Konflik Moro

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Konflik Moro[34] adalah sebuah pemberontakan yang sedang berlangsung di pulau Mindanao, Filipina.

Pada 1969, ketegangan politik dan pertempuran terbuka berkembang di antara Pemerintah Filipina dan kelompok-kelompok pemberontak Muslim Moro.[35] Pemberontakan Moro berujung pada pembantaian Jabidah, yang menewaskan 60 komandan Muslim Filipina atas operasi terencana untuk mengklaim kembali bagian timur negara bagian Malaysia Sabah. Sebagai tanggapannya, profesor Universitas Filipina Nur Misuari mendirikan Front Pembebasan Nasional Moro (FPNM), sebuah kelompok pemberontak bersenjata yang berniat mendirikan Mindanao yang independen. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, FPNM terbagi dalam beberapa kelompok yang berbeda yang meliputi Front Pembebasan Islam Moro, yang ingin mendirikan sebuah negara Islam di Filipina. Pemberontakan Moro berakar dalam sejarah panjang pemberontakan orang Bangsamoro melawan penguasa asing, bermula pada aneksasi Amerika atas Filipina pada 1899. Sejak itu, pemberontakan Moro beralih melawan pemerintah Filipina.

Jumlah korban konflik tersebut beragam; namun, perkiraan konservatif dari Program Data Konflik Uppsala mengindikasikan bahwa sekitar 6,015 orang tewas dalam konflik bersenjata antara Pemerintah Filipina dan faksi ASG, BIFM, MILF, dan MNLF antara 1989 dan 2012.[36]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Defense.gov News Article: Trainers, Advisors Help Philippines Fight Terrorism". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 14, 2015. Diakses tanggal 29 June 2015. 
  2. ^ Philippines to be a key recipient of Australia's New Regional Counter-Terrorism Package – Australian Embassy (archived from the original Diarsipkan 20120320180032 di www.australia.com.ph Galat: URL arsip tidak dikenal on 1 September 2007)
  3. ^ a b Malcolm Cook (17 Maret 2014). "Peace's Best Chance in Muslim Mindanao" (PDF). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. hlm. 7. ISSN 2335-6677. Diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal April 18, 2015. Diakses tanggal 15 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Anak Agung Banyu Perwita (2007). Indonesia and the Muslim World: Islam and Secularism in the Foreign Policy of Soeharto and Beyond. NIAS Press. hlm. 116–117. ISBN 978-87-91114-92-2. 
  5. ^ "Nur Misuari to be repatriated to stand trial". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 December 2001. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 July 2014. Diakses tanggal 8 July 2014. 
  6. ^ Soliman M. Santos (2003). Malaysia's Role in the Peace Negotiations Between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Southeast Asian Conflict Studies Network. ISBN 978-983-2514-38-1. 
  7. ^ "Malaysia asks PHL for help in tracking militants with Abu Sayyaf ties". GMA-News. 6 July 2014. Diakses tanggal 8 Juli 2014. 
  8. ^ Maitem, Jeoffrey (19 Januari 2016). "Armed Christian civilians vow to fight BIFF atrocities". Inquirer Mindanao. Diakses tanggal 20 January 2016. 
  9. ^ Maitem, Jeoffrey (20 Januari 2016). "IN PHOTOS: Red God Defenders". Rappler. Diakses tanggal 20 Januari 2016. 
  10. ^ Ivan Molloy. "Revolution in the Philippines – The Question of an Alliance Between Islam and Communism". Universitas California. Diakses tanggal 1 Mei 2012. 
  11. ^ AYROSO, DEE (25 Juni 2015). "Revolutionary Moro group calls for intensified armed struggle". Bulatlat.com#sthash.OtUynEX8.dpuf. Diakses tanggal 29 Juni 2015. 
  12. ^ "3 soldiers killed, 11 hurt in Lanao del Sur clash". philstar.com. Diakses tanggal 2016-02-27. 
  13. ^ Umel, Richel. "Army reports killing 20 'terrorists' in clashes with Lanao Sur armed group". globalnation.inquirer.net. Diakses tanggal 2016-02-27. 
  14. ^ "Khadafy admits aiding Muslim seccesionists". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 5 August 1986. hlm. 2. 
  15. ^ Paul J. Smith (21 September 2004). Terrorism and Violence in Southeast Asia: Transnational Challenges to States and Regional Stability. M.E. Sharpe. hlm. 194–. ISBN 978-0-7656-3626-3. 
  16. ^ William Larousse (1 January 2001). A Local Church Living for Dialogue: Muslim-Christian Relations in Mindanao-Sulu, Philippines : 1965-2000. Gregorian Biblical BookShop. hlm. 151 & 162. ISBN 978-88-7652-879-8. 
  17. ^ Michelle Ann Miller (2012). Autonomy and Armed Separatism in South and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. hlm. 291–. ISBN 978-981-4379-97-7. 
  18. ^ Tan, Andrew T/H. (2009). A Handbook of Terrorism and Insurgency in Southeast Asia. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. hlm. 230, 238. ISBN 1847207189. 
  19. ^ Isak Svensson (27 November 2014). International Mediation Bias and Peacemaking: Taking Sides in Civil Wars. Routledge. hlm. 69–. ISBN 978-1-135-10544-0. 
  20. ^ "Philippines rebel leader arrested". BBC News. 25 November 2001. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 26 September 2015. Diakses tanggal 26 September 2015. Malaysia's Inspector-General of Police Norian Mai said Mr Misuari and six of his followers were arrested at 3.30 am on Saturday (1930 GMT Friday) on Jampiras island off Sabah state. Manila had ordered his arrest on charges of instigating a rebellion after the government suspended his governorship of an autonomous Muslim region in Mindanao, the ARMM. Although the Philippines has no extradition treaty with Malaysia, the authorities have already made clear that they intend to hand Mr Misuari over to the authorities in Manila as soon as possible. Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad had said before the arrest that, although his country had provided support to the rebel group in the past in its bid for autonomy, Mr Misuari had not used his powers correctly. "Therefore, we no longer feel responsible to provide him with any assistance," he said. 
  21. ^ Peter Bergen, CNN National Security Analyst (8 Maret 2015). "ISIS goes global". CNN. Diakses tanggal 29 Juni 2015. 
  22. ^ a b Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama Abu Sayyaf leader swears oath of loyalty to ISIL
  23. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama ISIL gains supporters
  24. ^ Kristine Angeli Sabillo. "New al-Qaeda-inspired group eyed in Mindanao blasts—terror expert". Diakses tanggal 29 Juni 2015. 
  25. ^ "MILF says MNLF joins fray on side of BIFM". InterAksyon.com. Diakses tanggal 29 June 2015. 
  26. ^ "Abu Sayyaf Group (Philippines, Islamist separatists)". Council on Foreign Relations. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2015. 
  27. ^ "Note : August 10, 2000, Philippine Daily Inquirer, Source says some groups took cuts on P9-M payoff, by Donna S. Cueto,". Diakses tanggal 29 June 2015. 
  28. ^ Miani 2011, p. 74.
  29. ^ Moshe Yegar (1 January 2002). Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lexington Books. hlm. 258–. ISBN 978-0-7391-0356-2. 
  30. ^ Andrew Tian Huat Tan (1 January 2004). Security Perspectives of the Malay Archipelago: Security Linkages in the Second Front in the War on Terrorism. Edward Elgar. ISBN 978-1-84376-997-2. 
  31. ^ Shanti Nair (11 January 2013). Islam in Malaysian Foreign Policy. Routledge. hlm. 67–. ISBN 978-1-134-96099-6. Mustapha was directly implicated in the provision of training facilities for separatist Moro guerrillas as well harbouring Moro Muslim refugees in Sabah due to his ethnic connection. 
  32. ^ David Von Drehle (26 February 2015). "What Comes After the War on ISIS". TIME.com. Diakses tanggal 29 June 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c d e Lisa Huang; Victor Musembi; Ljiljana Petronic (21 June 2012). "The State-Moro Conflict in the Philippines" (PDF). Carleton. Diarsipkan (PDF) dari versi asli tanggal 29 September 2015. Diakses tanggal 29 September 2015. 
  34. ^ Amazon.com: Moro Conflict: Landlessness and Misdirected State Policies (Policy Studies) (9781932728149): Eric Gutierrez, Saturnino Jr. Borras: Books
  35. ^ "The CenSEI Report (Vol. 2, No. 13, April 2-8, 2012)". Diakses tanggal 26 January 2015. 
  36. ^ "Database - Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) – Philippines". Program Data Konflik Uppsala. Diakses tanggal 8 Maret 2015. 

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Pasanagn Marcos Templat:Masalah internal Moro Templat:Konflik Moro