Daftar penerima Nobel Muslim

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Persebaran Muslim dalam Penghargaan Nobel antara 1901-2015: dua belas penerima Penghargaan Nobel adalah Muslim atau sebanyak 1.4% dari seluruh penghargaan Nobel.
'Institut Nobel Norwegia' membantu Komite Nobel Norwegia dalam memilih para penerima Nobel Perdamaian dan untuk menyelenggarakan acara Nobel tahunan di Oslo.

Penghargaan Nobel (ejaan Swedia: [noˈbɛl], bentuk definitif Swedia, tunggal: Nobelpriset, Norwegia: Nobelprisen) adalah serangkaian penghargaan internasional tahunan yang diberikan dalam sejumlah kategori oleh komite-komite Skandinavia dalam pengakuan pengembangan kebudayaan dan saintifik. Kehendak kimiawan Swedia Alfred Nobel mendirikan penghargaan-penghargaan tersebut pada 1895. Penghargaan Nobel dianugerahkan kepada 881 orang,[1] dimana 12 atau 1.4% diantaranya adalah Muslim.

Penghargaan-penghargaan dalam Fisika, Kimia, Fisiologi atau Kedokteran, Kesusastraan dan Perdamaian pertama kali dianugerahi pada 1901.[2] Sebuah penghargaan terasosiasi dalam bidang Ekonomi telah dianugerahi sejak 1969.[3][4] Penghargaan Perdamaian dianugerahi di Oslo, Norwegia, sementara penghargaan lainnya dianugerahi di Stockholm, Swedia. Penghargaan Nobel banyak dianggap sebagai penghargaan paling prestisius yang tersedia dalam bidang kesusastraan, kedokteran, fisika, kimia, perdamaian dan ekonomi.

Muslim meliputi lebih dari 23% dari populasi dunia.[5][6][7] Dan pada 2015, dua belas penerima Penghargaan Nobel adalah Muslim. Lebih dari setengah dari dua belas penerima Nobel Muslim dianugerahi penghargaan tersebut pada abad ke-21. Tujuh dari dua belas penerima dianugerahi Nobel Perdamaian, termasuk Yasser Arafat. Penerima Nobel Fisika tahun 1979, Abdus Salam, adalah seorang anggota dari komunitas Ahmadiyyah dari Pakistan.

Perdamaian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Gambar Penerima Negara dan profesi Alasan Keterangan
1978 Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg Anwar al-Sadat (25 Desember 1918 – 6 Oktober 1981) Bendera Mesir Presiden Mesir Bersama dengan Menachem Begin, ia dianugerahi Nobel Perdamaian tahun 1978 "untuk kontribusi mereka kepada dua perjanjian wadah perdamaian di Timur Tengah, dan atas perdamaian antara Mesir dan Israel, yang ditandatangani di Camp David pada 17 September 1978".[8] Muslim pertama yang meraih sebuah Penghargaan Nobel.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]
1994 ArafatEconomicForum.jpg Yasser Arafat (24 Agustus 1929 – 11 November 2004) Bendera Negara Palestina Politikus Palestina Nobel Perdamaian tahun 1994 dianugerahi secara bersamaan kepada Arafat, Shimon Peres dan Yitzhak Rabin "atas upaya mereka untuk membuat perdamaian di Timur Tengah".[16][17] Muslim Palestina pertama yang meraih sebuah Penghargaan Nobel.[9][18][19][20][21][22]
2003 Shirinebadi001.jpg Shirin Ebadi (kelahiran 21 Juni 1947) Bendera Iran Aktivis Hak Asasi Manusia Iran Nobel Perdamaian tahun 2003 dianugerahi kepada Ebadi "atas upayanya untuk demokrasi dan hak asasi manusia. Ia secara khusus berfokus pada perjuangan untuk hak asasi wanita dan anak-anak".[23] Orang Iran pertama dan satu-satunya yang meraih sebuah Penghargaan Novel. Ia juga merupakan Muslimah pertama yang meraih penghargaan semacam itu.[9][24][25][26][27] Catatan: Doris Lessing yang lahir dan dibesarkan selama 5 tahun di Iran pada masa modern adalah penerima sejawatnya.
2005 Mohamed ElBaradei, Davos 1.jpg Mohamed El Baradei (kelahiran 17 Juni 1942) Bendera Mesir Diplomat Mesir Nobel Perdamaian tahun 2005 yang secara bersamaan dianugerahkan kepada El Baradei dan IAEA "atas upaya mereka untuk mengindari tenaga nuklir dari pemakaian untuk keperluan militer dan untuk mewujudkan tenaga nuklir bagi keperluan damai yang dipakai dalam cara seaman mungkin".[28][29] Ia adalah orang Mesir kedua yang dianugerahi Nobel Perdamaian (2005).[9][30][31][32][33]
2006 Muhammad Yunus - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg Muhammad Yunus (kelahiran 28 Juni 1940) Bendera Bangladesh Ekonom Bangladesh dan pendiri Grameen Bank. Nobel Perdamaian tahun 2006 secara bersamaan dianugerahkan kepada Yunus dan Grameen Bank "atas upaya mereka untuk membuat pembangunan ekonomi dan sosial dari bawah".[34] Penerima Nobel Muslim Bengali dan Bangladesh pertama, dan secara keseluruham, orang ketiga dari Bengal yang memenangkan sebuah penghargaan Nobel.[9][35][36][37][38][39][40]
2011 Tawakkol Karman.jpg Tawakel Karman (kelahiran 7 Februari 1979) Bendera Yaman Aktivis hak asasi manusia yang berbasis di Yaman. Seorang pemimpin menonjol dalam Musim Semi Arab. Nobel Perdamaian tahun 2011 secara bersamaan diberikan kepada Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee dan Karman "atas perjuangan non-kekerasan mereka untuk penyelamatan wanita dan untuk hak asasi wanita untuk partisipasi penuh dalam karya pembangunan perdamaian".[41] Wanita Arab pertama dan satu-satunya orang Yaman yang meraih sebuah Penghargaan Nobel.[42][43][44][45][46]
2014 Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014.jpg Malala Yousafzai (kelahiran 12 Juli 1997) Bendera Pakistan Aktivis Pakistan, berkarya untuk hak pendidikan bagi anak-anak di Pakistan. Nobel Perdamaian tahun 2014 secara bersamaan diberikan kepada Kailash Satyarthi dan Yousafzai, "untuk perjuangan mereka melawan penindasan anak-anak dan kaum muda dan untuk hak seluruh anak-anak untuk pendidikan".[47] Pada usia 17 tahun, Yousafzai merupakan penerima Nobel termuda yang pernah ada.[48] Ia juga merupakan orang Pakistan kedua dan orang Pashtun pertama yang dianugerahi sebuah Penghargaan Nobel.[49]

Kesusastraan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Gambar Penerima Negara dan profesi Alasan Keterangan
1988 Necip Mahfuz.jpg Naguib Mahfouz

(11 Desember 1911 – 30 Agustus 2006)

Bendera Mesir Pengarang Mesir, dikenal atas kontribusinya pada kesusastraan Arab modern Nobel Kesusastraan tahun 1988 diberikan kepada Naguib Mahfouz "yang, melalui karya-karya yang kaya akan nuansa—yang secara jelas-menumbuhkan realistis, dalam keadaan ambigu—telah membentuk sebuah seni naratif Arab yang diterapkan kepada seluruh umat manusia ".[50][51] Pengarang Muslim pertama yang meraih penghargaan semacam itu.[9][52][53]
2006 Pamuk.jpg Orhan Pamuk (kelahiran 7 Juni 1952) Bendera Turki Pengarang Turki yang dikenal atas novel-novelnya My Name Is Red dan Snow Nobel Kesusastraan tahun 2006 dianugerahkan kepada Orhan Pamuk "yang dalam pertanyaan untuk jiwa melankolik dari kota asalnya telah menemukan simbol-simbol baru untuk pertikaian dan persilangan budaya".[54][55] Orang Turki pertama yang meraih Penghargaan Nobel. Ia sendiri menyebut dirinya sendiri sebagai Muslim budaya yang mengasosiasikan identifikasi sejarah dan budaya dengan agama meskipun tidak meyakini hubungan pribadi dengan Allah.[9][56][57][58]

Sains[sunting | sunting sumber]

Fisika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Gambar Penerima Negara dan profesi Alasan Keterangan
1979 Abdus Salam 1987.jpg Mohammad Abdus Salam

(29 Januari 1926 – 21 November 1996)

Bendera Pakistan Fisikawan Pakistan Nobel Fisika tahun 1979 dianugerahi secara bersamaan kepada Sheldon Lee Glashow, Salam, dan Steven Weinberg "untuk sumbangan mereka pada persatuan lemah dan interaksi elektromagnetik antara unsur dasar, termasuk, inter alia, perkiraan arus netral lemah".[59] Ia adalah Muslim Pakistan pertama yang meraih penghargaan tersebut. Ia juga merupakan ilmuwan Pakistan pertama dan satu-satunya yang dianugerahi Penghargaan Nobel.[60][61] Ia adalah anggota dari komunitas Muslim Ahmadiyyah seluruh dunia, yang pemerintah Pakistan nyatakan sebagai non-Muslim di Pakistan dalam sebuah amendemen konstitusional tahun 1974.[62]

Kimia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun Gambar Penerima Negara dan profesi Alasan Keterangan
1999 Ahmed Zewail.jpg Ahmed Zewail

(26 Februari 1946 - 2 Agustus 2016)[63]

Bendera Mesir Ilmuwan Mesir Nobel Kimia tahun 1999 dianugerahi kepada Ahmed Zewail "untuk studi-studinya dari keadaan transisi dari reaksi kimia memakai spektroskopi femtosecond".[64] Ia adalah kimiawan Muslim pertama dan ilmuwan Muslim kedua yang dianugerahi Penghargaan Nobel.[9][65][66][67][68]
2015 Aziz Sancar 0060.jpg Aziz Sancar

(kelahiran 8 September 1946)

Bendera Turki Ilmuwan Turki Nobel Kimia tahun 2015 dianugerahi kepada Aziz Sancar "untuk studi-studi mekanistik dari perbaikan DNA"[69] Ia adalah kimiawan Turki pertama, orang Turki kedua dan ilmuwan Muslim ketiga yang dianugerahi Penghargaan Nobel.[70][71]

Bacaan tambahan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Artikel[sunting | sunting sumber]

Buku[sunting | sunting sumber]

Biografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Autobiografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Karman joins Shirin Ebadi, who won the Nobel Peace prize in 2003 for her work to bring equal rights to women in Iran, as the second Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace prize.
“As a Muslim woman, I am well aware of the difficult and severe conditions of your work and struggle,” said Ebadi in her letter today to Karman. Karman receives frequent death threats, and was thrown in jail last January. “I admire your tremendous work and courage. This victory will certainly inspire and reassure the million of Muslim women who suffer from discrimination and who fight for equality of rights between men and women—and also sends a message to countries going through the Arab Spring that true democracy will only be achieved if women also receive equal rights.”
It is not Islam or poverty that succours terrorism, but the failure to be heard
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How closely have the changes and developments detailed in Mahfouz’s descriptions of ordinary Egyptian lives paralleled what the world has witnessed as ageneral growing “Islamization” of the Muslim world? In my research, I have found that other Muslim writers, such as Leila Ahmed (Egypt), Mohsin Hamid (Pakistan/India), and Orhan Pamuk (Turkey) have also observed and commented on the Islamization of the culture.