Front Timur (Perang Dunia I)

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Front Timur
Bagian dari Perang Dunia I
Eastern Front (World War I).jpg
Arah jarum jam dari kiri atas: Pegunungan Carpathian, 1915; Para prajurit Jerman di Kiev, Maret 1918; kapal Rusia Slava, Oktober 1917; infanteri Rusia, 1914; infanteri Rumania.
Tanggal
  • 17 Agustus 1914 – 3 Maret 1918
  • (3 tahun, 6 bulan and 2 minggu)
LokasiEropa Tengah, Timur, & Tenggara
Hasil

Kemenangan Blok Poros

Pihak terlibat

Bendera Republik Sosialis Federasi Soviet Rusia RSFS Rusia (1918)
Tokoh dan pemimpin

Bendera Republik Sosialis Federasi Soviet Rusia Nikolai Krylenko
Korban
  • Bendera Kekaisaran Jerman 1,600,000+
  • 317,100 – 800,000 tewas atau hilang[1][2]
  • Bendera Austria-Hongaria 3,510,000
  • 600,000 tewas
  • 1,810,000 luka-luka
  • 1,100,000 hilang atau ditangkap[3]
  • Bendera Kesultanan Utsmaniyah 45,000[4][5]
  • 10,000 ditangkap[6]
  • Bendera Bulgaria 30,250[7][8]

Total: ~5,200,000 korban
  • Bendera Kekaisaran Rusia 9,000,000+
    2,254,369 tewaS
  • 3,749,000 luka-luka
  • 3,343,900 ditangkap[9]
  • Bendera Rumania 340,000[10]

Total: ~9,500,000 korban

Front Timur Perang Dunia I (bahasa Rusia: Восточный фронт, yang terkadang disebut "Perang Tanah Air Kedua" atau "Perang Patriotik Kedua" (bahasa Rusia: Вторая Отечественная война) dalam sumber-sumber Rusia)[11] adalah sebuah teater operasi yang meliputi antara Kekaisaran Rusia dan Rumania di satu sisi dan Kekaisaran Austria-Hongaria, Bulgaria, Kekaisaran Utsmaniyah dan Kekaisaran Jerman di sisi yang lain. Teater tersebut membentang dari Laut Baltik di bagian utara sampai Laut Hitam di bagian selatan, termasuk sebagian besar Eropa Timur dan juga meliputi Eropa Tengah Istilah tersebut kontras dengan "Front Barat", yang meliputi Belgia dan Perancis.

Pada bulan-bulan awal perang tersebut, Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Rusia mengupayakan sebuah invasi ke Prusia timur di teater barat laut, hanya untuk memukul balik Jerman setelah beberapa kesuksesan awalnya. Pada saat yang sama, di bagian selatan, mereka berhasil menginvasi Galisia, mengalahkan pasukan Austria-Hongaria disana.[12] Di Polandia Rusia, Jerman gagal mengambil Warsawa.

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ «Sanitatsbericht fiber das Deutsche Heer... im Weltkriege 1914–1918», Bd. Ill, Berlin, 1934, S. 151. 149,418 casualties in 1914, 663,739 in 1915, 383,505 in 1916, 238,581 in 1917, 33,568 in 1918. Note: the document notes that records for some armies are incomplete.
  2. ^ Churchill, W. S. (1923–1931). The World Crisis (Odhams 1938 ed.). London: Thornton Butterworth. Page 558. Total German casualties for "Russia and all other fronts" (aside from the West) are given as 1,693,000 including 517,000 dead.
  3. ^ Austro-Hungarian Casualties. Total casualties during the war, including the Italian and Balkan fronts, were 1.2 million confirmed killed, 3.62 million wounded, and 2.2 million missing or captured. The Eastern Front accounted for about 50% of these.
  4. ^ Erickson, Edward J. Ordered to die : a history of the Ottoman army in the first World War, pg. 147. Total casualties of 20,000 are given for the VI Army Corps in Romania.
  5. ^ Atlı, Altay (25 September 2008). "Campaigns, Galicia". turkesywar.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Total casualties of 25,000 are given for the XV Army Corps in Galicia.
  6. ^ Yanikdag, Yucel (2013). Healing the Nation: Prisoners of War, Medicine and Nationalism in Turkey, 1914-1939. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. hlm. 18. ISBN 9780748665785. 
  7. ^ Министерство на войната (1939), pp. 677 (dalam bahasa Bulgaria)
  8. ^ Симеонов, Радослав, Величка Михайлова и Донка Василева. Добричката епопея. Историко-библиографски справочник, Добрич 2006, с. 181 (in Bulgarian
  9. ^ Кривошеев Г.Ф. Россия и СССР в войнах XX века. М., 2001 – Потери русской армии, табл. 52, Krivosheeva, G.F. (2001). Rossiia i SSSR v voinakh XX veka : poteri vooruzhennykh sil : statisticheskoe issledovanie / pod obshchei redaktsiei. Moscow: OLMA-Press See Tables 52 & 56]. Total 9,347,269 orang ini merujuk kepada korban-korban Rusia pada seluruh front termasuk Kampanye Balkan dan Kampanye Kaukasus; meskipun kebanyakan dari mereka menjadi korban pada Front Timur.
  10. ^ Cox, Michael; Ellis, John (2001). The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for all the Combatants. London: Aurum Press.
  11. ^ Moore, Colleen M. (2009). "Demonstrations and Lamentations: Urban and Rural Responses to War in Russia in 1914". The Historian. 71 (3): 555–575 [p. 563]. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.2009.00245.x. 
  12. ^ World War I — 1914 Opening Campaigns Kennedy Hickman.

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