Perang saudara Suriah

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
(Dialihkan dari Perang Saudara Suriah)
Lompat ke: navigasi, cari
Perang saudara Suriah
Bagian dari Kebangkitan dunia Arab, musim sejuk Arab, luapan Perang Saudara Irak, Konflik proksi Iran–Arab Saudi[1][2][3], dan Perang Dingin II[4]
Syrian Civil War map.svg
Situasi militer saat ini: Merah: Pemerintah Suriah, Kuning: Pasukan Demokratik Suriah (Rojava), Abu-abu: Negara Islam Irak dan Syam, Putih: Jabhat Al-Nusra, Hijau: Oposisi Suriah
(untuk peta yang lebih rinci, lihat Kota selama Perang Saudara Suriah).
Tanggal 15 Maret 2011 (2011-03-15) – sekarang
(5 tahun, 5 bulan, 2 minggu dan 2 hari)
Lokasi Suriah (dengan luapan di negara tetangga)
Status Berlangsung
Perubahan
wilayah
Per Februari 2016: pemerintah menguasai 40% Suriah[5] (66% populasi);[6] ISIL menguasai 20–40% teritori Suriah;[5][7] 20% dikuasai oleh kelompok pemberontak (termasuk Jabhat al-Nusra);[5] 15–20% dikuasai oleh Kurdi[8][5]
Pihak yang terlibat
Oposisi

Jaish al-Fatah

Kelompok sekutu

Komandan

Kekuatan
Angkatan Bersenjata Suriah: 178.000[28]

General Security Directorate: 8.000[29]

Pasukan Pertahanan Nasional: 80.000[30]

Hezbollah: 6.000–8.000[31][32]

Brigade Ba'ath: 7.000[33][34]

Rusia: 4,000 troops[35] and 1,000 contractors[36]

Iran: 3,000–5,000[32][37]

Other Kelompok sekutu: 15,500+[38][32][39]

FSA: 40,000–50,000[40]

Islamic Front: 40,000–70,000[41]

Fatah Halab:[a] ~25,000–32,000[42][43][44][45]

Kelompok lainnya: 12.500[46]


al-Nusra: 13.000[47]
Kelompok sekutu: 8,500+

31,500[48]–100,000[49]
Korban
Syrian Government:

56,609–91,609 soldiers killed[50][51]
39,221–53,221 militiamen killed[50][51]
6,000 soldiers and militiamen and 2,000 supporters captured[50]
InfoboxHez.PNG Hezbollah:
1,247–1,400 killed[50][52]
Bendera Rusia Russia:
13 soldiers[53][54] and 9–15 contractors[55][36][56] killed
Other non-Syrian fighters:
4,585 killed[50] ( 419)[57]

95,663–121,663 fighters killed[d][50][51]
979 protesters killed[58]
ISIL:
8,850+ killed (per SOHR)[59]
16,089+ killed (per SAA and YPG)[60][61][62][63]

81,436[50]–94,884[64] (3,160 foreign; mostly Palestinian) civilian deaths documented by opposition
86 other foreign soldiers killed
(Bendera Lebanon 48, Bendera Irak 16, Bendera Turki 15, Bendera Yordania 7)


Total yang terbunuh:
282.283–402.819 (perkiraan Mei 2016 oleh SOHR)[50]
470.000 (perkiraan Februari 2016 oleh SCPR)[65]


Lebih dari 7.600.000 terlantar (perkiraan Juli 2015 oleh UNHCR)

Lebih dari 4.000.000 pengungsi (perkiraan Juli 2015 oleh UNHCR)[66][67][68]

[[#ref_Fatah Halab{{{3}}}|^]]  Fatah Halab (bahasa Inggris: Aleppo Conquest) juga termasuk kelompok dari FSA.

[[#ref_turkey{{{3}}}|^]]  Turkey is part of the CJTF–OIR against ISIL, but does not support the SDF and is in a border conflict with it.[69][70]

[[#ref_america{{{3}}}|^]]  Some of the rebels that have been armed by the United States have given vehicles and ammunition to the al-Nusra Front.[71]

[[#ref_casualties2{{{3}}}|^]]  Number includes Kurdish and ISIL fighters, whose deaths are also listed in their separate columns.[72][50][51]

Perang saudara Suriah (bahasa Arab: الحرب الأهلية السورية) adalah sebuah konflik bersenjata berbagai pihak dengan intervensi internasional[73] yang berlangsung di Suriah. Kerusuhan tumbuh sejak protes kebangkitan dunia Arab tahun 2011, dan meningkat ke konflik bersenjata setelah kekerasan atas protes kepada Pemerintah Presiden Bashar al-Assad untuk menekan pengunduran dirinya.[74] Perang melibatkan Pemerintah Suriah, kelompok aliansi longgar pemberontak Arab Suriah, Pasukan Demokratik Suriah, kelompok jihaidst Salafi (termasuk Front al-Nusra), dan Negara Islam Irak dan Syam (ISIL). Semua pihak menerima dukungan besar dari aktor asing, dan banyak yang mengarahkan untuk melabelinya sebagai perang proksi yang dilancarkan oleh negara-negara besar regional dan dunia.[75][76][77]

Di bawah rezim Assad, Suriah melalui reformasi ekonomi neoliberal yang signifikan. Reformasi ini diperburuk kesenjangan kekayaan, yang dikombinasikan dengan resesi dan beberapa tahun kekeringan yang menyebabkan penyebaran kebangkitan dunia Arab untuk Suriah. Protes cepat menyebar ke daerah-daerah yang didominasi Kurdi di utara Suriah.

Kelompok oposisi Suriah membentuk Tentara Pembebasan Suriah dan menguasai daerah sekitar Aleppo dan bagian selatan Suriah. Seiring waktu, faksi dari Oposisi Suriah pecah dari politik moderat asli untuk mengejar visi Islam untuk Suriah, seperti Front al-Nusra dan Negara Islam Irak dan Syam (ISIL).[78] Di utara, pasukan sebagian besar pemerintah Suriah menarik untuk melawan FSA, yang memungkinkan YPG Kurdi untuk bergerak dan melakukan klaim de facto atas otonomi.[79] Pada tahun 2015, YPG bergabung dengan Arab, Assyria, kelompok Armenia dan Turkmen membentuk Pasukan Demokratik Suriah.[80]

Per Februari 2016 pemerintah menguasai 40% Suriah, ISIL menguasai sekitar 20-40%, kelompok pemberontak Arab (termasuk Front al-Nusra) 20%, dan 15-20% dikuasai Pasukan Demokratik Suriah. Baik Pasukan Demokratik Suriah maupun Tentara Sruiah telah membuat keuntungan baru-baru ini terhadap ISIS.

Organisasi internasional telah menuduh pemerintah Suriah, ISIL, dan pasukan oposisi lainnya melakukan pelanggaran HAM berat, dengan beberapa pembantaian terjadi.[81][82][83][84][85] Konflik menyebabkan cukup banyak perpindahan penduduk. Pada 1 Februari 2016,[86] sebuah pembicaraan damai Suriah Jenewa yang dimediasi oleh PBB dimulai, namun pertempuran terus berlanjut.[87]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Gerges, Fawaz (15 Desember 2013). "Saudi Arabia and Iran must end their proxy war in Syria". The Guardian. 
  2. ^ Rogin, Josh (4 November 2015). "Iran and Saudi Arabia Clash Inside Syria Talks". Bloomberg View. ...Iran and Saudi Arabia to discuss anything civilly, much less come to an agreement on Syria, where both sides have proxy forces in the fight. 
  3. ^ Loewenstein, Jennifer. "Heading Toward a Collision: Syria, Saudi Arabia and Regional Proxy Wars". CounterPunch. Saudi Arabian and Iranian-backed factions are contributing to the proxy war in Syria... 
  4. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/13/world/middleeast/syria-russia-airstrikes.html?_r=1
  5. ^ a b c d "Syrian War Could Turn on the Battle for Aleppo". Diakses tanggal 12 February 2016. 
  6. ^ Marc Champion (14 September 2015). "To Imagine Syria at Peace, Think of Bosnia". BloombergView.com. 
  7. ^ Syrian regime forces 'enter IS-held Palmyra'
  8. ^ Kurds should have a say on Syria’s future at Geneva talks – UN envoy
  9. ^ Yusuf, Mohamed Sheikh (27 March 2016). "N. Korean army units fighting for Syria regime: al-Zubi". Anadolu Agency. Diakses tanggal 28 March 2016. 
    "Report: Iran, North Korea Helping Syria Resume Building Missiles". Diakses tanggal 18 November 2014. 
    Ryall, Julian (6 June 2013). "Syria: North Korean military 'advising Assad regime'". The Telegraph. Diakses tanggal 2 August 2013. 
    "North Korea violating sanctions, according to UN report". The Telegraph. 3 July 2012. Diakses tanggal 6 October 2012. 
  10. ^ Bloodworth, James (16 Oktober 2015). "Cuba Is Intervening in Syria to Help Russia. It's Not the First Time Havana's Assisted Moscow". The Daily Beast. Diakses tanggal 13 Juni 2016. 
    Carney, Jordain (16 October 2015). "Senator to Obama: Why is Cuba helping Russia in Syria?". The Hill. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2016. 
    Christina Corbin and Doug McKelway (14 October 2015). "Top Cuban general, key forces in Syria to aid Assad, Russia, sources say". Fox News. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2016. 
    "Confirmed: Cuban forces arriving in Syria". RedState. 14 October 2015. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2016. 
  11. ^ Daniel Trotta, edited by Paul Simao (17 October 2015). "Cuba denies it has sent troops to Syria to help Assad". Reuters. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2016. 
    William M. LeoGrande (26 Oktober 2015). "Manufacturing Crisis: Cuban Troops in Syria". The Huffington Post. Diakses tanggal 13 Juni 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c d Wladimir van Wilgenburg. Terrorism Monitor (Jamestown Foundation) XIII (12): 3. http://www.jamestown.org/programs/tm/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=44027. 
  13. ^ a b c d Gareth Porter (28 May 2015). "Gulf allies and 'Army of Conquest'". Mingguan Al-Ahram. 
  14. ^ "U.S. weapons reaching Syrian rebels". Washington Post. September 11, 2013. 
  15. ^ "Hollande confirms French delivery of arms to Syrian rebels". 2014-08-21. Diakses tanggal 2015-01-16. 
  16. ^ a b "Leading Syrian rebel groups form new Islamic Front". BBC. 22 November 2013. Diakses tanggal 22 Januari 2014. 
  17. ^ "Russian raids kill prominent Syrian rebel commander". aljazeera.com. 
  18. ^ Nic Robertson & Paul Cruickshank (5 March 2015). "Source: Syrian warplanes kill leaders of al-Nusra". CNN. 
  19. ^ "Senior Nusra Front commander killed in Syria air strike". Al-Jazeera. 6 March 2015. Diakses tanggal 3 June 2015. 
  20. ^ "Nusra Front spokesman killed by air strike in Syria". www.aljazeera.com. Diakses tanggal 2016-04-04. 
  21. ^ "Syria's Qaeda spokesman, 20 jihadists dead in strikes: monitor". www.yahoo.com. Diakses tanggal 2016-04-04. 
  22. ^ "U.S. Condemns Terrorist Attacks in Iraq and Pledges to Help Combat al Qaeda". United States Department of State. 10 August 2013. 
  23. ^ "ISIS confirms death of senior leader in Syria". Long War Journal. February 2014. Diakses tanggal 2015. 
  24. ^ Alessandria Masi (11 November 2014). "If ISIS Leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Is Killed, Who Is Caliph Of The Islamic State Group?". International Business Times. Diakses tanggal 11 June 2015. 
  25. ^ "A Top ISIS Leader Is Killed in an Airstrike, the Pentagon Says". New York Times. 25 March 2016. Diakses tanggal 26 March 2016. 
  26. ^ "U.S. confirms death of ISIS operative Omar al-Shishani". CNN. 14 March 2016. Diakses tanggal 14 March 2016. 
  27. ^ Islamic State's 'minister of war' likely killed in U.S. air strike: officials
    ISIS 'minister of war' al-Shishani likely killed in airstrike – Pentagon
    Isis 'minister of war' Omar al-Shishani 'clinically dead' after US air strike
    Islamic State's 'war minister' Omar al-Shishani 'clinically dead'
    Red-Beard Abu Omar al-Shishani Is The Walking Dead ISIS ‘Minister of War’
  28. ^ "Syria military strength". Global Fire Power. 17 October 2015. 
  29. ^ "Syria's diminished security forces". AFP. 28 August 2013. Diakses tanggal 14 May 2014. 
  30. ^ ISIS’ Iraq offensive could trigger Hezbollah to fill gap left in Syria The Daily Star, 16 Juni 2014
  31. ^ Senior Hezbollah commander killed in Aleppo
  32. ^ a b c "Iran ‘Foreign Legion’ Leads Battle in Syria’s North". The Wall Street Journal. 17 February 2016. 
  33. ^ "«كتائب البعث» إلى شوارع دمشق". Al Akhbar. 14 January 2014. 
  34. ^ Aron Lund (13 January 2014). "The Baath Battalions Move Into Damascus". Carnegie Endowment. 
  35. ^ Jonathan Landay, Phil Stewart, Mark Hosenball (4 November 2015). "Russia's Syria force has reportedly grown to 4,000 people". Business Insider. Diakses tanggal 4 November 2015. 
  36. ^ a b Thomas Grove (18 December 2015). "Up to Nine Russian Contractors Die in Syria, Experts Say". WSJ. 
  37. ^ Syria civil war: State-of-the-art technology gives President Assad’s army the edge
  38. ^ Syrian war widens Sunni-Shia schism as foreign jihadis join fight for shrines. Retrieved 5 June 2013
  39. ^ Albayrak, Aydin. "Mihraç Ural, a man with a long history of terrorism". Today's Zaman. Diakses tanggal 3 August 2013. 
  40. ^ Cockburn, Patrick (11 December 2013). "West suspends aid for Islamist rebels in Syria, underlining their disillusionment with those forces opposed to President Bashar al-Assad". The Independent. 
  41. ^ "Front to Back". Foreign Policy. 
  42. ^ "Syria crisis: Guide to armed and political opposition". BBC. 13 December 2013. 
  43. ^ "Factbox: Syria's rebel groups". Reuters. 9 January 2014. Diakses tanggal 9 January 2014. 
  44. ^ "Al Qaida rebels leave mass grave behind as they desert base in Syria". McClatchy. 6 January 2014. Diakses tanggal 8 January 2014. 
  45. ^ "Syrian rebel group offers 2000 jihadists to fight Houthis in Yemen". ZAMAN ALWSL. 
  46. ^ Who are these 70,000 Syrian fighters David Cameron is relying on? Retrieved 18 February 2016.
  47. ^ "Syria crisis: Spooked by rebel gains, Jordan doubles down on Islamic State". 4 May 2015. Diakses tanggal 4 May 2015. 
  48. ^ "Islamic State fighter estimate triples - CIA". BBC. 12 September 2014. 
  49. ^ "War with Isis: Islamic militants have army of 200,000, claims senior Kurdish leader". The Independent. 18 November 2014. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i "More than 400000 were killed in 63 months of the Syrian revolution". 28 May 2016. 
  51. ^ a b c d "More than 110 dead, thousands of regime forces during the 41 months". Diakses tanggal 25 October 2014. 
  52. ^ "Hizbullah’s military commander is killed". The Economist. Diakses tanggal 13 May 2016. 
  53. ^ "Russian soldier dies in Syria after preventing car bomb attack on aid distribution point". Diakses tanggal 19 June 2016. 
  54. ^ 2 Russian Soldiers Die After Helicopter Shot Down in Syria
  55. ^ "Three Russians killed in Syria: pro-government source". Yahoo News. 20 October 2015. Diakses tanggal 21 October 2015. 
  56. ^ "Fontanka Investigates Russian Mercenaries Dying For Putin In Syria And Ukraine". 29 March 2016. Diakses tanggal 29 March 2016. 
  57. ^ IRGC officer college mourns comrade killed in Syria (see twitter link on 13 deaths in June)
  58. ^ "Syria: Opposition, almost 11,500 civilians killed". Ansamed.ansa.it. 2012-03-19. Diakses tanggal 2013-08-27. 
  59. ^ "IS executes over 3,000 in Syria in year-long ´caliphate´". AFP. 28 June 2015. 
    9 weeks of the “truce and cease of fight operations” kills almost 5,600 people in most of the Syrian provinces
    "81 executions during the 23rd month “the Islamic State’s Caliphate” in Syria rise the number of executions carried out by the “Islamic State” to 4225". SOHR. Diakses tanggal 29 May 2016. 
    Thousands flee ISIS offensive in northern Syria
  60. ^ YPG releases balance-sheet of 2014: Nearly 5,000 ISIS members killed
  61. ^ Balance of the War Against Hostile Groups in Rojava, Northern Syria: Year 2015
  62. ^ "Syrian Army Kills Nearly 5,000 IS Militants in Three Months: Source". sputniknews.com. 25 December 2014. 
  63. ^ The army takes full control of Palmyra city, hundreds of ISIS terrorists killed
  64. ^ "Violations Documenting Center". Violations Documenting Center. 23 February 2016. Diakses tanggal 23 February 2016. 
  65. ^ Report on Syria conflict finds 11.5% of population killed or injured
  66. ^ "More than four million Syrian refugees in neighbouring countries, UN says". Telegraph.co.uk. 9 July 2015. 
  67. ^ Tom Miles (9 July 2015). "Syria's neighbors now host four million of its refugees, U.N. says". Reuters. 
  68. ^ "UNHCR: Syrian Refugees Cross Four Million Mark - Al Jazeera America". aljazeera.com. 
  69. ^ Reuters Editorial (13 February 2016). "Turkish forces shell Syrian air base captured by Kurds". Reuters UK. Diakses tanggal 14 February 2016. 
  70. ^ Turkey shells Kurdish positions in Syria for 2nd day
  71. ^ "US-trained rebels give equipment to al-Qaeda affiliate.". BBC. 
  72. ^ "More than 215,000 killed in Syria since 2011". 3news.co.nz. 
  73. ^ International conflict. "Iran to join, Russia already bombing Opposition's positions.". Reuters.com. Reuters. Diakses tanggal 4 Oktober 2015. 
  74. ^ "Syria crackdown has killed 5,000 people, UN says". 
  75. ^ "U.S. Weaponry Is Turning Syria Into Proxy War With Russia". The New York Times. 12 Oktober 2015. Diakses tanggal 14 Oktober 2015. 
  76. ^ "Saudi Arabia and Iran must end their proxy war in Syria". The Gurdian. 15 December 2013. Diakses tanggal 30 November 2015. 
  77. ^ "By arming Syria rebels, US drawn into proxy war". Yahoo News. 15 June 2013. 
  78. ^ Dettmer, Jamie. "Syria's Rebels: Radicalization and Division". Middle East Institute. Diakses tanggal 9 July 2016. 
  79. ^ Davies, Wyre (27 July 2012). "Crisis in Syria emboldens country's Kurds". BBC News. Diakses tanggal 3 August 2012. 
  80. ^ "Declaration of establishment by Pasukan Demokratik Suriah". Kurdish Question. 15 Oktober 2015. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2015. 
  81. ^ "UN Details Rampant War Crimes By ISIS And Assad's Regime". 27 August 2014. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2014. 
  82. ^ Abdelaziz, Salma. "Syrian rebels blame 'heinous' executions on 'extremists'". CNN. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2014. 
  83. ^ "Syria and Isis committing war crimes, says United Nations". 27 August 2014. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2014. 
  84. ^ "UN human rights probe panel reports continuing 'gross' violations in Syria". United Nations. 24 May 2012. Diakses tanggal 12 September 2013. 
  85. ^ "UN chief warns of Syrian civil war if massacres continue". WN. Diakses tanggal 15 October 2014. 
  86. ^ "U.N. announces start of Syria peace talks as government troops advance". Reuters. 1 February 2016. Diakses tanggal 2 February 2016. 
  87. ^ "Syrian army threatens to encircle Aleppo as talks falter". Reuters. 3 February 2016. Diakses tanggal 4 February 2016.