Planet pengembara

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Ilustrasi planet pengembara CFBDSIR J214947.2-040308.9.

Planet pengembara (dalam bahasa Inggris disebut rogue planet) adalah benda langit sebesar planet yang mengorbit pusat galaksi secara langsung. Objek semacam ini terlempar dari sistem keplanetan yang menjadi tempat terbentuknya planet ini, walaupun terdapat kemungkinan objek ini memang tidak pernah mengitari suatu bintang atau katai cokelat.[1][2][3] Galaksi Bima Sakti sendiri diperkirakan memiliki miliaran planet pengembara.[4]

Beberapa planet pengembara mungkin terbentuk dengan cara yang sama seperti bintang, dan Persatuan Astronomi Internasional mengusulkan agar objek semacam itu disebut "katai sub-cokelat".[5] Contohnya adalah Cha 110913-773444, yang mungkin terlempar dari sistem keplanetannya dan menjadi planet pengembara, atau terbentuk sendirian dan menjadi katai sub-cokelat.[6]

Pada Desember 2013, diumumkan kemungkinan penemuan sebuah bulan luar surya yang mengelilingi sebuah planet pengembara.[7]

Retensi panas di ruang antar bintang[sunting | sunting sumber]

Planet pengembara menghasilkan sedikit panas dan tidak dipanaskan oleh sebuah bintang.[8] Pada tahun 1998, David J. Stevenson menduga bahwa beberapa objek seukuran planet di ruang antar bintang mungkin memiliki atmosfer tebal yang membuat permukaannya tidak beku.[9]

Planet-planet pengembara yang telah ditemukan[sunting | sunting sumber]


Eksoplanet Massa (MJ) Usia (miliar Tahun) Jarak (tahun cahaya) Catatan Penemuan
OTS 44 ~11.5 0.5–3 554 Katai coklat bermassa rendah 1998
S Ori 52 2–8 1–5 1,150 Usia dipertanyakan 2000[10]
Cha 110913-773444 5–15 ~2 529 Kandidat 2004[11]
SIMP J013656.5+093347 11-13 ~200 20-22 Kandidat 2006[12][13]
UGPS J072227.51−054031.2 5–40 13 Massa Tidak Pasti 2010
[MPK2010b] 4450 2–3 325 Kandidat 2010[14]
CFBDSIR 2149−0403 4–7 110–130 117–143 Kandidat 2012[15]
MOA-2011-BLG-262 ~4 Kemungkinan katai merah 2013
PSO J318.5-22 5.5–8 21–27 80 Dikonfirmasi 2013[16]
2MASS J2208+2921 11–13 21–27 115 Kandidat 2014[17]
WISE J1741-4642 4–21 23–130 Kandidat 2014[18]
WISE 0855−0714 3–10 7.1 Kemungkinan katai coklat 2014[19]
2MASS J12074836–3900043 11–13 7–13 200 Kandidat 2014[20]
SIMP J2154–1055 9–11 30–50 63 Usia dipertanyakan 2014[21]
SDSS J111010.01+011613.1 10–12 110–130 63 Konfirmasi 2015[22]
2MASS J1119–1137 4–8 7–13 94 Kandidat 2016[23]
WISEA 1147 5–13 7–13 94 Kandidat 2016[24]
OGLE-2012-BLG-1323 0.007245–0.07245 Kandidat 2017[25][26][27]
OGLE-2017-BLG-0560 1.9–20 Kandidat 2017[28][29][30]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Shostak, Seth (24 February 2005). Orphan Planets: It's a Hard Knock Life. Space.com, 24 February 2005. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from http://www.space.com/searchforlife/seti_orphan_planets_050224.html.
  2. ^ Lloyd, Robin (18 April 2001). Free-Floating Planets – British Team Restakes Dubious Claim. Space.com, 18 April 2001. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/astronomy/free_floaters_010403-1.html. Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty.
  3. ^ Author unknown (18 April 2001). Orphan 'planet' findings challenged by new model. NASA Astrobiology, 18 April 2001. Retrieved on 5 February 2009 from "Archived copy". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 22 March 2009. Diakses tanggal 9 February 2009. 
  4. ^ Neil deGrasse Tyson in Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey as referred to by National Geographic
  5. ^ Working Group on Extrasolar Planets – Definition of a "Planet" Position Statement on the Definition of a "Planet" (IAU) Error in webarchive template: Check |url= value. Empty.
  6. ^ Rogue planet find makes astronomers ponder theory
  7. ^ Bennett, D.P.; Batista, V.; et al. (13 December 2013). "A Sub-Earth-Mass Moon Orbiting a Gas Giant Primary or a High Velocity Planetary System in the Galactic Bulge". The Astrophysical Journal. 785 (2): 155. arXiv:1312.3951alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014ApJ...785..155B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/785/2/155. 
  8. ^ Sean Raymond (9 April 2005). "Life in the dark" (dalam bahasa English). Aeon. Diakses tanggal 9 April 2016. 
  9. ^ Stevenson, David J.; Stevens, C. F. (1999). "Life-sustaining planets in interstellar space?". Nature. 400 (6739): 32. Bibcode:1999Natur.400...32S. doi:10.1038/21811. PMID 10403246. 
  10. ^ Zapatero Osorio, M. R. (6 October 2000). "Discovery of Young, Isolated Planetary Mass Objects in the σ Orionis Star Cluster". Science. 290 (5489): 103. Bibcode:2000Sci...290..103Z. doi:10.1126/science.290.5489.103. 
  11. ^ Luhman, Kevin L. (10 December 2005). "Discovery of a Planetary-Mass Brown Dwarf with a Circumstellar Disk". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 635 (1): L93–L96. arXiv:astro-ph/0511807alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2005ApJ...635L..93L. doi:10.1086/498868. 
  12. ^ Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Nadeau, Daniel; Robert, Jasmin; Albert, Loïc (n.d.). "Discovery of the Brightest T Dwarf in the Northern Hemisphere". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 651 (1): L57. arXiv:astro-ph/0609419alt=Dapat diakses gratis. doi:10.1086/509146. ISSN 1538-4357. 
  13. ^ Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Artigau, Étienne; Bouchard, Sandie; Albert, Loïc; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Bardalez-Gagliuffi, Daniella C. (15 May 2017). "SIMP J013656.5+093347 is Likely a Planetary-Mass Object in the Carina-Near Moving Group". The Astrophysical Journal. 841 (1): L1. arXiv:1705.01625alt=Dapat diakses gratis. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa70e2. ISSN 2041-8213. 
  14. ^ Marsh, Kenneth A. (1 February 2010). "A Young Planetary-Mass Object in the ρ Oph Cloud Core". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 709 (2): L158–L162. arXiv:0912.3774alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2010ApJ...709L.158M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/709/2/L158. 
  15. ^ Delorme, Philippe (25 September 2012). "CFBDSIR2149-0403: a 4-7 Jupiter-mass free-floating planet in the young moving group AB Doradus?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 548A: 26. arXiv:1210.0305alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2012A&A...548A..26D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219984. 
  16. ^ Liu, Michael C. (10 November 2013). "The Extremely Red, Young L Dwarf PSO J318.5338-22.8603: A Free-floating Planetary-mass Analog to Directly Imaged Young Gas-giant Planets". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 777 (1): L20. arXiv:1310.0457alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2013ApJ...777L..20L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/777/2/L20. 
  17. ^ Gagné, Jonathan (10 March 2014). "BANYAN. II. Very Low Mass and Substellar Candidate Members to Nearby, Young Kinematic Groups with Previously Known Signs of Youth". Astrophysical Journal. 783 (2): 121. arXiv:1312.5864alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014ApJ...783..121G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/121. 
  18. ^ Schneider, Adam C. (9 January 2014). "Discovery of the Young L Dwarf WISE J174102.78-464225.5". Astronomical Journal. 147 (2): 34. arXiv:1311.5941alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014AJ....147...34S. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/147/2/34. 
  19. ^ Luhman, Kevin L. (10 May 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 786 (2): L18. arXiv:1404.6501alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014ApJ...786L..18L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. 
  20. ^ Gagné, Jonathan (10 April 2014). "The Coolest Isolated Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of TWA". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 785 (1): L14. arXiv:1403.3120alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014ApJ...785L..14G. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/785/1/L14. 
  21. ^ Gagné, Jonathan (1 September 2014). "SIMP J2154-1055: A New Low-gravity L4β Brown Dwarf Candidate Member of the Argus Association". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 792 (1): L17. arXiv:1407.5344alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2014ApJ...792L..17G. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/792/1/L17. 
  22. ^ Gagné, Jonathan (20 July 2015). "SDSS J111010.01+011613.1: A New Planetary-mass T Dwarf Member of the AB Doradus Moving Group". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 808 (1): L20. arXiv:1506.04195alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2015ApJ...808L..20G. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L20. 
  23. ^ Kellogg, Kendra (11 April 2016). "The Nearest Isolated Member of the TW Hydrae Association is a Giant Planet Analog". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 821 (1): L15. arXiv:1603.08529alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2016ApJ...821L..15K. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/821/1/L15. 
  24. ^ Schneider, Adam C. (21 April 2016). "WISEA J114724.10-204021.3: A Free-floating Planetary Mass Member of the TW Hya Association". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 822 (1): L1. arXiv:1603.07985alt=Dapat diakses gratis. Bibcode:2016ApJ...822L...1S. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/822/1/L1. 
  25. ^ Becky Ferreira (9 Nov 2018). "Rare Sighting of Two Rogue Planets That Do Not Orbit Stars" (dalam bahasa English). Motherboard. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019. 
  26. ^ Jake Parks (16 November 2018). "These Two New 'Rogue Planets' Wander the Cosmos Without Stars" (dalam bahasa English). Discover Magazine. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019. 
  27. ^ Jake Parks (15 November 2018). "Two free-range planets found roaming the Milky Way in solitude" (dalam bahasa English). Astronomy Magazine. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019. 
  28. ^ Becky Ferreira (9 Nov 2018). "Rare Sighting of Two Rogue Planets That Do Not Orbit Stars" (dalam bahasa English). Motherboard. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019. 
  29. ^ Jake Parks (16 November 2018). "These Two New 'Rogue Planets' Wander the Cosmos Without Stars" (dalam bahasa English). Discover Magazine. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019. 
  30. ^ Jake Parks (15 November 2018). "Two free-range planets found roaming the Milky Way in solitude" (dalam bahasa English). Astronomy Magazine. Diakses tanggal 10 February 2019.