Pelarian modal manusia

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Fisikawan teori Albert Einstein adalah contoh pelarian modal manusia akibat perubahan politik. Ia pindah ke Amerika Serikat untuk menghindari penindasan Nazi.

Pelarian modal manusia, kadang disebut pengurasan keterampilan (bahasa Inggris: brain drain), mengacu pada perpindahan orang-orang pintar dan terdidik demi mencari upah atau kondisi kerja yang lebih baik sehingga negara asalnya kehilangan orang-orang atau "otak" terampil. Orang-orang yang melakukan perpindahan ini biasanya menguasai bahasa Inggris dan pindah ke Britania Raya, Amerika Serikat, atau negara penutur bahasa Inggris lainnya. Pengurasan keterampilan sering terjadi di negara berkembang, terutama bekas koloni Britania Raya di Afrika,[1] negara-negara pulau di Karibia,[2] dan negara yang ekonominya terpusat seperti Jerman Timur dan Uni Soviet. Cina dan India menempati posisi teratas negara yang mengalami eksodus orang-orang terampil dan cerdas lewat proses pelarian modal manusia.

Istilah pengurasan keterampilan juga digunakan untuk menyebut orang-orang yang gagal menyelesaikan tugas tertentu karena mengalami tekanan keras.[3]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Brain drain costs Africa billions". BBC. 2001-10-17. Diakses tanggal 2008-06-01. 
  2. ^ "Caribbean 'brain-drain' worsens". BBCCaribbean. 2006-02-20. Diakses tanggal 2008-06-01. 
  3. ^ http://www.who.int/whr/2006/06_chap5_en.pdf P.6, retrieved 26 November 2014

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Boeri, Tito, Herbert Brücker, Frédéric Docquier, and Hillel Rapoport (eds) Brain Drain and Brain Gain: The Global Competition to Attract High-Skilled Migrants, Oxford University Press (2012)
  • Lincoln C. Chen, M.D., and Jo Ivey Boufford, M.D. "Fatal Flows Doctors on the Move" New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1850–1852 October 27, 2005, Number 17 online version, editorial
  • Cheng, L., & Yang, P. Q. "Global interaction, global inequality, and migration of the highly trained to the United States. International Migration Review, (1998). 32, 626–94.
  • Jeff Colgan, The Promise and Peril of International Trade, (2005) ch 9.
  • David Heenan.Flight Capital: The Alarming Exodus of America's Best and Brightest (2005), brain drain in reverse as immigrants return home
  • Kapur, Devesh; McHale, John (2005). "Give Us Your Best and Brightest: The Global Hunt for Talent and Its Impact on the Developing World: Center for Global Development: Publications". Cgdev.org. 
  • Dowty, Alan (1989). Closed Borders: The Contemporary Assault on Freedom of Movement. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04498-4. 
  • Harrison, Hope Millard (2003). Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953–1961. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09678-3. 
  • Johnson, Jean and Mark Regets, 1998, International Mobility of Scientists and Engineers to the United States: Brain Drain or Brain Circulation, National Science Foundation (NSF 98-316) [1]
  • Kemp, Paul. Goodbye Canada? (2003), from Canada to U.S.
  • Khadria, Binod. The Migration of Knowledge Workers: Second-Generation Effects of India's Brain Drain, (2000)
  • Kuznetsov, Yevgeny. Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills: How Countries Can Draw on Their Talent Abroad (2006)
  • D. W. Livingstone; The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy (1998), focus on Canada online edition
  • Douglas S. Massey and J. Edward Taylor; International Migration: Prospects and Policies in a Global Market, (2003) online edition
  • Mullan, Fitzhugh. "The Metrics of the Physician Brain Drain." New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 353:1810–1818 October 27, 2005, Number 17 online version
  • Caglar Ozden and Maurice Schiff. International Migration, Remittances, and Brain Drain. (2005)
  • Ransford W. Palmer; In Search of a Better Life: Perspectives on Migration from the Caribbean Praeger Publishers, 1990 online edition
  • Regets, Mark, 2001, Research and Policy Issues in High-Skilled International Migration, Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2001, [2]
  • Pearson, Raymond (1998). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire. Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-17407-1. 
  • Ronald Skeldon and Wang Gungwu; Reluctant Exiles? Migration from Hong Kong and the New Overseas Chinese 1994 online edition
  • Michael Peter Smith and Adrian Favell. The Human Face of Global Mobility: International Highly Skilled Migration in Europe, North America and the Asia-Pacific, (2006)
  • Thackeray, Frank W. (2004). Events that changed Germany. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32814-5. 
  • David Zweig, Chen Changgui, and Stanley Rosen; China's Brain Drain to the United States: Views of Overseas Chinese Students and Scholars in the 1990s Institute of East Asian Studies, 1995 online edition
  • Sami Mahroum. Highly skilled globetrotters: mapping the international migration of human capital. S Mahroum - R&D Management, 2000.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]