.[1][2][3][1][2] Sebagian besar dari mereka adalah Yahudi pemakai bahasa Spanyol yang kembali ke Spanyol setelah berabad-abad diasingkan di utara pada saat dan setelah protektorat Spanyol. Yahudi Ashkenazi, yang utamanya tak hanya berasal dari Amerika Latin namun juga berasal dari Eropa juga hadir di Spanyol.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Sergio DellaPergola, World Jewish Population (2007) American Jewish Committee, diakses pada 12 Oktober 2009
  2. ^ The Jewish Virtual Library (as well as the president of the Spanish Jewish community) speak of 40,000- 50,000 Jews (see "Spain". Jewish Virtual Library. Diakses tanggal 12 Oktober 2009. ) of whom half are affiliated with the Federación de Comunidades Judías de España (FCJE).

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Alexy, Trudi. The Mezuzah in the Madonna's Foot: Oral Histories Exploring Five Hundred Years in the Paradoxical Relationship of Spain and the Jews, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. ISBN 978-0-671-77816-3, hardcover; ISBN 978-0-06-060340-3, paperback reprint.
  • Ashtor, Eliyahu. The Jews of Moslem Spain, Vol. 2, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979.
  • Assis, Yom Tov. The Jews of Spain: From Settlement to Expulsion, Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 1988.
  • Bartlett, John R. Jews in the Hellenistic World: Josephus, Aristeas, The Sibylline Oracles, Eupolemus, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  • Bowers, W. P. "Jewish Communities in Spain in the Time of Paul the Apostle" Journal of Theological Studies Vol. 26 Part 2, October 1975, pp. 395–402.
  • Dan, Joseph. "The Epic of a Millennium: Judeo-Spanish Culture's Confrontation" in Judaism Vol. 41, No. 2, Spring 1992.
  • Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, Ltd., 1971.
  • Gampel, Benjamin R. "Jews, Christians, and Muslims in Medieval Iberia: Convivencia through the Eyes of Sephardic Jews", in Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain, ed. Vivian B. Mann, Thomas F. Glick, and Jerrilynn D. Dodds, New York: George Braziller, Inc., 1992.
  • Graetz, Professor H. History of the Jews, Vol. III Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1894.
  • Halkin, Abraham. "The Medieval Jewish Attitude toward Hebrew", in Biblical and Other Studies, ed. Alexander Altman, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. 1963.
  • Katz, Solomon. Monographs of the Mediaeval Academy of America No. 12: The Jews in the Visigothic and Frankish Kingdoms of Spain and Gaul, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Mediaeval Society of America, 1937.
  • Lacy, W. K. and Wilson, B. W. J. G., trans. Res Publica: Roman Politics and Society according to Cicero, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970.
  • Laeuchli, Samuel Power and Sexuality: The Emergence of Canon Law at the Synod of Elvira, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1972.
  • Leon, Harry J., The Jews of Ancient Rome Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1960.
  • Lewis, Bernard, Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery, US: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Mann, Jacob, Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature I Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Press, 1931.
  • Markman, Sidney David, Jewish Remnants in Spain: Wanderings in a Lost World, Mesa, Arizona, Scribe Publishers, 2003.
  • (Spanyol) Arias, Leopoldo Meruéndano. Los Judíos de Ribadavia y orígen de las cuatro parroquias.
  • Raphael, Chaim. The Sephardi Story: A Celebration of Jewish History London: Valentine Mitchell & Co. Ltd., 1991.
  • Ray,Jonathan. The Jew in Medieval Iberia (Boston Academic Studies Press, 2012) 441 pp.
  • Sarna, Nahum M., "Hebrew and Bible Studies in Medieval Spain" in Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House, Inc., 1971.
  • Sassoon, Solomon David, "The Spiritual Heritage of the Sephardim", in The Sephardi Heritage, Vol. 1 ed. R. D. Barnett, New York: Ktav Publishing House Inc., 1971.
  • Scherman, Rabbi Nosson and Zlotowitz, Rabbi Meir eds., History of the Jewish People: The Second Temple Era, Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, Ltd., 1982.
  • Stillman, Norman, "Aspects of Jewish Life in Islamic Spain" in Aspects of Jewish Culture in the Middle Ages, ed. Paul E. Szarmach, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1979.
  • Whiston, A. M., trans., The Life and Works of Flavius Josephus Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company, 19??.
  • Artikel ini memadukan teks dari Jewish Encyclopedia 1901–1906  article "Spain", sebuah terbitan yang kini berada di ranah publik.

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