Kepangeranan Sealand

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Kepangeranan Sealand
Negara mikro
Flag of Sealand.svg
Flag
Sealand Coat of Arms.svg
Lambang negara
Motto: E Mare Libertas
(English: From the Sea, Freedom)
Anthem: E Mare Libertas by Basil Simonenko
Status Sekarang
Location of Kepangeranan Sealand
Area yang diklaim 550 m2
Populasi 3 (2011)
Tanggal pendirian 2 September 1967
Kepemimpinan Keluarga Bates
Struktur organisasional Oligarki, monarki konstitusional
Bahasa Bahasa Inggris
Mata uang yang diakui Dollar Sealand (nilainya dipatok dalam USD)[1]
Ibu kota HM Fort Roughs
Kelompok etnis European, North American
Demonim Sealander, Sealandic
PDB yang diklaim US$600,000 (US$22,200 per capita)[2]
Zona waktu GMT

Kepangeranan Sealand adalah sebuah entitas yang belum diakui, yang terletak di Fort HM roughs, sebelumnya pada Perang Dunia II merupakan pelabuhan laut Maunsell di Laut Utara 10 km (enam mil) dari lepas pantai Suffolk, Inggris (51 ° 53'40 "N, 1 ° 28'57 "E).

Sejak tahun 1967, fasilitas ini telah diduduki oleh seorang mantan Mayor Inggris Paddy Roy Bates; rekan dan keluarganya mengklaim tempat ini sebagai negara berdaulat yang independen.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Sejarah HM Fort Roughs[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada 1943, selama Perang Dunia II, HM Fort Roughs dibangun oleh Britania Raya sebagai salah satu dari Benteng Maunsell,[3] terutama untuk pertahanan terhadap pesawat mine-laying Jerman yang mungkin menargetkan muara yang merupakan bagian dari jalur pelayaran penting; it comprised a floating pontoon base with a superstructure of two hollow towers joined by a deck upon which other structures could be added. The fort was towed to a position above the Rough Sands sandbar, where its base was deliberately flooded to allow it to sink to its final resting place on the sandbar. The location chosen was approximately 7 nautical miles from the coast of Suffolk, outside the then three-mile territorial water claim of the United Kingdom and therefore in international waters.[3] The facility (called Roughs Tower or HM Fort Roughs) was occupied by 150–300 Royal Navy personnel throughout World War II; not until well after the war, in 1956, were the last full-time personnel taken off HM Fort Roughs.[3]

Pendudukan oleh Roy Bates dan pembentukan Sealand[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lambang Pangeran Sealand.

Pada tanggal 2 September 1967, benteng diduduki oleh Mayor [[Paddy Roy Bates]], seorang warga Britania Raya dan penyiar radio "bajak laut", who ejected a competing group of pirate broadcasters.[4] Bates bermaksud untuk menyiarkan stasiun radio bajak lautnya, Radio Essex, dari platform.[5]

In 1968, British workmen entered what Bates claimed to be his territorial waters in order to service a navigational buoy near the platform. Michael Bates (son of Paddy Roy Bates) tried to scare the workmen off by firing warning shots from the former fort. As Bates was a British subject at the time, he was summoned to court in England on firearms charges following the incident.[6] But the court ruled that as the platform (which Bates was now calling "Sealand") was outside British jurisdiction, being beyond the then three-mile limit of the country's waters,[7] the case could not proceed. In 1975, Bates introduced a constitution for Sealand, followed by a flag, a national anthem, a currency and passports.[8]

Pada Agustus 1978 saat Bates dan istrinya sedang berada di Inggris, Alexander Achenbach, yang menyatakan dirinya sebagai perdana menteri Sealand, menyewa beberapa orang Jerman dan orang Belanda untuk menyerang platform tempat Sealand berada.[9] Mereka menterang platform dengan speedboat, jet ski, dan helikopter, serta berhasil menangkap anak Bates dan menjadikannya sandera. Bates berhasil mengambil alih kembali platform dan menangkap Achenbach serta pengikutnya yang terlibat. Achenbach, seorang pengacara Jerman yang memegang paspor Sealand, dituntut atas tuduhan pengkhianatan melawan Sealand [9] dan ditahan sampai ia membayar uang sejumlah 75.000 mark Jerman.[10] Pemerintah Belanda, Austria dan Jerman mengirimkan petisi kepada pemerintah Britania Raya, but the United Kingdom disavowed his imprisonment, citing the 1968 court decision.[11] Pemerintah Jerman lalu mengirimkan diplomatnya dari kedutaan besarnya di London ke Sealand untuk bernegosiasi dalam pembebasan Achenbach. Roy Bates relented after several weeks of negotiations and subsequently claimed that the diplomat's visit constituted de facto recognition of Sealand by Germany.[9]

Following his repatriation, Achenbach and Gernot Pütz established a "government in exile", sometimes known as the Sealand Rebel Government, or Sealandic Rebel Government, in Germany.[9] Achenbach's appointed successor, Johannes Seiger, continues to claim via his website that he is Sealand's legitimate ruling authority.[12]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "info_paper.id" (PDF). Diakses 22 June 2010. 
  2. ^ "Information on the Principality of Sealand including GDP" (PDF). Summit of Micronations. Diakses 13 November 2007. 
  3. ^ a b c Zumerchik, John (2008). Seas and Waterways of the World: An Encyclopedia of History, Uses, and Issues. ABC-CLIO Ltd. hlm. 563. ISBN 978-1-85109-711-1. 
  4. ^ John Ryan, George Dunford & Simon Sellars (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. hlm. 9. ISBN 1-74104-730-7. 
  5. ^ Gould, Jack (24 Maret 1966). "Radio: British Commercial Broadcasters Are at Sea; Illegal Programs Are Beamed From Ships". New York Times 
  6. ^ "Welcome to Sealand. Now Bugger Off". Wired News. July 2000. Diakses 11 November 2007. 
  7. ^ Regina v. Paddy Roy Bates and Michael Roy Bates, The Shire Hall, Chelmsford, 25 October 1968. "Regina v. Paddy Roy Bates and Michael Roy Bates". The Shire Hall, Chelmsford. Diakses 11 November 2007. 
  8. ^ "The Principality of Sealand". Sealandgov.org. Diakses 21 November 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d John Ryan, George Dunford & Simon Sellars (2006). Micronations. Lonely Planet. hlm. 11. ISBN 1-74104-730-7. 
  10. ^ "Attempt to free captive from private 'island' fails". The Times. 5 September 1978. hlm. 3. 
  11. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama sealandgov.org
  12. ^ "Homepage of Sealandic Government in Exile". Sealandic Government in Exile. Diakses 13 November 2007. 

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]