Pendudukan militer

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Pendudukan militer adalah kontrol provisional efektif oleh sebuah kekuatan pemerintahan tertentu atas sebuah teritorial yang tak berada di bawah kedaulatan formal dari entitas tersebut, tanpa pelanggaran kedaulatan sebenarnya.[1][2][3][4] Pendudukan militer berbeda dari aneksasi menurut alam temporernya yang dituju (contoh tak ada klaim untuk kedaulatan permanen), menurut alam militernya, dan menurut hak kewarganegaraan dari kekuatan yang mengkontrol tak terpengaruh pada penduduk yang mendiaminya.[2][5][6][7]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ A Roberts. Prolonged Military Occupation: The Israeli-Occupied Territories Since 1967 - Am. J. Int'l L., 1990, p. 47.
  2. ^ a b Eyāl Benveniśtî. The international law of occupation. Princeton University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-691-12130-3, ISBN 978-0-691-12130-7, p. xvi
  3. ^ Eran Halperin, Daniel Bar-Tal, Keren Sharvit, Nimrod Rosler and Amiram Raviv. Socio-psychological implications for an occupying society: The case of Israel. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  4. ^ During civil wars, the districts occupied by rebels are considered to be foreign.Military Government and Martial Law LLMC, p. 21. [1]
  5. ^ David M. Edelstein. Occupational Hazards: Why Military Occupations Succeed or Fail. Journal of Peace Research 2010; 47; 59
  6. ^ Phillipson, Coleman (1916). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. The Lawbook Exchange. hlm. 10. ISBN 9781584778608. The difference between effective military occupation (or conquest) and annexation involves a profound difference in the rights conferred by each 
  7. ^ Stirk, Peter (2009). The Politics of Military Occupation. Edinburgh University Press. hlm. 44. ISBN 9780748636716. The significance of the temporary nature of military occupation is that it brings about no change of allegiance. Military government remains an alien government whether of short or long duration, though prolonged occupation may encourage the occupying power to change military occupation into something else, namely annexation 

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Occupied territory - the legal issues, legal provisions regarding occupation of territory by hostile power and implications for people protected by IHL.
  • David Kretzmer, Occupation of Justice: The Supreme Court of Israel and the Occupied Territories, State University of New York Press, April, 2002, trade paperback, 262 pages, ISBN 0-7914-5338-3; hardcover, July, 2002, ISBN 0-7914-5337-5
  • Sander D. Dikker Hupkes, What Constitutes Occupation? Israel as the occupying power in the Gaza Strip after the Disengagement, Leiden: Jongbloed 2008, 110 pages, ISBN 978-90-70062-45-3 Openacces
  • Belligerent Occupation
  • The Law of Belligerent Occupation Michal N. Schmitt (regarding occupation of Iraq)
  • Law of Belligerent Occupation, Judge Advocate General's School, United States Army
  • Military Government and Martial Law, by William E. Birkhimer, third edition, revised (1914), Kansas City, Missouri, Franklin Hudson Publishing Co.
  • FM 27-10 "The Law of Land Warfare," DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, WASHINGTON 25, D.C., 18 July 1956. (This manual supersedes FM 27-10, 1 October 1940, including C 1, 15 November 1944. Changes required on 15 July 1976, have been incorporated within this document.) Chapter 6, OCCUPATION [2]
  • Bellal, A. (editor). (2015) The war report: Armed conflict in 2014. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.