Perang Saudara Suriah

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Perang saudara Suriah
Bagian dari Kebangkitan dunia Arab, musim semi Arab, luapan Perang Saudara Irak, Konflik proksi Iran–Arab Saudi[13][14][15], dan Perang Dingin II[16]
Syrian Civil War map.svg
Situasi militer saat ini: Merah: Pemerintah Suriah, Kuning: Pasukan Demokratik Suriah (Rojava), Abu-abu: Negara Islam Irak dan Syam, Putih: Jabhat Al-Nusra, Hijau: Oposisi Suriah
(untuk peta yang lebih rinci, lihat Kota selama Perang Saudara Suriah).
Tanggal 15 Maret 2011 (2011-03-15) – sekarang
(6 tahun, 8 bulan, 1 minggu and 2 hari)
Lokasi Suriah (dengan luapan di negara tetangga)
Status Berlangsung
Perubahan
wilayah
Per Februari 2016: pemerintah menguasai 40% Suriah[17] (66% populasi);[18] ISIL menguasai 20–40% teritori Suriah;[17][19] 20% dikuasai oleh kelompok pemberontak (termasuk Jabhat al-Nusra);[17] 15–20% dikuasai oleh Kurdi[17][20]
Pihak utama yang berperang
Oposisi

Jaish al-Fatah

Kelompok sekutu

(SDF)

Kelompok sekutu:


Komandan


Templat:Country data Amerika Serikat Army Sean MacFarland[34]
(Komandan CJTF-OIR)

Flag of the United States (Pantone).svg Barack Obama
(Presiden AS)
Kekuatan

Angkatan Bersenjata Suriah: 178.000[35]

Direktorat Jenderal Keamanan: 8.000[36]

Pasukan Pertahanan Nasional: 80.000[37]

Hezbollah: 6.000–8.000[38][39]

Brigade Ba'ath: 7.000[40][41]

Rusia: 4.000 pasukan[42] and 1,000 contractors[43]

Iran: 3.000–5.000[39][44]

Kelompok sekutu lainnya: 15.500+[39][45][46]

FSA: 40,000–50,000[47]

Front Islam: 40.000–70.000[48]

Fatah Halab:[a] ~25,000–32,000[49][50][51][52]

Kelompok lainnya: 12.500[53]


al-Nusra: 13.000[54]

Kelompok sekutu: 8.500+
31.500[55]–100.000[56]

YPG dan YPJ: 57.000-60.000[57][58]

Koalisi Arab Suriah: 4.000 (klaim)

Dewan Militer Suriah: 2.000[59]

Tentara revolusi: 3,000[60]
Korban

Pemerintah Suriah:
56.609–91.609 prajurit terbunuh[61][62]
39.221–53.221 wajib milter terbunuh[61][62]
6,000 soldiers and militiamen and 2,000 supporters captured[61]
InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah:
1,247–1,400 killed[61][63]
Bendera Rusia Rusia:
13 soldiers[64][65] and 9–15 contractors[43][66][67] killed

Other non-Syrian fighters:
4,585 killed[61] ( 419)[68]
95,663–121,663 fighters killed[d][61][62]
979 protesters killed[69]
ISIL:
8,850+ killed (per SOHR)[70]
16,089+ killed (per SAA and YPG)[71][72][73][74]

Bendera Rojava Rojava:
3,182 killed[75][76]


CJTF–OIR:
2 killed[77][78]

81,436[61]–94,884[79] (3,160 foreign; mostly Palestinian) civilian deaths documented by opposition
86 other foreign soldiers killed
(Bendera Lebanon 48, Bendera Irak 16, Bendera Turki 15, Bendera Yordania 7)


Total yang terbunuh:
282.283–402.819 (perkiraan Mei 2016 oleh SOHR)[61]
470.000 (perkiraan Februari 2016 oleh SCPR)[80]


Lebih dari 7.600.000 terlantar (perkiraan Juli 2015 oleh UNHCR)

Lebih dari 4.000.000 pengungsi (perkiraan Juli 2015 oleh UNHCR)[81][82][83]

a Fatah Halab (bahasa Inggris: Aleppo Conquest) juga termasuk kelompok dari FSA.

b Turkey is part of the CJTF–OIR against ISIL, but does not support the SDF and is in a border conflict with it.[84][85]

c Some of the rebels that have been armed by the United States have given vehicles and ammunition to the al-Nusra Front.[86]

d Number includes Kurdish and ISIL fighters, whose deaths are also listed in their separate columns.[61][62][87]

Perang saudara Suriah (Arab: الحرب الأهلية السورية‎) adalah sebuah konflik bersenjata berbagai pihak dengan intervensi internasional[88] yang berlangsung di Suriah. Kerusuhan tumbuh sejak protes kebangkitan dunia Arab tahun 2011, dan meningkat ke konflik bersenjata setelah kekerasan atas protes kepada Pemerintah Presiden Bashar al-Assad untuk menekan pengunduran dirinya.[89] Perang melibatkan Pemerintah Suriah, kelompok aliansi longgar pemberontak Arab Suriah, Pasukan Demokratik Suriah, kelompok jihaidst Salafi (termasuk Front al-Nusra), dan Negara Islam Irak dan Syam (ISIL). Semua pihak menerima dukungan besar dari aktor asing, dan banyak yang mengarahkan untuk melabelinya sebagai perang proksi yang dilancarkan oleh negara-negara besar regional dan dunia.[90][91][92]

Di bawah rezim Assad, Suriah melalui reformasi ekonomi neoliberal yang signifikan. Reformasi ini diperburuk kesenjangan kekayaan, yang dikombinasikan dengan resesi dan beberapa tahun kekeringan yang menyebabkan penyebaran kebangkitan dunia Arab untuk Suriah. Protes cepat menyebar ke daerah-daerah yang didominasi Kurdi di utara Suriah.

Kelompok oposisi Suriah membentuk Tentara Pembebasan Suriah dan menguasai daerah sekitar Aleppo dan bagian selatan Suriah. Seiring waktu, faksi dari Oposisi Suriah pecah dari politik moderat asli untuk mengejar visi Islam untuk Suriah, seperti Front al-Nusra dan Negara Islam Irak dan Syam (ISIL).[93] Di utara, pasukan sebagian besar pemerintah Suriah menarik untuk melawan FSA, yang memungkinkan YPG Kurdi untuk bergerak dan melakukan klaim de facto atas otonomi.[94] Pada tahun 2015, YPG bergabung dengan Arab, Assyria, kelompok Armenia dan Turkmen membentuk Pasukan Demokratik Suriah.[95]

Per Februari 2016 pemerintah menguasai 40% Suriah, ISIL menguasai sekitar 20-40%, kelompok pemberontak Arab (termasuk Front al-Nusra) 20%, dan 15-20% dikuasai Pasukan Demokratik Suriah. Baik Pasukan Demokratik Suriah maupun Tentara Sruiah telah membuat keuntungan baru-baru ini terhadap ISIS.

Organisasi internasional telah menuduh pemerintah Suriah, ISIL, dan pasukan oposisi lainnya melakukan pelanggaran HAM berat, dengan beberapa pembantaian terjadi.[96][97][98][99][100] Konflik menyebabkan cukup banyak perpindahan penduduk. Pada 1 Februari 2016,[101] sebuah pembicaraan damai Suriah Jenewa yang dimediasi oleh PBB dimulai, namun pertempuran terus berlanjut.[102]

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