Daftar sultan Utsmaniyah

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Sultan Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
Bekas Kerajaan
Imperial
Osmanli-nisani.svg
Ottoman coat of arms
EmperorSuleiman.jpg
Süleyman The Magnificent (1520-1566)
القانونى‎ سليمان
The Conqueror Of Hungary
Kanunî Sultân Süleyman Khan
( The Lawgiver )
Penguasa monarki pertama Osman Bey Ghazi
( 1281 -1326 )

عثمان غازی
Sultân Osman Gazi
(The Esquire - The Warrior)
Penguasa monarki terakhir Mehmed VI Khan
محمد سادس
Mehmed Wahid Ad-Dîn
( The Unicity Of Faith )
Gaya His Imperial Majesty[a]
Tempat tinggal resmi istana-istana di Istanbul:
Appointer keturunan
Monarki dimulai c. 1299
Monarki berakhir 1 November 1922

Para sultan Dinasti Utsmaniyah menguasai wilayah kekuasaan transkontinental yang sangat luas mulai dari tahun 1299 hingga 1922. Pada puncak kejayaannya, Kesultanan Utsmaniyah berkuasa mulai dari Hungaria hingga ke bagian utara Somalia di sebelah selatan, dan dari Aljazair di sebelah barat hingga Irak di sebelah timur. Ibukotanya mula-mula adalah Bursa di Anatolia, kemudian dipindahkan ke Edirne pada tahun 1366 dan ke Konstantinopel atau Istanbul pada tahun 1453 setelah Kejatuhan Konstantinopel Kekaisaran Bizantium[1]

Bendera Kesultanan Utsmaniyah

Daftar sultan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tabel di bawah ini berisi informasi para sultan Utsmaniyah, juga kalifah Utsmaniyah, diurutkan berdasarkan kronologi. Tughra adalah lambang atau tanda kaligrafi yang digunakan oleh para sultan Utsmaniyah yang dituliskan pada semua dokumen resmi dan uang koin, dan lebih melambangkan sang sultan daripada portret sang sultan. Kolom "Catatan" berisi informasi mengenai orangtua dan nasib tiap sultan. Bila pemerintahan seorang sultan tidak berakhir dengan kematian wajar, alasannya ditandai dengan cetak tebal. [2] Pada tahun 1617, hukum pergantian keturunan dalam Kesultanan ini diubah dari "siapa yang kuat akan menang" menjadi suatu sistem yang didasarkan atas tingkat senioritas agnatik (ekberiyet), yaitu tahta akan diteruskan oleh laki-laki tertua dalam keluarga. Ini menyebabkan sejak abad ke-17 sultan yang meninggal jarang digantikan oleh putranya, tetapi biasanya oleh seorang paman atau saudara laki-laki.[3] Sistem "senioritas agnatik" (agnatic seniority) dipertahankan sampai pembubaran kesultanan, meskipun pada abad ke-19 ada usaha yang gagal untuk mengganti dengan sistem "primogeniture" (keturunan tertua).[4]

# Sultan Potret Berkuasa sejak Berkuasa hingga Tughra Catatan
Emir Gazi
Ertuğrul Bey

أرطغرل غازی
Amîr Ghazi -
The Esquire
(b. 1191 - d. 1281)
1230 1281
[c]
Emir Gazi
Osman Bey

عثمان بن أرطغرل
Amîr Fakhr ud-din
Othman-Al Ghazi - The Esquire
(b. 1258 - d. 1324)
Potret Osman I by John Young 1281 1299
[c]
Pendirian Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(27 Juli 129920 Juli 1402)
1 Osman I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
BEY (The Esquire)
KARA (lit. The Land or The Black) for his bravery
Potret Osman I by John Young 1299 1324
[c]
2 Orhan I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
BEY (The Esquire)
Potret Orhan 1324 1362 Tughra of Orhan
3 Murad I
HÜDAVENDİGÂR - Khodāvandgār -

(The God-like One)
(Sultan since 1383)

1362 15 Juni 1389 Tughra of Murad I
4 Bayezid I
YILDIRIM (The Thunderbolt)
Potret Bayezid I by Cristofano dell'Altissimo 15 Juni 1389 20 Juli 1402 Tughra of Bayezid I
Ottoman Interregnum[d]
(20 Juli 14025 Juli 1413)
İsa Çelebi
The Co-Sultan of Anatolia
1403 1405
Emir (Amir)
Süleyman Çelebi

The First Sultan of Rumelia
20 Juli 1402 17 Februari 1411[10]
Musa Çelebi
The Second Sultan of Rumelia
Potret Musa Çelebi 18 Februari 1411 5 Juli 1413[12]
Mehmed Çelebi
The Sultan of Anatolia
Potret Mehmed Çelebi 1403 - 1406
(Sultan of the Eastern Anatolian Territory)

1406 - 1413
(The Sultan of Anatolia)
5 Juli 1413
Kebangkitan Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(5 Juli 141329 Mei 1453)
5 Mehmed I
ÇELEBİ (The Affable)
KİRİŞÇİ (lit. The Bowstring Maker) for his support
Potret Mehmed I 5 Juli 1413 26 Mei 1421 Tughra of Mehmed I
6 Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
Potret Murad II by John Young 25 Juni 1421 1444 Tughra of Murad II
7 Mehmed II
FATİH (The Conqueror)
Fatih II. Mehmet.jpg 1444 1446 Tughra of Mehmed II
Murad II
KOCA (The Great)
Potret Murad II by John Young 1446 3 Februari 1451 Tughra of Murad II
  • Masa pemerintahan kedua;
  • Dipaksa kembali bertakhta setelah terjadi pemberontakan Yanisari;[19]
  • Berkuasa sampai wafat.[16]
Perkembangan Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(29 Mei 145311/12 September 1683)
Mehmed II
FATİH (The Conqueror)
Gentile Bellini 003.jpg 3 Februari 1451 3 Mei 1481 Tughra of Mehmed II
8 Bayezid II
VELÎ (The Saint)
Potret Bayezid II by John Young 19 Mei 1481 25 April 1512 Tughra of Bayezid II
9 Selim I
YAVUZ (The Stern)
(Caliph Of Muslims Since 1517)
Potret Selim I by John Young 25 April 1512 21 September 1520 Tughra of Selim I
10 Suleiman I
MUHTEŞEM (Yang Agung)

or KANÛNÎ (The Lawgiver)

Potret Suleiman yang Agung by Nakkaş Osman 30 September 1520 6 or 7 September 1566 Tughra of Suleiman yang Agung
11 Selim II
SARI (The Yellow-The Blond)
Potret Selim II by John Young 29 September 1566 21 Desember 1574 Tughra of Selim II
12 Murad III Potret Murad III by John Young 22 Desember 1574 16 Januari 1595 Tughra of Murad III
13 Mehmed III
ADLÎ (The Just)
Potret Mehmed III by John Young 27 Januari 1595 20 or 21 Desember 1603 Tughra of Mehmed III
14 Ahmed I
BAKHTÎ (The Fortunate)
Potret Ahmed I by John Young 21 Desember 1603 22 November 1617 Tughra of Ahmed I
15 Mustafa I
DELİ (The Intestable)
Potret Mustafa I by John Young 22 November 1617 26 Februari 1618 Tughra of Mustafa I
16 Osman II
GENÇ (The Young)
Potret Osman II by John Young 26 Februari 1618 19 Mei 1622 Tughra of Osman II
Mustafa I
DELİ (The Intestable)
Potret Mustafa I by John Young 20 Mei 1622 10 September 1623 Tughra of Mustafa I
17 Murad IV
GHAZI (The Warrior)
Potret Murad IV by John Young 10 September 1623 8 or 9 Februari 1640 Tughra of Murad IV
18 Ibrahim I
DELİ (The Arrage)
Potret Ibrahim by John Young 9 Februari 1640 8 Agustus 1648 Tughra of Ibrahim
19 Mehmed IV
AVCI (The Hunter)
Potret Mehmed IV by John Young 8 Agustus 1648 8 November 1687 Tughra of Mehmed IV
Stagnasi Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(11/12 September 168320 Oktober 1827)
20 Suleiman II Potret Suleiman II by John Young 8 November 1687 22 Juni 1691 Tughra of Suleiman II
21 Ahmed II
KHAN GHAZI (The Warrior Prince)
Potret Ahmed II by John Young 22 Juni 1691 6 Februari 1695 Tughra of Ahmed II
22 Mustafa II
GHAZI (The Warrior)
Potret Mustafa II by John Young 6 Februari 1695 22 Agustus 1703 Tughra of Mustafa II
23 Ahmed III Potret Ahmed III by John Young 22 Agustus 1703 1 or 2 Oktober 1730 Tughra of Ahmed III
24 Mahmud I
GHAZI (The Warrior)
KAMBUR (The Hunchback)
Potret Mahmud I by John Young 2 Oktober 1730 13 Desember 1754 Tughra of Mahmud I
25 Osman III
SOFU (The Devout)
Potret Osman III by John Young 13 Desember 1754 29 or 30 Oktober 1757 Tughra of Osman III
26 Mustafa III
YENİLİKÇİ (The First Innovative)
Potret Mustafa III by John Young 30 Oktober 1757 21 Januari 1774 Tughra of Mustafa III
27 Abd-ul-Hamid I
The Servant of God
Potret Abd-ul-Hamid I by John Young 21 Januari 1774 6 or 7 April 1789 Tughra of Abd-ul-Hamid I
28 Selim III
BESTEKÂR (The Composer)
Potret Selim III by Konstantin Kapidagli 7 April 1789 29 Mei 1807 Tughra of Selim III
29 Mustafa IV Potret Mustafa IV by John Young 29 Mei 1807 28 Juli 1808 Tughra of Mustafa IV
30 Mahmud II
ISLAHÂTÇI (The Reformer)
Potret Mahmud II by John Young 28 Juli 1808 1 Juli 1839 Tughra of Mahmud II
Kemunduran Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(20 Oktober 182724 Juli 1908)
31 Abd-ul-Mejid I
TANZİMÂTÇI (The Strong Reformist or The Advocate of Reorganization)
Potret Abd-ul-Mejid I 1 Juli 1839 25 Juni 1861 Tughra of Abd-ul-Mejid I
32 Abd-ul-Aziz I Potret Abd-ul-Aziz 25 Juni 1861 30 Mei 1876 Tughra of Abd-ul-Aziz
33 Murad V
Potret Murad V 30 Mei 1876 31 Agustus 1876 Tughra of Murad V
34 Abd-ul-Hamid II
ULU HAN

(The Sublime Khan)

Potret Abd-ul-Hamid II 31 Agustus 1876 27 April 1909 Tughra of Abd-ul-Hamid II
Pembubaran Kesultanan Utsmaniyah[e]
(24 Juli 190830 Oktober 1918)
35 Mehmed V
REŞÂD

(The True Path Follower)

Potret Mehmed V 27 April 1909 3 Juli 1918 Tughra of Mehmed V
Pembagian Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
(30 Oktober 19181 November 1922)
36 Mehmed VI
VÂHİD-ÜD-DÎN

(The Unifier of Religion (Islam) or The Oneness of Islam)

Potret Mehmed VI by Sebah & Joaillier 4 Juli 1918 1 November 1922 Tughra of Mehmed VI
Republican Caliphate
( 18 November 1922 – 3 Maret 1924 )
Abd-ul-Mejid II
HALİFE

(The Last Ottoman Caliph Of Islam)

Potret Abd-ul-Mejid II 18 November 1922 3 Maret 1924
[c]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]


Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Stavrides 2001, p. 21
  2. ^ Quataert 2005, p. 91
  3. ^ Quataert 2005, p. 92
  4. ^ Karateke 2005, pp. 37–54
  5. ^ "Sultan Osman Gazi". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  6. ^ "Sultan Osman Gazi". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  7. ^ "Sultan Orhan Gazi". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  8. ^ "Sultan Murad Hüdavendigar Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  9. ^ "Sultan Yıldırım Beyezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  10. ^ Nicholae Jorga: Geschishte des Osmanichen (Trans :Nilüfer Epçeli) Vol 1 Yeditepe yayınları, İstanbul,2009,ISBN 975-6480-17-3 p 314
  11. ^ Nicholae Jorga: Geschishte des Osmanichen (Trans :Nilüfer Epçeli) Vol 1 Yeditepe yayınları, İstanbul, 2009, ISBN 975-6480-17-3 p 314
  12. ^ Joseph von Hammer:Osmanlı Tarihi cilt I (condensation: Abdülkadir Karahan), Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul. p 58-60.
  13. ^ Prof. Yaşar Yüce-Prof. Ali Sevim: Türkiye tarihi Cilt II, AKDTYKTTK Yayınları, İstanbul, 1991 p 74-75
  14. ^ Joseph von Hammer:Osmanlı Tarihi cilt I (condensation: Abdülkadir Karahan), Milliyet yayınları, İstanbul. p. 58-60.
  15. ^ "Sultan Mehmed Çelebi Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  16. ^ a b "Sultan II. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  17. ^ a b "Chronology: Sultan II. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-04-07. 
  18. ^ "Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  19. ^ Kafadar 1996, p. xix
  20. ^ "Chronology: Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2010-07-15. 
  21. ^ "Sultan II. Bayezid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  22. ^ "Yavuz Sultan Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  23. ^ "Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  24. ^ "Sultan II. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  25. ^ "Sultan III. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  26. ^ "Sultan III. Mehmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  27. ^ "Sultan I. Ahmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  28. ^ a b "Sultan I. Mustafa". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  29. ^ "Sultan II. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  30. ^ "Sultan IV. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  31. ^ "Sultan İbrahim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  32. ^ "Sultan IV. Mehmed". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  33. ^ "Sultan II. Süleyman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  34. ^ "Sultan II. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  35. ^ "Sultan II. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  36. ^ "Sultan III. Ahmed Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  37. ^ "Sultan I. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  38. ^ "Sultan III. Osman Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  39. ^ "Sultan III. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  40. ^ "Sultan I. Abdülhamit Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  41. ^ "Sultan III. Selim Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  42. ^ "Sultan IV. Mustafa Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  43. ^ "Sultan II. Mahmud Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  44. ^ "Sultan Abdülmecid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  45. ^ "Sultan Abdülaziz Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  46. ^ "Sultan V. Murad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  47. ^ "Sultan II. Abdülhamid Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  48. ^ "Sultan V. Mehmed Reşad Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  49. ^ "Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdettin Han". Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Diakses 2009-02-06. 
  50. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 13
  51. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 17
  52. ^ As̜iroğlu 1992, p. 14

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Ciptaan baru
Penguasa Kesultanan Utsmaniyah
1299–1922
Kesultanan dihapuskan
Kekuasaan dialihkan ke
Presiden Turki
Jabatan Islam Sunni
Didahului oleh:
Dinasti Abbasyid
in Cairo
Kalifah
1517–1924
Penghapusan Kekhalifahan