Mitologi

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Istilah "mitologi" dapat berarti kajian tentang mitos (misalnya mitologi perbandingan), maupun sebuah himpunan atau koleksi mitos-mitos (misalnya mitologi Inka).[1] Dalam folkloristika, suatu mitos adalah kisah suci yang biasanya menjelaskan bagaimana dunia maupun manusia dapat terbentuk seperti sekarang ini,[2] meskipun, dalam pengertian yang sangat luas, istilah tersebut dapat mengacu kepada cerita tradisional.[3]

Mitologi terkait dekat dengan legenda maupun cerita rakyat. Mitologi dapat mencakup kisah penciptaan dunia sampai asal mula suatu bangsa. Tidak seperti mitologi, pada cerita rakyat, waktu dan tempat tidak spesifik dan ceritanya tidak dianggap sebagai kisah suci yang dipercaya kebenarannya. Sedangkan pada legenda, pelaku-pelakunya adalah manusia dan meskipun kejadiannya dianggap benar-benar terjadi, dapat mengandung kisah makhluk supranatural (dewa, setan, dsb.) dan kejadian luar biasa (kutukan, keajaiban, dsb.) seperti pada mitologi. Biasanya latar pada legenda adalah masa-masa pada saat manusia sudah ada dan dikaitkan dengan sejarah dan asal mula suatu tempat.

Mitologi berdasarkan wilayah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Barat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Tengah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Timur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Afrika Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Artik[sunting | sunting sumber]

bersinggungan dengan Asia, Eropa Utara, dan Amerika Utara.

Asia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asia Barat Daya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Timur Tengah, Persia, Anatolia, Kaukasus

Peradaban kuno

abad pertengahan sampai modern

Asia Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asia Timur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asia Tenggara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Asia Tengah dan Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

bersinggungan dengan Eropa Timur dan Utara

Australia dan Oceania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eropa[sunting | sunting sumber]

Zaman prasejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eropa Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepulauan Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eropa Barat[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eropa Timur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Eropa Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Amerika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Amerika Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

Algonquia (Amerika Serikat bagian timur laut, Great Lakes)

Dataran Indian

Muskogean (Amerika Serikat bagian selatan) dan Iraquois (Amerika Serikat bagian Timur)

Alaska dan Artik Kanada

Pasifik Barat Laut

Uto-Aztec (Great Basin hingga Meksiko)

Amerika Serikat bagian barat laut

Amerika Tengah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Karibia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Amerika Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Campuran Afrika[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mitologi berdasarkan agama[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mitologi berdasarkan waktu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Zaman Perunggu[sunting | sunting sumber]

Zaman Besi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Prasejarah Akhir[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Kirk, p. 8; "myth", Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ Dundes, Introduction, p. 1
  3. ^ Kirk, "Defining", p. 57; Kirk, Myth, p. 74; Simpson, p. 3

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Armstrong, Karen. "A Short History of Myth". Knopf Canada, 2006.
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  • Bulfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. Whitefish: Kessinger, 2004.
  • Campbell, Joeseph. "The Power of Myth". New York: Doubleday, 1988.
  • Doty, William. Myth: A Handbook. Westport: Greenwood, 2004.
  • Dundes, Alan. "Binary Opposition in Myth: The Propp/Levi-Strauss Debate in Retrospect". Western Folklore 56 (Winter, 1997): 39-50.
  • Dundes, Alan. Introduction. Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 1-3.
  • Dunes, Alan. "Madness in Method Plus a Plea for Projective Inversion in Myth". Myth and Method. Ed. Laurie Patton and Wendy Doniger. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1996.
  • Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality. Trans. Willard R. Trask. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.
  • Eliade, Mircea. Myths, Dreams and Mysteries. Trans. Philip Mairet. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.
  • "Euhemerism". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Ed. John Bowker. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 20 March 2009 .
  • Fabiani, Paolo "The Philosophy of the Imagination in Vico and Malebranche". F.U.P. (Florence UP), English edition 2009. PDF
  • Frankfort, Henri, et al. The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought in the Ancient Near East. Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1977.
  • Frazer, James. The Golden Bough. New York: Macmillan, 1922.
  • Graf, Fritz. Greek Mythology. Trans. Thomas Marier. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.
  • Honko, Lauri. "The Problem of Defining Myth". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 41-52.
  • Kirk, G.S. Myth: Its Meaning and Functions in Ancient and Other Cultures. Berkeley: Cambridge University Press, 1973.
  • Kirk, G.S. "On Defining Myths". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 53-61.
  • Leonard, Scott. "The History of Mythology: Part I". Scott A. Leonard's Home Page. August 2007.Youngstown State University, 17 November 2009
  • Littleton, Covington. The New Comparative Mythology: An Anthropological Assessment of the Theories of Georges Dumezil. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
  • Meletinsky, Elea. The Poetics of Myth. Trans. Guy Lanoue and Alexandre Sadetsky. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  • "myth." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 21 March 2009
  • "myths". A Dictionary of English Folklore. Jacqueline Simpson and Steve Roud. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. UC - Berkeley Library. 20 March 2009 Oxfordreference.com
  • Northup, Lesley. "Myth-Placed Priorities: Religion and the Study of Myth". Religious Studies Review 32.1(2006): 5-10.
  • O'Flaherty, Wendy. Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook. London: Penguin, 1975.
  • Pettazzoni, Raffaele. "The Truth of Myth". Sacred Narrative: Readings in the Theory of Myth. Ed. Alan Dundes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984. 98-109.
  • Segal, Robert. Myth: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2004.
  • Simpson, Michael. Introduction. Apollodorus. Gods and Heroes of the Greeks. Trans. Michael Simpson. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976. 1-9.
  • Singer, Irving. "Introduction: Philosophical Dimensions of Myth and Cinema." Cinematic Mythmaking: Philosophy in Film. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: MIT Press Books, 2008. 3-6. Web. 23 Oct. 2011.
  • Indick, William. "Classical Heroes in Modern Movies: Mythological Patterns of the Superhero." Journal of Media Psychology 9.3 (2004): 93-95. York University Libraries. Web.
  • Koven, Mikel J. "Folklore Studies and Popular Film and Television: a Necessary Critical Survey." Journal of American Folklore 116.460 (2003): 176-195. Print.
  • Olson, Eric L. "Great Expectations: the Role of Myth in 1980s Films with Child Heroes." Virginia Polytechnic Scholarly Library. Virginia Polytechnic Institute And State University, 3 May 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-05172011-113805/unrestricted/OLSON_EL_T_2011.pdf>.
  • Matira, Lopamundra. "Children's Oral Literature and Modern Mass Media." Indian Folklore Research Journal 5.8 (2008): 55-57. Print.
  • Cormer, John. "Narrative." Critical Ideas in Television Studies. New York, United States: Charendon Press, 2007. 47-59. Print.

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Stefan Arvidsson, Aryan Idols. Indo-European Mythology as Ideology and Science, University of Chicago Press, 2006. ISBN 0-226-02860-7
  • Roland Barthes, Mythologies (1957)
  • Kees W. Bolle, The Freedom of Man in Myth. Vanderbilt University Press, 1968.
  • Richard Buxton. The Complete World of Greek Mythology. London: Thames & Hudson, 2004.
  • E. Csapo, Theories of Mythology (2005)
  • Edith Hamilton, Mythology (1998)
  • Graves, Robert. "Introduction." New Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. Trans. Richard Aldington and Delano Ames. London: Hamlyn, 1968. v–viii.
  • Joseph Campbell
  • Mircea Eliade
    • Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return. Princeton University Press, 1954.
    • The Sacred and the Profane: The Nature of Religion. Trans. Willard R. Trask. NY: Harper & Row, 1961.
  • Louis Herbert Gray [ed.], The Mythology of All Races, in 12 vols., 1916.
  • Lucien Lévy-Bruhl
    • Mental Functions in Primitive Societies (1910)
    • Primitive Mentality (1922)
    • The Soul of the Primitive (1928)
    • The Supernatural and the Nature of the Primitive Mind (1931)
    • Primitive Mythology (1935)
    • The Mystic Experience and Primitive Symbolism (1938)
  • Charles H. Long, Alpha: The Myths of Creation. George Braziller, 1963.
  • O'Flaherty, Wendy. Hindu Myths: A Sourcebook. London: Penguin, 1975.
  • Barry B. Powell, Classical Myth, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall.
  • Santillana and Von Dechend (1969, 1992 re-issue). Hamlet's Mill: An Essay Investigating the Origins of Human Knowledge And Its Transmission Through Myth, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-87923-215-3.
  • Isabelle Loring Wallace and Jennie Hirsh, Contemporary Art and Classical Myth. Farnham: Ashgate (2011), ISBN 978-0-7546-6974-6
  • Walker, Steven F. and Segal, Robert A., Jung and the Jungians on Myth: An Introduction, Theorists of Myth, Routledge (1996), ISBN 978-0-8153-2259-7.
  • Vanda Zajko and Miriam Leonard, Lauphing with Medusa. Oxford: Oxford `University Press (2006), ISBN 978-0-19-923794-4.
  • Zong, In-Sob. Folk Tales from Korea. 3rd ed. Elizabeth: Hollym, 1989.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]