Bahasa Lombard

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Bahasa Lombard
lombard/lumbaart (WL)
lombard (EL)
Dituturkan diItalia, Swiss
WilayahItalia:[1][2][3]
Lombardia
Piemonte
Tirol Selatan
Trentino
Swiss:[1][2][3]
Graubünden
Ticino
Brasil:[4]
Santa Catarina
Penutur bahasa
3,9 juta  (2002)[5]
Dialek
Kode bahasa
ISO 639-3lmo
Glottologlomb1257[6]
Linguasfer51-AAA-oc & 51-AAA-od
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Kawasan berbahasa Lombard dengan warna biru, dengan dialek peralihan antara bahasa Lombard dan Bahasa Emilian dengan warna yang lebih terang. Garis hijau menandai bagian dari varietas Barat ke Timur.
Artikel ini mengandung simbol fonetik IPA. Tanpa bantuan render yang baik, Anda akan melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain, bukan karakter Unicode.

Bahasa Lombard (nama asli lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, bergantung pada ortografi; diucapkan [lũˈbɑːrt] atau [lomˈbart]) ialah bahasa[7] milik kelompok Cisalpine atau Gallo-Italik, dalam bahasa Roman.[8] Ini adalah kelompok varietas homogen yang digunakan oleh setidaknya 3.500.000 penutur asli di Italia Utara (sebagian besar Lombardia dan beberapa kawasan di daerah tetangga, terutama sisi timur Piemonte), Selatan Swiss (Kanton Ticino dan Graubünden),[8] dan Brasil (Botuverá, Santa Catarina).[4] Bahasa yang paling dekat dengan bahasa Lombard adalah Franco-Provençal, bahasa Prancis, bahasa Romania, bahasa Occitan[9][10] , dan Bahasa Piemonte.[11]

Pria muda yang bertutur dialek Lombard Timur (kosakata dipengaruhi bahasa Italia)

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ a b Minahan, James (2000). One Europe, many nations: a historical dictionary of European national groups. Westport. 
  2. ^ a b Moseley, Christopher (2007). Encyclopedia of the world's endangered languages. New York. 
  3. ^ a b Coluzzi, Paolo (2007). Minority language planning and micronationalism in Italy. Berne. 
  4. ^ a b Spoken in Botuverá, in Brazil, municipality established by Italian migrants coming from the valley between Treviglio and Crema. A thesis of Leiden University about Brasilian Bergamasque: [1].
  5. ^ Bahasa Lombard di Ethnologue (ed. ke-18, 2015)
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, ed. (2019). "Lombard". Glottolog 4.1. Jena, Jerman: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  7. ^ "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: LMO". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2017-08-19. Identifier: LMO / Name: Lombard / Status: Active / Code set: 639-3 / Scope: Individual / Type: Living 
  8. ^ a b Jones, Mary C.; Soria, Claudia (2015). "Assessing the effect of official recognition on the vitality of endangered languages: a case of study from Italy". Policy and Planning for Endangered Languages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. hlm. 130. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2017-04-21. Lombard (Lumbard, ISO 639-9 lmo) is a cluster of essentially homogeneous varieties (Tamburelli 2014: 9) belonging to the Gallo-Italic group. It is spoken in the Italian region of Lombardy, in the Novara province of Piedmont, and in Switzerland. Mutual intelligibility between speakers of Lombard and monolingual Italian speakers has been reported as very low (Tamburelli 2014). Although some Lombard varieties, Milanese in particular, enjoy a rather long and prestigious literary tradition, Lombard is now mostly used in informal domains. According to Ethnologue, Piedmontese and Lombard are spoken by between 1,600,000 and 2,000,000 speakers and around 3,500,000 speakers respectively. These are very high figures for languages that have never been recognised officially nor systematically taught in school 
  9. ^ "Lombard". thefreedictionary.com. Diakses tanggal 30 April 2018. 
  10. ^ Bishop, Caroline (2 March 2017). "18 interesting facts about Switzerland's fourth language, Romansh". www.thelocal.ch. 
  11. ^ Bonfadini, Giovanni. "lombardi, dialetti" [Lombard dialects]. Enciclopedia Treccani (dalam bahasa Italia). 

Daftar pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Agnoletto, Attilio (1992). San Giorgio su Legnano - storia, società, ambiente. SBN IT\ICCU\CFI\0249761. 
  • D'Ilario, Giorgio (2003). Dizionario legnanese. Artigianservice. SBN IT\ICCU\MIL\0625963. 
  • Bernard Comrie, Stephen Matthews, Maria Polinsky (eds.), The Atlas of languages: the origin and development of languages throughout the world. New York 2003, Facts On File. p. 40.
  • Brevini, Franco - Lo stile lombardo: la tradizione letteraria da Bonvesin da la Riva a Franco Loi / Franco Brevini - Pantarei, Lugan - 1984 (Lombard style: literary tradition from Bonvesin da la Riva to Franco Loi )
  • Glauco Sanga: La lingua Lombarda, in Koiné in Italia, dalle origini al 500 (Koinés in Italy, from the origin to 1500), Lubrina publisher, Bèrghem.
  • Claudio Beretta: Letteratura dialettale milanese. Itinerario antologico-critico dalle origini ai nostri giorni - Hoepli, 2003.
  • G. Hull: "The linguistic Unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia, PhD thesis, University of Sydney, 1982; published as The Linguistic Unity of Northern Italy and Rhaetia: Historical Grammar of the Padanian Language, 2 vols. Sydney: Beta Crucis Editions, 2017.
  • Jørgen G. Bosoni: «Una proposta di grafia unificata per le varietà linguistiche lombarde: regole per la trascrizione», in Bollettino della Società Storica dell’Alta Valtellina 6/2003, p. 195-298 (Società Storica Alta Valtellina: Bormio, 2003). A comprehensive description of a unified set of writing rules for all the Lombard varieties of Switzerland and Italy, with IPA transcriptions and examples.
  • Tamburelli, M. (2014). Uncovering the ‘hidden’ multilingualism of Europe: an Italian case study. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 35(3), 252-270.
  • NED Editori: I quatter Vangeli de Mattee, March, Luca E Gioann - 2002.
  • Stephen A. Wurm: Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger of Disappearing. Paris 2001, UNESCO Publishing, p. 29.
  • Studi di lingua e letteratura lombarda offerti a Maurizio Vitale, (Studies in Lombard language and literature) Pisa: Giardini, 1983
  • A cura di Pierluigi Beltrami, Bruno Ferrari, Luciano Tibiletti, Giorgio D'Ilario: Canzoniere Lombardo - Varesina Grafica Editrice, 1970.
  • Sanga, Glauco. 1984. Dialettologia Lombarda. University of Pavia. 346pp.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]