Organisasi Bangsa dan Rakyat yang Tidak Terwakili

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Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
Bendera Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
Bendera
Logo Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO)
Logo
Anggota UNPO. Mantan anggota berwarna abu-abu gelap.
Anggota UNPO. Mantan anggota berwarna abu-abu gelap.
HeadquartersBrussels, Belgia
Keanggotaan44 grup/negara.
Pemimpin
• General Secretary[1]
Ralph J. Bunche III
(2018–present)
• President[1]
Nasser Boladai
• Vice-Presidents[1]
Dolkun Isa
Abdirahman Mahdi
Pendirian11 February 1991
Situs web resmi
unpo.org Sunting ini di Wikidata

Organisasi Bangsa dan Masyarakat yang Tidak Terwakili (UNPO) adalah organisasi internasional yang didirikan untuk memfasilitasi suara negara dan masyarakat yang tidak terwakili dan terpinggirkan di seluruh dunia. Itu dibentuk pada 11 Februari 1991[2][3] di Den Haag, Belanda. Anggotanya terdiri dari masyarakat adat, minoritas, dan tidak diakui atau pendudukan wilayah.

UNPO bekerja untuk mengembangkan pemahaman dan penghormatan terhadap hak untuk menentukan nasib sendiri, memberikan saran dan dukungan terkait dengan pertanyaan pengakuan internasional dan otonomi politik, melatih kelompok tentang cara mengadvokasi penyebab mereka secara efektif, dan secara langsung mengadvokasi tanggapan internasional terhadap pelanggaran hak asasi manusia yang dilakukan terhadap kelompok anggota UNPO. Beberapa mantan anggota, seperti Armenia, Timor Timur, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia dan Palau, telah memperoleh kemerdekaan penuh dan bergabung dengan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB). [4][5]

Anggota[sunting | sunting sumber]

The following are listed as members by the UNPO.[6]

Original members are listed with pink background and in bold.

Member Date joined Represented by Ref
Abkhazians 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Abkhazia [7]
Aceh 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 Aceh-Sumatra National Liberation Front [8]
Templat:Country data Volkstaat Afrikaners 02008-05-1515 Mei 2008 Freedom Front Plus [9]
Ahwazi 02003-11-1414 November 2003 Democratic Solidarity Party of Ahwaz [10]
Assyrians 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 Assyrian Universal Alliance [11]
Balochistanis 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 Balochistan National Party (Mengal) [12]
Bendera Barotseland Barotseland 02013-11-2323 November 2013 Barotse National Freedom Alliance [13]
Bellah people 02017-06-066 Juni 2017 Malian Association for the Preservation of Bellah Culture [14]
Templat:Country data Biafra Biafra 02020-07-3131 Juli 2020 Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra/Biafra Independence Movement [15][16]
Bendera Bretagne Brittany 02015-06-088 Juni 2015 Kelc’h An Dael [17]
Bendera Catalunya Catalonians 02018-12-1414 Desember 2018 Assemblea Nacional Catalana [18]
Chittagong Hill Tracts 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 Parbatya Chattagram Jana Samhati Samiti [19]
Crimean Tatars 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 Milli Mejlis [20]
District of Columbia (Washington, DC) 02015-12-044 Desember 2015 D.C. Statehood Congressional Delegation [21]
Templat:Country data East Turkestan East Turkestan 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 World Uyghur Congress [22]
Gilgit Baltistan 02008-09-2020 September 2008 Gilgit Baltistan Democratic Alliance [23]
Bendera Guam Guam 02020-07-3131 Juli 2020 Government of Guam [15][16]
Haratin 02011-09-1818 September 2011 Initiative de Résurgence du Mouvement Abolitionniste en Mauritanie [24]
Hmong 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 Congress of World Hmong People [25]
Iranian Kurds 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan and Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan [26]
Kabylia 02017-06-066 Juni 2017 MAK-Anavad [27]
Khmer Krom 02001-07-1515 Juli 2001 Khmers Kampuchea-Krom Federation [28]
Lezghin 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Federal Lezgian National and Cultural Autonomy [29]
Madhesh 02017-10-1414 Oktober 2017 Alliance for Independent Madhesh [30]
Nagalim 01993-01-2323 Januari 1993 National Socialist Council of Nagalim [31]
Bendera Ogaden Ogaden 02010-02-066 Februari 2010 Ogaden National Liberation Front [32]
Bendera Ogoni Ogoni 01993-01-1919 Januari 1993 Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People [33]
Oromo 02004-12-1919 Desember 2004 Oromo Liberation Front [34]
Rehoboth Basters 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 Captains Council [35]
River Races of Zambesia 02020-07-3131 Juli 2020 Movement for the Survival of the River Races of Zambesia [15][16]
Bendera Savoy Savoy 02014-07-1515 Juli 2014 Provisional Government of the State of Savoy [36]
Sindhudesh 02002-01-1919 Januari 2002 World Sindhi Institute [37]
Flag of Somaliland Somaliland 02004-12-1919 Desember 2004 Government of Somaliland [38]
Templat:Country data South Moluccas South Moluccas 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 Republic of South Moluccas [39]
Southern Azerbaijanis 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 South Azerbaijan Democratic Party [40]
Southern Mongolians 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center [41]
Sulu 02015-01-055 Januari 2015 Sulu Foundation of Nine Ethnic Tribes [42]
Bendera Republik Tiongkok Taiwan 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 Taiwan Foundation for Democracy [43]
Bendera Tibet Tibet 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 Central Tibetan Administration [44]
West Balochistanis 02005-06-2626 Juni 2005 Balochistan People's Party [45]
Western Togolanders 02017-01-012017 Homeland Study Group Foundation [46]
This is the official of Yoruba Nation currently at UNPO
Yorùbá Nation
02020-07-3131 Juli 2020 Ilana Omo Oodua (formerly Yoruba World Congress) [15][16]

Bekas anggota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Di bawah ini adalah bekas anggota UNPO yang telah mendapatkan pengakuan PBB:

Some members of the UNPO have left because of United Nations (UN) recognition, autonomy agreements, or for other reasons.

The following lists former and suspended members.[6]

Former members who became part of the UN are highlighted with a blue background and italics. Original members (from 11 February 1991) are listed with pink background and in bold.

Former member Date joined Date withdrew Note Ref
Aboriginals of Australia 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by National Committee to Defend Black Rights [47]
Albanians in North Macedonia 01994-04-1616 April 1994 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 Reached agreement on wider rights with North Macedonia in 2001 [48]
Amazigh 02014-11-2828 November 2014 02016-11-2626 November 2016 Represented by World Amazigh Congress [49]
 Armenia 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 01992-03-022 Maret 1992 Became member of the UN in 1992 [50]
Bendera Bashkortostan Bashkortostan 01996-02-033 Februari 1996 01998-06-3030 Juni 1998 [51]
Batwa 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02019-12-01Desember 2019 Cultural Conservation Act [52]
Bougainville 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 Reached autonomy agreement with Papua New Guinea in 2000 [53]
Buffalo River Dene Nation 02004-12-1919 Desember 2004 02009-10-099 Oktober 2009 [54]
Burma 02008-05-1515 Mei 2008 02010-02-1313 Februari 2010 Represented by National Council of the Union of Burma [55]
Bendera Buryatia Buryatia 01996-02-033 Februari 1996 02010-02-1313 Februari 2010 Represented by All-Buryat Association for the Development of Culture [56]
Cabinda 01997-04-1717 April 1997 02011-09-1818 September 2011 [57]
Chameria 02015-06-088 Juni 2015 02019-12-01Desember 2019 Democratic Foundation of Chameria [58][6]
Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02010-09-1010 September 2010 [59]
Chin 02001-07-1515 Juli 2001 02016-11-2626 November 2016 Represented by Chin National Front [60]
Bendera Chuvashia Chuvash 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 [61]
Templat:Country data Circassia Circassia 01994-04-1616 April 1994 02015-11-066 November 2015 Represented by International Circassian Association [62]
Cordillera 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 02015-11-066 November 2015 Represented by Cordillera Peoples' Alliance [63]
Degar-Montagnards 02003-11-1414 November 2003 02016-04-2929 April 2016 Represented by Montagnard Foundation, Inc. [64]
 East Timor 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02002-09-2727 September 2002 Became member of the UN in 2002 [65]
 Estonia 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 01991-08-1717 Agustus 1991 Became member of the UN in 1991 [66]
Gagauzia 01994-04-1616 April 1994 02007-12-011 Desember 2007 Reached autonomy agreement with Moldova in 1994 [67]
 Georgia 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 01992-07-3131 Juli 1992 Became member of the UN in 1991 [68]
Greek minority in Albania 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by Omonoia [69]
Bendera Hongaria Hungarian minority in Romania 01994-07-3030 Juli 1994 02015-01-012015 Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania [70]
Bendera Ingushetia Ingushetia 01994-07-3030 Juli 1994 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 [71]
Inkeri 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02009-10-099 Oktober 2009 [72]
Bendera Kurdistan Irak Iraqi Kurdistan 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 02015-07-011 Juli 2015 Represented by Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan [73]
Iraqi Turkmen 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02016-11-2727 November 2016 Represented by Iraqi Turkmen Front, Turkmen Nationalist Movement, Turkmen Wafa Movement, and Islamic Union of Iraqi Turkmens [74]
Kalahui Hawaii 01993-08-033 Agustus 1993 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by Ka Lahui Hawaii [75]
Karenni State 01993-01-1919 Januari 1993 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by Karenni National Progressive Party[tak ada di rujukan] [76]
Khalistan 01993-01-2424 Januari 1993[77] 01993-08-044 Agustus 1993 Membership suspended on 4 August 1993 and suspension made permanent 22 January 1995.[78] [79]
Templat:Country data Komi Republic Komi 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02009-10-099 Oktober 2009 [80]
Bendera Kosovo Kosovo 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02018-03-2424 Maret 2018 Represented by Democratic League of Kosovo [81]
Kumyk 01997-04-1717 April 1997 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 [82]
Lakota Nation 01994-07-3030 Juli 1994 02007-12-011 Desember 2007 Followed by the declaration of the Republic of Lakotah [83]
Latin American Indigenous Peoples (Project) 2016 [6]
 Latvia 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 01991-08-1717 Agustus 1991 Became member of the UN in 1991 [84]
Templat:Country data Maasai people Maasai 02004-12-1919 Desember 2004 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by Maasai Women for Education and Economic Development [85]
Maohi 01994-07-3030 Juli 1994 02007-12-011 Desember 2007 Represented by Hiti Tau [86]
Mapuche 01993-01-1919 Januari 1993 02016-04-2626 April 2016 Represented by Mapuche Inter-Regional Council [87]
Berkas:Flag of Mari UNPO.gif Mari 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02009-10-099 Oktober 2009 [88]
Mon 01996-02-033 Februari 1996 02012-07-077 Juli 2012 Represented by Mon Unity League [89]
Moro 02010-09-2626 September 2010 02014-11-2828 November 2014 Represented by the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, autonomy and peace deal with the government in 2014 [90]
Nahua Del Alto Balsas 02004-12-1919 Desember 2004 02008-09-2020 September 2008 [91]
Nuxalk Nation 01998-09-2323 September 1998 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 [92]
 Palau (Belau) 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 01994-12-1515 Desember 1994 Became member of the UN in 1994 [93]
Rusyn 01998-09-2323 September 1998 02007-12-011 Desember 2007 [94]
Bendera Republik Sakha Sakha 01993-08-033 Agustus 1993 01998-06-3030 Juni 1998 [95]
Templat:Country data Sandžak Sanjak 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02011-09-1818 September 2011 Represented by the Bosnian National Council of Sanjak [96]
Bendera County Skåne Scania (Skåneland) 01993-01-1919 Januari 1993 02011-09-1818 September 2011 Membership suspended on 18 September 2011.[97] [98]
Shan 01997-04-1717 April 1997 02010-02-066 Februari 2010 [99]
South Arabia 02016-04-2929 April 2016 Represented by the Southern Democratic Assembly for Self-Determination for South Arabia's People [100]
Bendera Kamerun Selatan Southern Cameroons 02006-10-2525 Oktober 2006 02021-06-077 Juni 2021 Represented by the Southern Cameroons National Council and Ambazonia Governing Council (from September 2018). [101]
Talysh 02014-07-1515 Juli 2014 National Talysh Movement [102]
Bendera Tatarstan Tatarstan 01991-02-1111 Februari 1991 02008-03-011 Maret 2008 [103]
Trieste (Free Territory of Trieste) 02014-12-2828 Desember 2014 Represented by TRIEST NGO [104]
Tsimshian 02007-02-022 Februari 2007 02011-09-1818 September 2011 [105]
Bendera Tuva Tuva 01996-02-033 Februari 1996 02010-02-1313 Februari 2010 [106]
Bendera Udmurtia Udmurt 01993-01-1717 Januari 1993 02013-07-066 Juli 2013 [107]
Vhavenda 02003-11-1414 November 2003 02015-07-011 Juli 2015 Represented by Dabalorivhuwa Patriotic Front [108]
Templat:Country data Republic of West Papua West Papuans 02014-10-1515 Oktober 2014 Free Papua Movement [109]
Bendera Zanzibar Zanzibar 01991-08-066 Agustus 1991 02015-07-011 Juli 2015 Represented by Zanzibar Democratic Alternative, in cooperation with the Civic United Front [110]

Sekretaris Jenderal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kritik[sunting | sunting sumber]

Valery Tishkov, Direktur Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology di Russian Academy of Sciences dan bekas Menteri Rusia untuk kebangsaan, mengkritik UNPO dengan menyatakan:

The UNPO's activities in The Hague took a different track when the flags of separatist regimes and organizations that emerged after the collapse of the USSR and Yugoslavia were hoisted above its headquarters. In the context of new geopolitical rivalries and western euphoria about rebuilding the post-communist world, "unrepresentedness" came to be seen as a breach of order rather than an improvement, as a process of exiting the system rather than finding one's voice within it.[5]

Transliterasi kedalam bahasa Indonesia dari pernyataan tersebut kurang lebih adalah:

Aktivitas UNPO di Den Haag mulai menyimpang ketika bendera rejim dan organisasi separatis yang muncul setelah bubarnya Uni Soviet dan Yugoslavia dikibarkan di atas markasnya. Dalam hubungannya dengan persaingan geopolitik dan eforia Barat tentang membangun kembali dunia paska komunis, "ketidak terwakilan" dapat dilihat sebagai pelanggaran terhadap keteraturan daripada sebagai suatu peningkatan, sebagai suatu proses keluar dari sistem daripada memperoleh suara seseorang di dalamnya.

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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  5. ^ a b Tishkov, Valerie, An Anthropology of NGOs, Eurozine, July 2008
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  92. ^ "UNPO: Nuxalk Nation". unpo.org. 5 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  93. ^ "UNPO: Belau". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2019. 
  94. ^ "UNPO: Rusyn". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  95. ^ "UNPO: Sakha". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  96. ^ "UNPO: Sanjak". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  97. ^ International Organizations N – W
  98. ^ "UNPO: Scania". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  99. ^ "UNPO: Shan". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
  100. ^ "UNPO: South Arabia". unpo.org. 23 May 2016. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 8 October 2017. 
  101. ^ "UNPO: Ambazonia". unpo.org. 26 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2019. 
  102. ^ "UNPO: Talysh". unpo.org. 8 July 2015. Diakses tanggal 24 January 2019. 
  103. ^ "UNPO: Tatarstan". unpo.org. 6 June 2018. Diakses tanggal 26 January 2019. 
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