ParaHoxozoa

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ParaHoxozoa
Periode 605.2 –0 jtyl
Ediacaran-Sekarang
Parahoxozoa Edit the value on Wikidata
Taksonomi
KerajaanAnimalia
Tanpa nilaiParahoxozoa Edit the value on Wikidata
Klad

ParaHoxozoa (atau Parahoxozoa) adalah klad hewan yang terdiri dari Bilateria, Placozoa, dan Cnidaria.[1] Hubungan klad ini relatif terhadap dua garis keturunan hewan lainnya (Ctenophora dan Porifera) masih diperdebatkan. Beberapa studi Filogenomis telah menunjukkan bukti pendukung Ctenophora sebagai saudara Parahoxozoa dan Porifera sebagai kelompok saudara hewan lainnya (contoh [2][3][4][5][6][7]). Beberapa studi menunjukkan bukti pendukung Porifera sebagai saudara Parahoxozoa dan Ctenophora sebagai kelompok saudara hewan lainnya (contoh [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]). Pohon di bawah ini, yang kongruen dengan sebagian besar studi filogenomis ini, menyampaikan ketidakpastian ini dengan politomi.

Choanozoa

ChoanoflagellataCronoflagelado2.svg

Animalia

CtenophoraMertensia ovum.png

Porifera Reef3859 - Flickr - NOAA Photo Library.jpg

Parahoxozoa

PlacozoaTrichoplax adhaerens photograph.png

Planulozoa

CnidariaMedusae of world-vol03 fig360 Atolla chuni.jpg

BilateriaAcrodipsas brisbanensis.jpg

ParaHoxozoa atau Parahoxozoa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Meskipun gen "ParaHox" biasanya dirujuk dalam CamelCase dan makalah asli yang menamai clade tersebut menggunakan "ParaHoxozoa", format huruf awal tunggal "Parahoxozoa" telah menjadi lebih umum dalam literatur karena CamelCase tidak standar dalam tata nama zoologi.

Karakteristik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parahoxozoa ditentukan oleh kemunculan (sub)kelas gen (HNF, CUT, PROS, ZF, CERS, K50, S50-PRD), serta Hox/ParaHox-ANTP yang merupakan asal-usul nama klade. Kemudian ini diusulkan[24][25] dan diperdebatkan[26] bahwa gen dari kelas yang sama (ANTP) sebagai Hox/ParaHox, gen NK dan gen Cdx Parahox, juga ada di Porifera, spons. Terlepas dari apakah gen ParaHox pernah diidentifikasi secara definitif, Parahoxozoa, seperti yang didefinisikan semula, adalah monofiletik dan oleh karena itu terus digunakan seperti itu.[27]

Planula-acoel, triploblasty, dan kesamaan bilateria[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bilateria asli dihipotesiskan sebagai cacing yang tinggal di dasar dengan bukaan tubuh tunggal.[28] Namun, sebuah saluran pencernaan mungkin sudah berkembang dengan Ctenophora.[29] Saluran pencernaan mungkin telah berkembang dari sudut satu lubang dengan bibir yang menyatu. Contohnya Acoela mirip dengan larva planula dari beberapa Cnidaria, yang menunjukkan beberapa simetri bilateria. Mereka berbentuk seperti ulat, sama seperti Buddenbrockia dari filum Cnidaria.[30][31][32] Placozoa telah dicatat menyerupai planula.[33] Biasanya, "Planulozoa" tidak termasuk Placozoa, namun hal tersebut belum tentu. Pada kasus ini, Planulozoa bersifat sinonim dengan Parahoxozoa.[34] Triploblasti berkembang sebelum radiasi Cnidara-Bilateria juga.[35]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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