Kelimpahan unsur dalam kerak bumi

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Kelimpahan (fraksi atom) unsur-unsur kimia dalam kerak bumi kontinental bagian atas sebagai fungsi nomor atom. Unsur-unsur paling langka dalam kerak bumi (ditampilkan dalam warna kuning) bukan yang terberat, tapi unsur siderofil (cinta-besi) menurut klasifikasi Goldschmidt. Ini telah habis karena direlokasi lebih jauh ke dalam inti Bumi. Kelimpahan mereka pada meteorit lebih tinggi. Selain itu, telurium dan selenium telah habis dari kerak bumi akibat pembentukan hidrida volatil.

Tabel ini menunjukkan kelimpahan unsur-unsur di kerak bumi. Angka menunjukkan persentase atau bagian per juta (ppm) dalam massa; 10.000 ppm = 1%.

Perlu diperhatikan bahwa angka merupakan perkiraan, dan mereka akan bervariasi tergantung pada sumber dan metode estimasi. Secara garis besar, data dapat dipercaya.

Urutan Z Unsur Simbol Kelimpahan di Litosfer[1] Proporsi relatif (ppm)[2] Kelimpahan dalam kerak (ppm)[3] Kelimpahan dalam kerak (ppm)[4] Kelimpahan dalam  kerak (ppm)[5] Produksi (2012, Ton)[6]
1 8 oksigen O 460,000 474,000 460,000 467,100 461,000
2 14 silikon [A] Si 277,200 277,100 270,000 276,900 282,000 7,600,000
3 13 aluminium Al 81,300 82,000 82,000 80,700 82,300 44,900,000
4 26 besi Fe 50,000 41,000 63,000 50,500 56,300 1,100,000,000
5 20 kalsium Ca 36,300 41,000 50,000 36,500 41,500
6 11 natrium Na 28,300 23,000 23,000 27,500 23,600 280,000,000
7 19 kalium K 25,900 21,000 15,000 25,800 20,900 34,000
8 12 magnesium Mg 20,900 23,000 29,000 20,800 23,300 750,000
9 22 titanium Ti 4,400 5,600 6,600 6,200 5,600 6,500,000
10 1 hidrogen H 1,400 1,500 1,400 1,400
11 15 fosfor P 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,050
12 25 mangan Mn 1,000 950 1,100 900 950 16,000,000
13 9 fluor F 800 950 540 290 585
14 56 barium Ba 500 340 340 500 425
15 6 karbon C 300 480 1,800 940 200
16 38 stronsium Sr 370 360 370 380,000
17 16 belerang S 500 260 420 520 350 70,000,000
18 40 zirkonium Zr 190 130 250 165 1,420,000
19 74 wolfram W 160.6 1.1 1.25 73,000
20 23 vanadium V 100 160 190 120 63,000
21 17 klorin Cl 500 130 170 450 145 280,000,000
22 24 krom Cr 100 100 140 350 102 7,890,000
23 37 rubidium Rb 300 90 60 90
24 28 nikel Ni 80 90 190 84 2,100,000
25 30 seng Zn 75 79 70 13,000,000
26 29 tembaga Cu 100 50 68 60 17,000,000
27 58 serium Ce 68 60 66.5
28 60 neodimium Nd 38 33 41.5
29 57 lantanum La 32 34 39
30 39 itrium Y 30 29 33 8,900
31 7 nitrogen N 50 25 20 19 137,000,000
32 27 kobalt Co 20 30 25 110,000
33 3 litium Li 20 17 20 37,000
34 41 niobium Nb 20 17 20 69,000
35 31 galium Ga 18 19 19
36 21 skandium Sc 16 26 22
37 82 timbal Pb 14 10 14 5,200,000
38 62 samarium Sm 7.9 6 7.05
39 90 torium Th 12 6 9.6
40 59 praseodimium Pr 9.5 8.7 9.2
41 5 boron B 950 8.7 10 4,600,000
42 64 gadolinium Gd 7.7 5.2 6.2
43 66 disprosium Dy 6 6.2 5.2
44 72 hafnium Hf 5.3 3.3 3.0
45 68 erbium Er 3.8 3.0 3.5
46 70 iterbium Yb 3.3 2.8 3.2
47 55 sesium Cs 3 1.9 3
48 4 berilium Be 2.6 1.9 2.8 230
49 50 timah Sn 0 2.2 2.2 2.3 230,000
50 63 europium Eu 2.1 1.8 2.0
51 92 uranium U 0 1.8 2.7 66,512
52 73 tantalum Ta 2 1.7 2.0 765
53 32 germanium Ge 1.8 1.4 1.5 128
54 42 molibdenum Mo 1.5 1.1 1.2 250,000
55 33 arsen As 1.5 2.1 1.8 44,000
56 67 holmium Ho 1.4 1.2 1.3
57 65 terbium Tb 1.1 0.94 1.2
58 69 tulium Tm 0.48 0.45 0.52
59 35 bromin Br 0.37 3 2.4 580,000
60 81 talium Tl 0.6 0.530 0.850 10
61 71 lutesium[7] Lu 0.5
62 51 antimon Sb 0.2 0.2 0.2 180,000
63 53 iodin I 0.14 0.490 0.450 28,000
64 48 kadmium Cd 0.11 0.15 0.15 23,000
65 47 perak Ag 0.070 0.080 0.075 24,000
66 80 raksa Hg 0.05 0.067 0.085 1,600
67 34 selenium Se 0.05 0.05 0.05 2,000
68 49 indium In 0.049 0.160 0.250 670
69 83 bismut Bi 0.048 0.025 0.0085 7,400
70 52 telurium Te 0.005 0.001 0.001
71 78 platina Pt 0.003 0.0037 0.005 179
72 79 emas Au 0.0011 0.0031 0.004 2,700
73 44 rutenium Ru 0.001 0.001 0.001
74 46 paladium Pd 0.0006 0.0063 0.015 200
75 75 renium Re 0.0004 0.0026 0.0007 52
76 77 iridium Ir 0.0003 0.0004 0.001
77 45 rodium Rh 0.0002 0.0007 0.001
78 76 osmium Os 0.0001 0.0018 0.0015
  1. ^ 5,000 tonnes of annual production is electronic grade

See also[sunting | sunting sumber]

References[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Elements, Terrestrial Abundance". www.daviddarling.info. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 10 April 2007. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-14. 
  2. ^ Barbalace, Kenneth. "Periodic Table of Elements". Environmental Chemistry.com. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-14. 
  3. ^ "Abundance in Earth's Crust". WebElements.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 9 March 2007. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-14. 
  4. ^ "List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by Abundance in Earth's crust". Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-15. 
  5. ^ "It's Elemental — The Periodic Table of Elements". Jefferson Lab. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 29 April 2007. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-14. 
  6. ^ Commodity Statistics and Information. USGS. All production numbers are for mines, except for Al, Cd, Fe, Ge, In, N, Se (plants, refineries), S (all forms) and As, Br, Mg, Si (unspecified). Data for B, K, Ti, Y are given not for the pure element but for the most common oxide, data for Na and Cl are for NaCl. For many elements like Si, Al, data are ambiguos (many forms produced) and are taken for the pure element. U data is pure element required for consumption by current reactor fleet [1]. WNA.
  7. ^ Emsley, John (2001). Nature's building blocks: an A-Z guide to the elements. Oxford University Press. hlmn. 240–242. ISBN 0-19-850341-5. 
  • BookRags, Periodic Table.
  • World Book Encyclopedia, Exploring Earth.
  • HyperPhysics, Georgia State University, Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust.
  • Data Series 140, Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, Version 2011, USGS [2].
  • Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2007