Negara mikro

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Sealand, suatu negara mikro.

Negara mikro adalah sebuah entitas atau komunitas kecil yang mengakui diri sendiri sebagai sebuah negara berdaulat dan mandiri, tetapi tidak diakui oleh negara berdaulat manapun atau organisasi supranasional manapun. Pengertian negara mikro berbeda dengan negara mikro (microstate) Eropa seperti Vatikan, San Marino, Liechtenstein ataupun negara dengan pengakuan terbatas.

Beberapa negara mikro mengklaim daerah yang benar-benar ada, seringkali mengklaim pulau-pulau terpencil dan daerah terisolasi. Negara mikro juga seringkali memproklamirkan kemerdekaan mereka, merilis dan membuat konstitusi, mata uang, bendera, perangko, paspor, medali, simbol, dan barang mereka sendiri, mungkin juga suvenir, dan mereka juga menunjuk kepala negara dan mengklaim kependudukan sendiri [1].

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Definisi negara mikro". Berdasarkan definisi dari Kerajaan Talossa. Diakses tanggal 6 Agustus 2012. 


Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which may have legitimate claim to sovereign state status.[1]:5

Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.[1]:4 Micronations can also exist in various forms, including in the physical world (on land, at sea and in outer space), online, in the minds of their creators, or some combination of these. Some micronations issue coins, flags, postage stamps, passports, medals, and other items.

Official title Flag (if available) Founded Description Leader Area Population
Aerican Empire Templat:Country data Aerican Empire 1987 An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by Canadian Eric Lis as a child, and maintained for the several decades since. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories as Aerican land.[1]:102 Eric Lis
Aeterna Lucina 1978 An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.[2] Paul Baron Neuman 14 km2
Akhzivland 1970[3] A non-territorial micronation founded by Eli Avivi in response to the Israeli government's sending two bulldozers to demolish his illegally inhabited house.[3] As a result of a lawsuit brought against Avivi by the State of Israel (which was subsequently rejected by the judge hearing the case), the micronation's legal status has remained ambiguous. Eli Avivi
Aramoana 1980 A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.[4]
Atlantium Templat:Country data Atlantium 1981 A global sovereignty group based in Australia that was founded in Sydney by George Francis Cruickshank.[1]:102 George Cruickshank 0.76 km2 (0.29 sq mi)
Austenasia 2008 A constitutional monarchy comprising several privately owned properties around the world that have declared themselves independent under the leadership of a house in south London.[5][6][7][8][9] Jonathan Austen
Avram, Grand Duchy of 1980s A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.[1]:144 John Charlton Rudge
British West Florida 2005 A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.[1]:139 Bo Register
Bumbunga 1976 An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga, South Australia near Snowtown and Lochiel during the 1970s and 1980s for approximately a decade.[butuh rujukan] Alex Brackstone
Conch Republic 1982 A group claiming tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States of America in protest at a blockade established by the US Border Patrol at the upper end of the Florida Keys.[1]:130 Dennis Wardlow
Copeman Empire 2003 The Copeman Empire is run from a caravan park in Norfolk, England, by its founder Nick Copeman, who changed his name by deed poll to HM King Nicholas I.[1]:70–73 Nick Copeman
Coral Sea Islands 2004 Established as a symbolic political protest by a group of gay rights activists, the Coral Sea Islands is a micronation based in southeast Queensland, Australia.[1]:38 Dale Anderson
Elleore 1944 A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.[1]:42
Enclava 2015 Claimed the second of the largest land portions along the Danube river at the Croatia-Serbia border (Pocket 1) near Liberland. King Enclav I
EnenKio 1994 Claims Wake Atoll, a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been deemed a scam for selling passports and diplomatic papers.[10]
Filettino 2011 Mayor Luca Sellari, from the small town with a population around 550, declared the independence from Italy[11] in protest to austerity measures resulting from the European economic crisis. Filettino has printed its own currency, the fiorito.[12]
Flandrensis 2008 A micronation with claims over some territories of Antarctica, which has been founded in 2008 by Niels Vermeersch, who declared himself as a Grand Duke Niels I.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] Niels Vermeersch
Forvik 2008 An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared an independent Crown dependency by Stuart Hill, who claims that the United Kingdom has breached the 1469 deal with Denmark, which transferred the Shetland Islands to the Scottish crown.[25] Stuart Hill
Republic of Fredonia 1826 The Fredonian Rebellion (December 21, 1826 – January 23, 1827) was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. One of these carpetbaggers, Haden Edwards, infuriated many settlers in 1825 by producing a contract he had extracted from the Mexican government. In December 1826, his brother Benjamin Edwards led a group of thirty men into Texas. They seized control of the town of Nacogdoches, and declared eastern Texas the Republic of Fredonia.[26]
Principality of Freedonia 1997 The Principality of Freedonia was a micronation based on libertarian principles. It was supposedly established as a "hypothetical project" by a group of U.S. teenagers in 1992, before becoming a new country project in 1997 and attempting to purchase territory. It was headed by a Texas university student named John Alexander Kyle, who uses the title Prince John I. In his search to purchase actual territory, Mr. Kyle considered several viable options, but none were realistic.[27] The Freedonia project is inactive from 2004. John Alexander Kyle
Freetown Christiania 1971 Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania (Danish: Fristaden Christiania) is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood of about 850 residents, covering 34 hectares (84 acres) in the borough of Christianshavn in the Danish capital Copenhagen.[28]
Frestonia 1977 Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. In a legal dispute regarding the unauthorised performance of his play The Immortalist, Heathcote Williams won a ruling from the UK courts that Frestonia was for this purpose not part of the UK.[29]
Ganienkeh 1974 The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Lakotas' standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.[30][31]
Glacier Republic 2014 Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.[32][33]
Global Country of World Peace 2000 "A country without borders for peace loving people everywhere" created by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, with capitals at MERU, Holland and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa.[34] Maharaja Adhiraj Rajaraam
Hajdučka Republika Mijata Tomića 2002 A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.[35] Marija Vukoja (succeeding her late father, Vinko.
Republic of Hout Bay mid-1980s A tongue-in-cheek micronation created to promote tourism in Hout Bay, a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa. Local business and the Hout Bay Lions and Rotary clubs sold official-looking passports to raise money for charities. There are urban legends that people were able to convince immigration officers around the world to stamp these passports.[36]
Humanity 1878 A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.[37][38] James George Meads
Hutt River 1970 A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.[1]:22 Leonard Casley 75 km2
Icaria 1912 Icaria is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean. Tensions in the region were high during the early twentieth century. The Ottomans were in retreat everywhere, the newly independent nations of the Balkans were united against them, and Italy had in 1911 declared war, seizing Libya. In 1912, the Italians swept the Aegean of Ottoman warships and seized Rhodes. The inhabitants of Icaria took advantage of the war to declare themselves independent on 12 July 1912. The Balkan alliance declared war in July, reducing the Ottoman holdings in Europe to a tiny foothold. The island was annexed to Greece in November.[30]
Republic of Jamtland 1963 A Swedish province, formerly a part of Norway[butuh rujukan] Ewert Ljusberg
Kugelmugel 1984 A ball-shaped house built by artist Edwin Lipburger, located in the Vienna Prater.[1]:82–83 Edwin Lipburger 7.68m in diameter 1 (in exile)
Ladonia 1980 A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.[1]:136
Lagoan Isles 2005 The creation of a self-styled Grand Duke Louis, who claims that three tiny islands in a Portsmouth pond are not owned by the local council, and so has declared them an independent state.[1]:86 Louis Stephans
L'Anse-Saint-Jean 1997 A micronation started to promote tourism in the small Quebec town of L'Anse-Saint-Jean.[butuh rujukan] Denys Tremblay
Liberland 2015 On the official website of Liberland, it is claimed that this state came into existence due to a Croatia–Serbia border dispute.[39] Vít Jedlička 7 km2
Lovely 2004 A nation created by comedian Danny Wallace as part of his BBC series, How to Start Your Own Country. Based out of Wallace's London flat, it was partly Internet-based, and its citizens -- as they all could not live in Wallace's house -- were called "Ambassadors".[butuh rujukan] Danny Wallace ~58,165
Marlborough 1993 A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.[40] George Muirhead
Melchizedek 1986 The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.[41]
Mercia 2003 The Acting Witan of Mercia is attempting to revive the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy-era kingdom of Mercia as an "autonomous and sustainable bioregion within an English confederation".[42] They see Mercia as having been ruled over by an authoritarian state since the Norman conquest, and believe that the United Kingdom is in illegal control of the region.[43][44][45] Jeff Kent
Minerva 1973 An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.[1]:14 Morris C. Davis
Molossia 1999 A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana-republic.[46] Kevin Baugh 5 (27 citizens)
Morac-Songhrati-Meads 1959 A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.[37] Christopher Schneider
Murrawarri Republic 2013 A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia. About 22,500 km2 3000-4000[47]
Naminara Republic 22x20px 2006 An island in the Han River in Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, South Korea. Issues its own passport, currency, phone cards. Part of the movie Winter Sonata was filmed here. The island received 1.5 million visitors yearly.[butuh rujukan]
New Utopia 1990s A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.[1]:15 Lazarus Long
North Dumpling Island 1986 An island in Fishers Island Sound, Southold, New York declared independent after its owner Dean Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island. Dean Kamen 2 acres (8,000 m2)
Kingdom of North Sudan 2014 The declaration of independence was made by Jeremiah Heaton, a former Democratic Party Congressional from Abingdon, Virginia, who made a 14-hour overland trek via desert caravan to a remote, disputed shard of territory between Sudan and Egypt, planted a flag, and declared it, provisionally, “The Heaton” and later, officially, on a suggestion from his children, the Kingdom of North Sudan. The piece of land in question is Bir Tawil, an 800-square-mile lozenge of desert, which is a Terra Nulilus. The reason Heaton has made himself king of North Sudan is to fulfill a promise to his seven-year-old daughter, Emily Heaton. As the self-styled monarch told the press, “Over the winter, Emily and I were playing, and she has a fixation on princesses. She asked me, in all seriousness, if she’d be a real princess someday. And I said she would.”[48] Jeremiah Heaton
Nova Roma 1998 An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they aren't a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.[49]
Ecological Danubian Principality of Ongal 2015[50] Three pockets along the right (western) bank of the Danube river along the Croatia-Serbia border[50]
Outer Baldonia kr. 1950 A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.[butuh rujukan] Russell Arundel 4 acres (16,000 m2) kr. 69
Other World Kingdom 1996 An absolute monarchy/matriarchy with strong BDSM themes, in which women rule over all men. It is located in the Czech Republic.[butuh rujukan] Queen Patrica I
Perloja 1918 Established in the aftermath of World War I, the Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.[51] Jonas Česnulevičius[52]
Peščenica 1990s Peščenica is a satirical-parodical project of a dictator-ruled republic by famous Croatian maverick traveller Željko Malnar. It is located in Zagreb, Croatia.[53] Željko Malnar
Republic of Ploiești 1870 A two-day protest against the Romanian monarchy. The plotters occupied the firehouse, the telegraph station and the post office in Ploiești on the evening of 8 August 1870. The chief of police and the prefect were arrested. On the evening of 9 August, soldiers from Bucharest arrived at the Ploieşti train station and arrested the new "administration", most of whom declared that they were not actually revolting, thinking it was just a party. Thirty-six of the leaders of the movement were accused of "revolt against the government". The trials of the civilians who took part in the revolt were eventually moved to Târgovişte and, on 17 October 1870, were found not guilty.[butuh rujukan] Alexandru Candiano-Popescu
Rainbow Creek 1979 Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.[1]:145 Thomas Barnes
Redonda 1865 A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.[1]:108 Matthew Dowdy Shiell
Reunion 1997 A micronation founded by Brazilian law students as a political simulation. Reunion has a very active political system. It has issued passports, minted coins and is considered one of the most important Lusophone micronations. The micronation has been portrayed by the media of dozens of countries, and has been the star of a front page article of Reunion Island newspaper, which used It to trace a parallel between its independence and the idea of having independence from France.[54][55][56][57] Claudio de Castro 900(claimed)
Rose Island 1968 An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.[1] Giorgio Rosa
Imperial Throne 2011 The Imperial Throne was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov as the "Russian Empire". By its constitution, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I.[58][59] Anton Bakov
Saugeais 1947 An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.[1]:122–124 Georgette Bertin-Pourchet
Repubblica di Sbarre Centrali 1970 A self-proclaimed Republic by people from Sbarre district in Reggio city (southern Italy) during the Reggio revolt. This micronation disappeared after the end of the revolt.[60]
Sealand Templat:Country data Sealand 1967 A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.[1]:8–13 Paddy Roy Bates 550 m2 4
(27 claimed)
Seborga 954 A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.[1]:55 Marcello I 15 km2 ~300
Talossa 1979 A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA) resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1][1]:101 John Woolley 13 km2 239[61]
Principality of Trinidad 1893 The Principality of Trinidad was declared in 1893, when the American James Harden-Hickey claimed the uninhabited island Trindade and Martim Vaz in the South Atlantic and declared himself as James I, Prince of Trinidad.[butuh rujukan] In July 1895, the British tried to take possession of this strategic position in the Atlantic, basing their claim on the 1700 visit by English astronomer Edmund Halley. However, Brazilian diplomatic efforts, pressed a successful claim to Brazilian sovereignty, based on the island's discovery in 1502 by Portuguese navigators. Harden-Hickey fell into deep depression and committed suicide on 9 February 1898.[butuh rujukan] James Harden-Hickey
Užupis 1997 Užupis is a neighborhood largely located in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.[62]
Vikesland 2005 A micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claims two properties in and near the town of Brandon.[1]:90–93
Wallachia 1997 A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located is in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic. It has since become one of the Czech Republic's biggest tourist attractions.[butuh rujukan] Vladimir II
Wendland 1980 A German anti-nuclear protest in the Wendland, reoccupied by thousands of policemen after a few weeks.[63]
Westarctica 1989 Micronation founded by Travis McHenry, subsequently dubbed the Grand Duchy of Westarctica, claiming a piece of Marie Byrd Land, the last slice in Antarctica unclaimed by any nation.[64] Travis McHenry 1,610,000 km2 0 ?
(proposed rebuilding of Byrd Station)
Whangamomona Republic 1989 A tongue-in-cheek micronation created as a tourism booster, and based in the rural New Zealand town of the same name. Past elected presidents have included a goat.[1]:34–37 Murt Kennard
Wirtland 2008 Wirtland is an experiment into legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.[65]
Wy 2004 Established by Paul Delprat[66] after a dispute with the local council of Mosman Municipality in Sydney[67] over the construction of a driveway into his property. Prince Paul of Wy
Zaqistan [[Berkas:|22x20px|border |alt=|link=]] 2005 Based on a two-acre tract of land in Box Elder County, Utah, the Republic of Zaqistan was founded by New York resident Zaq Landsberg as an "art project" to see "how far he can push the boundaries of land ownership and sovereignty."[68] 60 miles from the nearest town and 15 miles from paved road, the mostly empty lot is guarded by robot sentries and boasts a border-crossing and a supply bunker.[69] Zaq Landsberg 2 acres
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