Kebahagiaan

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Kebahagiaan atau kegembiraan adalah suatu keadaan pikiran atau perasaan yang ditandai dengan kecukupan hingga kesenangan, cinta, kepuasan, kenikmatan, atau kegembiraan yang intens.[1] Berbagai pendekatan filsafat, agama, psikologi, dan biologi telah dilakukan untuk mendefinisikan kebahagiaan dan menentukan sumbernya.

Para filsuf dan pemikir agama telah sering mendefinisikan kebahagiaan dalam kaitan dengan kehidupan yang baik dan tidak hanya sekadar sebagai suatu emosi. Definisi ini digunakan untuk menerjemahkan eudaimonia (Bahasa Yunani: εὐδαιμονία)[2] dan masih digunakan dalam teori kebaikan.

Meskipun pengukuran langsung derajat kebahagiaan masih menjadi tantangan, beberapa peneliti telah mengembangkan alat untuk melakukan hal itu, misalnya dengan The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire.[3] Para peneliti juga telah mengidentifikasikan beberapa hal yang berhubungan dengan kebahagiaan: hubungan dan interaksi sosial, status pernikahan, pekerjaan, kesehatan, kebebasan demokrasi, optimisme, keterlibatan religius, penghasilan, serta kedekatan dengan orang-orang bahagia lain.

Rujukan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Happiness(diakses 2014-Juni-24 via Wolfram Alpha)
  2. ^ Eudaimonia (Greek: εὐδαιμονία) is a classical Greek word commonly translated as 'happiness' or, better yet, 'flourishing'. Etymologically, it consists of the word "eu" ("good" or "well being") and "daimōn" ("spirit" or "minor deity", used by extension to mean one's lot or fortune).
  3. ^ Hills P., Argyle M. (2002). "The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences". Psychological Wellbeing 33: 1073–1082.

Bacaan lanjutan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Anand Paul "Happiness Explained: What Human Flourishing Is and What We Can Do to Promote It", Oxford: Oxford University Press 2016. ISBN 0-19-873545-6
  • Michael Argyle "The psychology of happiness", 1987
  • Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja (February 2008). "Does Happiness Promote Career Success?". Journal of Career Assessment. 16 (1): 101–116. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.378.6546alt=Dapat diakses gratis. doi:10.1177/1069072707308140. 
  • Norman M. Bradburn "The structure of psychological well-being", 1969
  • C. Robert Cloninger, Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being, Oxford, 2004.
  • Gregg Easterbrook "The progress paradox – how life gets better while people feel worse", 2003
  • Michael W. Eysenck "Happiness – facts and myths", 1990
  • Daniel Gilbert, Stumbling on Happiness, Knopf, 2006.
  • Carol Graham "Happiness Around the World: The Paradox of Happy Peasants and Miserable Millionaires", OUP Oxford, 2009. ISBN 978-0-19-954905-4
  • W. Doyle Gentry "Happiness for dummies", 2008
  • James Hadley, Happiness: A New Perspective, 2013, ISBN 978-1-4935-4526-1
  • Joop Hartog & Hessel Oosterbeek "Health, wealth and happiness", 1997
  • Hills P., Argyle M. (2002). "The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire: a compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences". Psychological Wellbeing. 33 (7): 1073–82. doi:10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00213-6. 
  • Robert Holden "Happiness now!", 1998
  • Barbara Ann Kipfer, 14,000 Things to Be Happy About, Workman, 1990/2007, ISBN 978-0-7611-4721-3.
  • Neil Kaufman "Happiness is a choice", 1991
  • Stefan Klein, The Science of Happiness, Marlowe, 2006, ISBN 1-56924-328-X.
  • Koenig HG, McCullough M, & Larson DB. Handbook of religion and health: a century of research reviewed (see article). New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.
  • McMahon, Darrin M., Happiness: A History, Atlantic Monthly Press; 2005. ISBN 0-87113-886-7
  • McMahon, Darrin M., The History of Happiness: 400 B.C. – A.D. 1780, Daedalus journal, Spring 2004.
  • Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons From A New Science, Penguin, 2005, ISBN 978-0-14-101690-0.
  • Luskin, Frederic, Kenneth R. Pelletier, Dr. Andrew Weil (Foreword). "Stress Free for Good: 10 Scientifically Proven Life Skills for Health and Happiness." 2005
  • James Mackaye "Economy of happiness", 1906
  • Desmond Morris "The nature of happiness", 2004
  • David G. Myers, Ph.D., The Pursuit of Happiness: Who is Happy – and Why, William Morrow and Co., 1992, ISBN 0-688-10550-5.
  • Niek Persoon "Happiness doesn't just happen", 2006
  • Benjamin Radcliff The Political Economy of Human Happiness (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
  • Ben Renshaw "The secrets of happiness", 2003
  • Fiona Robards, "What makes you happy?" Exisle Publishing, 2014, ISBN 978-1-921966-31-6
  • Bertrand Russell "The conquest of happiness", orig. 1930 (many reprints)
  • Martin E.P. Seligman, Authentic Happiness, Free Press, 2002, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9.
  • Alexandra Stoddard "Choosing happiness – keys to a joyful life", 2002
  • Władysław Tatarkiewicz, Analysis of Happiness, The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1976
  • Elizabeth Telfer "Happiness : an examination of a hedonistic and a eudaemonistic concept of happiness and of the relations between them...", 1980
  • Ruut Veenhoven "Bibliography of happiness – world database of happiness : 2472 studies on subjective appreciation of life", 1993
  • Ruut Veenhoven "Conditions of happiness", 1984
  • Joachim Weimann, Andreas Knabe, and Ronnie Schob, eds. Measuring Happiness: The Economics of Well-Being (MIT Press; 2015) 206 pages
  • Eric G. Wilson "Against Happiness", 2008
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