Pendidikan kewarganegaraan global

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Pendidikan kewarganegaraan global (bahasa Inggris: global citizenship education; GCE) adalah jenis ilmu kewarganegaraan yang melibatkan partisipasi aktif pelajar dalam proyek-proyek terkait isu sosial, politik, ekonomi, dan lingkungan global. Dua elemen utama GCE adalah kesadaran global, yaitu aspek moral dan etis dari isu global, dan kompetensi global, yaitu keterampilan yang memungkinkan pelajar bersaing di bursa kerja global. GCE merupakan gagasan pemerintah dan LSM untuk menghadapi munculnya lembaga supranasional, blok ekonomi kawasan, dan pengembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi. Semua faktor tersebut mendorong pendekatan pendidikan yang lebih berorientasi global dan kolaboratif.

Definisi dan asal mula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kewarganegaraan global terdiri atas praktik-praktik sukarela yang berorientasi pada hak asasi manusia, keadilan sosial, dan lingkungan di tingkat lokal, regional, dan global.[1] Tak seperti kewarganegaraan nasional, kewarganegaraan global tidak menunjukkan status resmi atau kesetiaan apapun[2] terhadap pemerintah.[3] Kemunculan blok-blok ekonomi kawasan, lembaga politik supranasional seperti Uni Eropa,[4] dan kemajuan TIK mendorong banyak negara mempersiapkan daya saing rakyatnya di bursa kerja global.[5] Program pendidikan kewarganegaraan global (GCE) mulai diperkenalkan di tingkat primer, sekunder, dan tersier, serta lembaga swadaya masyarakat independen, organisasi akar rumput, dan organisasi pendidikan berskala besar lainnya seperti International Baccalaureate Organization dan UNESCO.[5]

Fitur terpenting dari pendidikan kewarganegaraan global adalah tindakan sukarela yang dapat dilakukan mulai dari masyarakat setempat sampai masyarakat internasional, praktik empati budaya, dan pengutamaan keterlibatan aktif dalam kehidupan sosial dan politik di tingkat lokal dan global.[6] Pada akhir 1990-an, OXFAM UK merancang kurikulum GCE dengan penekanan terhadap "peran 'aktif' warga global".[7] Menurut pendekatan ini, individu dan kelompok di dalam dan luar sektor pendidikan dapat mengambil tindakan terkait permasalahan hak asasi manusia, perdagangan, kemiskinan, kesehatan, dan lingkungan.[6] This is sometimes called the 'global consciousness' aspect of GCE.[5] Selain itu, organisasi seperti UNESCO juga mulai mengutamakan 'kompetensi global' dengan memasukkan sains dan teknologi ke kurikulum GCE. Tujuannya adalah "memperkuat hubungan antara pendidikan dan pembangunan ekonomi".[8]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Myers, 2006
  2. ^ Schattle, 2008
  3. ^ Rapoport, 2009
  4. ^ Keating & Ortloff et al, 2009
  5. ^ a b c Dill, 2013
  6. ^ a b Green, 2012
  7. ^ Davies, 2008
  8. ^ UNESCO-IBE, 2008, cited in Dill, 2013

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Andreotti, V.D.O.; de Souza, T.M. (2012). Postcolonial Perspectives on Global Citizenship Education. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415884969. 
  • Asaoka, T; Yano, J (2009). "The contribution of 'study abroad' programs to Japanese internationalization". Journal of Studies in International Education. 13 (2): 174–188. 
  • Banks, James A. (31 December 2004). "Teaching for Social Justice, Diversity, and Citizenship in a Global World" (PDF). The Educational Forum. 68 (4): 296–305. doi:10.1080/00131720408984645. 
  • Banks, J. A. (1 April 2008). "Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age". Educational Researcher. 37 (3): 129–139. doi:10.3102/0013189X08317501. 
  • Bourn, D. (2009) Students as Global Citizens. In: Jones, E. (ed), Internationalisation and the Student Voice: Higher Education Perspectives. London: Routledge
  • Burke Wood, P., 2008. The Impossibility of Global Citizenship. Brock Education, Vol. 17, pp. 22–37.
  • Caruana, V and Spurling, N (2007) The Internationalisation of UK Higher Education: a Review of Selected Material, Higher Education Academy, pp. 30–31.
  • Catalano, T., 2013. Occupy: A case illustration of social movements in global citizenship education. DigitalCommons@UniversityofNebraska-Lincoln
  • Davies, L., 2008. Global Citizenship Education. Encyclopedia of Peace Education, Teachers College, Columbia. http://www.tc.edu/centers/epe
  • Davies, Ian; Evans, Mark; Reid, Alan. "GLOBALISING CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION? A CRITIQUE OF 'GLOBAL EDUCATION' AND 'CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION'". British Journal of Educational Studies. 53 (1): 66–89. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8527.2005.00284.x. 
  • Dill, Jeffrey S. The Longings and Limits of Global Citizenship Education: The Moral Pedagogy of Schooling in a Cosmopolitan Age. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-69024-2. 
  • Green, M., 2012. Defining Global Citizenship. http://globalhighered.wordpress.com/2012/03/11/global-citizenship/
  • Grudzinski-Hall, M.N., 2007. How Do College and University Undergraduate Level Global Citizenship Programs Advance the Development and Experiences of Global Competencies? Thesis, (PhD). Drexel University.
  • Keating, A., Hinderliter, O., & Philippou, S., 2009. Citizenship education curricula: the changes and challenges presented by global and European integration, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41:2, pp. 145–158.
  • Melaville, A., Berg, A.C., and Blank, M.J., 2006. Report: Community-Based Learning – Engaging Students for Success and Citizenship. Coalition for Community Schools.
  • Myers, John P. "Rethinking the Social Studies Curriculum in the Context of Globalization: Education for Global Citizenship in the U.S.". Theory & Research in Social Education. 34 (3): 370–394. doi:10.1080/00933104.2006.10473313. 
  • Pigozzi, M.J., 2006. A UNESCO view of global citizenship education. Educational Review, Vol. 58, No.1, pp. 1–4.
  • Rapoport, A., 2009. A Forgotten Concept: Global Citizenship Education and State Social Studies Standards. The Journal of Social Studies Research, Vol.33, No.1, pp. 91–112.
  • Schattle, H., 2008. Education for global citizenship: Illustrations of ideological pluralism and adaptation. Journal of Political Ideologies, 13:1, pp. 73–94.
  • Singh, M. and Shrestha, M. (2006) Immigration, Identity and Education for Social Justice: Robust Hope in this Era of Contested Cultural Globalisation. In: British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, 6–9 September 2006, University of Warwick.
  • Starik, M., and Kanashiro, P., 2013. Toward a Theory of Sustainability Management: Uncovering and Integrating the Nearly Obvious. Organization Environment, 26:7, pp. 7–30.
  • Tarrant, M.A., 2010. A Conceptual Framework for Exploring the Role of Studies Abroad in Nurturing Global Citizenship. Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 14, No.5, pp. 433–451.
  • Tully, J., 2005. Two Meanings of Global Citizenship: Modern and Diverse. The Meanings of Global Citizenship Conference. Liu Center and Trudeau Foundation, UBC, September 9–10, 2005.