Partai Konservatif (Britania Raya)

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Partai Konservatif dan Unionis
Conservatives and Unionist Party
PemimpinBoris Johnson (sejak 2019)
Pemimpin di Dewan BangsawanThe Baroness Evans of Bowes Park
KetuaAndrew Stephenson
Ben Elliot
Kepala EksekutifMike Chattey (penjabat)
Ketua Komite 1922Sir Graham Brady
Dibentuk1834; 187 tahun lalu (1834) (bentuk asli)
1912; 110 tahun lalu (1912) (bentuk saat ini)
Digabungkan dari
Didahului olehTory
Kantor pusat4 Matthew Parker Street
London
SW1H 9HQ
Sayap pemudaPemuda Konservatif[1]
Sayap wanitaOrganisasi Wanita Konservatif
Sayap luar negeriKonservatif di Luar Negeri
Sayap LGBT+Konservatif LGBT+
Keanggotaan (2021)Kenaikan 200,000[2]
IdeologiKonservatisme (Britania)[3][4]
Liberalisme ekonomi[4]
Unionisme Britania
Posisi politikKanan tengah[5][6][7]
Afiliasi EropaAliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa
Afiliasi internasionalUni Demokrat Internasional
Afiliasi Irlandia
  • Partai Unionis Ulster (1922–1972)
  • Aliansi Unionis Irlandia (1891–1922)
  • Partai Konservatif Irlandia (1834–1891)
Warna  Biru
Slogan"Build Back Better" (bahasa Indonesia: Membangun kembali dengan lebih baik)
(sejak 2020)[8]
Cabang devolusi dan semi-otonom
Dewan Rakyat
358 / 650
Dewan Bangsawan[9]
257 / 768
Parlemen Skotlandia
31 / 129
Parlemen Wales
16 / 60
Majelis London
9 / 25
Walikota daerah terpilih[a]
2 / 10
Walikota otoritas lokal terpilih
2 / 16
Komisaris Polisi
30 / 39
Konselor lokal[b][10]
6.777 / 19.171
Situs web
www.conservatives.com

^a Wali Kota London dan sembilan wali kota otoritas gabungan.
^b Konselor otoritas lokal di Inggris (termasuk 25 aldermen Kota London) dan Skotlandia, dewan utama di Wales dan dewan lokal di Irlandia Utara.

Partai Konservatif, atau nama resminya Partai Konservatif dan Unionis,[11] (bahasa Inggris: Conservatives and Unionist Party) kadang juga disebut Partai Tory, adalah partai politik kanan tengah di Britania Raya dan saat ini dipimpin oleh Boris Johnson. Partai ini memerintah sejak 2010, dan pada saat ini menjadi peraih kursi terbanyak di Dewan Rakyat Britania Raya, dengan 361 anggota parlemen, dan juga 258 anggota Dewan Bangsawan, 31 anggota Parlemen Skotlandia, 12 anggota Majelis Wales, delapan anggota Majelis London dan 7.541 anggota dewan lokal.[10] Partai ini merupakan salah satu dari dua partai politik besar di Britania Raya, satunya lagi adalah Partai Buruh.

Partai Konservatif didirikan pada 1834 dari Partai Tory—nama sehari-hari partai ini adalah "Tory"—dan merupakan satu dari dua partai dominan di abad ke-19, bersama dengan Partai Liberal. Di bawah pimpinan Benjamin Disraeli, partai ini memainkan peran penting dalam politik pada masa keemasan Imperium Britania. Pada 1912, Partai Unionis Liberal bergabung dengan partai ini untuk membentuk Partai Konservatif dan Unionis. Pada 1920-an, Partai Buruh mengungguli Partai Liberal sebagai rival utama Konservatif. Perdana Menteri Konservatif — terutama Winston Churchill dan Margaret Thatcher — memimpin pemerintahan selama 57 tahun pada abad ke-20.

Ideologi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Memposisikan diri pada politik kanan tengah Britania, Partai Konservatif secara ideologi konservatif. Faksi yang berbeda mendominasi partai selama beberapa waktu, termasuk Konservatif Satu Bangsa, Thatcheris, dan konservatif liberal, sementara pandangan dan kebijakannya telah berubah sepanjang sejarah. Partai ini secara umum mengadopsi kebijakan ekonomi liberal—condong ke ekonomi pasar bebas, membatasi regulasi negara, dan mengejar privatisasi—meski di masa lalu juga mendukung proteksionisme. Partai ini termasuk unionis Britania, menentang reunifikasi Irlandia, kemerdekaan Wales dan Skotlandia. Selain itu di masa lalu juga mendukung pemeliharaan Imperium Britania. Dalam partai ini juga termasuk mereka yang memiliki pandangan berbeda terhadap Uni Eropa, di antaranya sayap Eroseptis dan pro Eropa. Dalam kebijakan sosial, secara historis partai ini lebih mengambil pendekatan konservatif sosial, meski sudah menyusut selama beberapa dekade terakhir. Dalam kebijakan luar negeri lebih cenderung pada kapabilitas militer yang kuat, mendukung partisipasi Britania di NATO.

Partai Konservatif adalah anggota Uni Demokrat Internasional dan Aliansi Konservatif dan Reformis Eropa dan bergabung dalam kelompok parlemen Eropa Konservatif dan Reformis di Uni Eropa. Cabang partai di Skotlandia, Wales, Irlandia Utara dan Gibraltar bersifat otonom. Basis pendukungnya ada dari pemilih kelas menengah, utamanya di daerah pedesaan Inggris, dan dominasinya di politik Britania selama abad ke-20 menjadikan partai ini disebut sebagai salah satu partai paling berhasil di Dunia Barat.[12][13][14]

Hasil Pemilihan[sunting | sunting sumber]

pemilu di seluruh Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pemilihan umum Inggris[sunting | sunting sumber]

Parlemen Britania Raya
Pemilihan Pemimpin Suara Kursi Posisi Pemerintah
No. Share No. ± Share
1835 Robert Peel 261,269 40.8%
273 / 658
Kenaikan 98 41.5% Steady 2nd Whig
1837 379,694 48.3%
314 / 658
Kenaikan 41 47.7% Steady 2nd Whig
1841 379,694 56.9%
367 / 658
Kenaikan 53 55.8% Kenaikan 1st Konservatif
1847 Earl of Derby 205,481 42.7%
325 / 656
Termasuk Peelite
Penurunan 42 49.5% Steady 1st Whig
1852 311,481 41.9%
330 / 654
Termasuk Peelite
Kenaikan 5 50.5% Steady 1st Konservatif
1857 239,712 34.0%
264 / 654
Penurunan 66 40.4% Penurunan 2nd Whig
1859 193,232 34.3%
298 / 654
Kenaikan 34 45.6% Steady 2nd Whig
1865 346,035 40.5%
289 / 658
Penurunan 9 43.9% Steady 2nd Liberal
1868[fn 1] Benjamin Disraeli 903,318 38.4%
271 / 658
Penurunan 18 41.2% Steady 2nd Liberal
1874 1,091,708 44.3%
350 / 652
Kenaikan 79 53.7% Kenaikan 1st Konservatif
1880 1,462,351 42.5%
237 / 652
Penurunan 113 36.3% Penurunan 2nd Liberal
1885[fn 2] Marquess of Salisbury 2,020,927 43.5%
247 / 670
Kenaikan 10 36.9% Steady 2nd Liberal minoritas
1886 1,520,886 51.1%
317 / 670
Kenaikan 70 47.3% Kenaikan 1st Conservative–Unionis Liberal
1892 2,159,150 47.0%
268 / 670
Penurunan 49 40.0% Penurunan 2nd Liberal
1895 1,894,772 49.0%
340 / 670
Kenaikan 72 50.7% Kenaikan 1st Conservative–Liberal Unionist
1900 1,767,958 50.3%
335 / 670
Penurunan 5 50.0% Steady 1st Conservative–Liberal Unionist
1906 Arthur Balfour 2,422,071 43.4%
131 / 670
Penurunan 204 19.6% Penurunan 2nd Liberal
January 1910 3,104,407 46.8%
240 / 670
Kenaikan 109 35.8% Steady 2nd Liberal minoritas
December 1910 2,420,169 46.6%
235 / 670
Penurunan 5 35.1% Steady 2nd Liberal minoritas
Digabung dengan Partai Unionis Liberal pada tahun 1912 menjadi Partai Konservatif dan Unionist
1918[fn 3] Bonar Law 3,472,738 33.3%
379 / 707
332 elected with Coupon
Kenaikan 108 53.6% Kenaikan 1st Coalisi Liberal–Conservative
1922 5,294,465 38.5%
344 / 615
Penurunan 35 55.9% Steady 1st Conservative
1923 Stanley Baldwin 5,286,159 38.0%
258 / 625
Penurunan 86 41.3% Steady 1st Labour minority
1924 7,418,983 46.8%
412 / 615
Kenaikan 124 67.0% Steady 1st Conservative
1929[fn 4] 8,252,527 38.1%
260 / 615
Penurunan 152 42.3% Penurunan 2nd Labour minority
1931 11,377,022 55.0%
470 / 615
Kenaikan 210 76.4% Kenaikan 1st Conservative–Liberal–National Labour
1935 10,025,083 47.8%
386 / 615
Penurunan 83 62.8% Steady 1st Conservative–Liberal National–National Labour
1945 Winston Churchill 8,716,211 36.2%
197 / 640
Penurunan 189 30.8% Penurunan 2nd Labour
1950 11,507,061 40.0%
282 / 625
Kenaikan 85 45.1% Steady 2nd Labour
1951 13,724,418 48.0%
302 / 625
Kenaikan 20 48.3% Kenaikan 1st Conservative–National Liberal
1955 Anthony Eden 13,310,891 49.7%
324 / 630
Kenaikan 22 51.4% Steady 1st Conservative–National Liberal
1959 Harold Macmillan 13,750,875 49.4%
345 / 630
Kenaikan 21 54.8% Steady 1st Conservative–National Liberal
1964 Alec Douglas-Home 12,002,642 43.4%
298 / 630
Penurunan 47 47.3% Penurunan 2nd Labour
1966 Edward Heath 11,418,455 41.9%
250 / 630
Penurunan 48 39.7% Steady 2nd Labour
1970[fn 5] 13,145,123 46.4%
330 / 630
Kenaikan 80 52.4% Kenaikan 1st Conservative
February 1974 11,872,180 37.9%
297 / 635
Penurunan 33 46.8% Penurunan 2nd Labour minority
October 1974 10,462,565 35.8%
277 / 635
Penurunan 20 43.6% Steady 2nd Labour
1979 Margaret Thatcher 13,697,923 43.9%
339 / 635
Kenaikan 62 53.4% Kenaikan 1st Conservative
1983 13,012,316 42.4%
397 / 650
Kenaikan 38 61.1% Steady 1st Conservative
1987 13,760,935 42.2%
376 / 650
Penurunan 21 57.8% Steady 1st konservatif
1992 John Major 14,093,007 41.9%
336 / 651
Penurunan 40 51.6% Steady 1st konservatif
1997 9,600,943 30.7%
165 / 659
Penurunan 171 25.0% Penurunan 2nd Buruh
2001 William Hague 8,357,615 31.7%
166 / 659
Kenaikan 1 25.2% Steady 2nd Buruh
2005 Michael Howard 8,785,941 32.4%
198 / 646
Kenaikan 32 30.7% Steady 2nd Buruh
2010 David Cameron 10,704,647 36.1%
306 / 650
Kenaikan 108 47.1% Kenaikan 1st konservatif–Demokrat Liberal
2015 11,334,920 36.9%
330 / 650
Kenaikan 24 50.8% Steady 1st Konservatif
2017 Theresa May 13,632,914 42.3%
317 / 650
Penurunan 13 48.8% Steady 1st Konservatif minoritas
Dengan Kepercayaan dan penawaran DUP
2019 Boris Johnson 13,966,451 43.6%
365 / 650
Kenaikan 48 56.2% Steady 1st Konservatif
Note
  1. ^ The first election held under the Reform Act 1867.
  2. ^ Pemilihan pertama diadakan di bawah Representation of the People Act 1884 dan Redistribusi of Seats Act 1885.
  3. ^ The first election held under the Representation of the People Act 1918 in which all men over 21, and most women over the age of 30 could vote, and therefore a much larger electorate.
  4. ^ The first election held under the Representation of the People Act 1928 which gave all women aged over 21 the vote.
  5. ^ Franchise extended to all 18- to 20-year-olds under the Representation of the People Act 1969.

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "Young Conservatives Relaunch". Guido Fawkes. 16 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2018. 
  2. ^ Merrick, Rob (27 Maret 2021). "Tories hail big rise in party membership, because 'everyone loves the prime minister'". The Independent (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 28 Maret 2021. Diakses tanggal 30 Maret 2021. The numbers paying up to join the Tories were thought to have plunged as low as 70,000 – but have now bounced back to 200,000, its chairman has revealed. 
  3. ^ "Capping welfare and working to control immigration". Conservative and Unionist Party. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 9 June 2016. Diakses tanggal 1 July 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "United Kingdom". Parties and Elections in Europe. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2018. 
  5. ^ Whiteley, Paul; Seyd, Patrick; Richardson, Jeremy (1994). True Blues: The Politics of Conservative Party Membership. Oxford University Press. hlm. 141–142. ISBN 978-0-19-154441-5. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Lynch, Philip; Whitaker, Richard; Loomes, Gemma. "Competing on the centre right: An examination of party strategy in Britain". University of Leicester. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Coulson, Rebecca (4 May 2016). "What does being right wing mean?". Conservative Home. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2016. 
  8. ^ Forrest, Adam (5 November 2020). "Build back better: Who said it first — Joe Biden or Boris Johnson?". The Independent. Diakses tanggal 21 December 2021. 
  9. ^ "Lords by party, type of peerage and gender". Parliament.uk. Diakses tanggal 13 June 2015. 
  10. ^ a b "Local Council Political Compositions". Open Council Date UK. 23 January 2018. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 30 September 2017. Diakses tanggal 8 July 2020. 
  11. ^ "Profile: The Conservative Party". BBC News. 25 March 2010. Diakses tanggal 3 May 2017. 
  12. ^ Steve Coulter (10 April 2011). "Book Review: The Conservative Party from Thatcher to Cameron". Diakses tanggal 8 July 2016. 
  13. ^ Philip Johnston (19 April 2016). "The Conservative Party may be destroyed by this European madness". The Daily Telegraph. Diakses tanggal 8 July 2016. 
  14. ^ Andrew Gimson (15 May 2017). "Why the Tories keep winning". New Statesman (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 18 October 2017. 

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bale, Tim (2011). The Conservative Party: From Thatcher to Cameron. Cambridge, England: Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-4858-3. 
Blake, Robert (2011). The Conservative Party from Peel to Major (edisi ke-4th). London: Faber Finds. 
Bulmer-Thomas, Ivor. The Growth of the British Party System Volume I: 1640–1923 (1965); The Growth of the British Party System Volume II: 1924–1964, revised to 1966 Conservative-Labour Confrontation (1967)
Evans, Eric J. (2004). Thatcher and Thatcherism. 
Garnett, Mark, and Philip Lynch. The conservatives in crisis: the Tories after 1997 (1994)
Paterson, David (2001). Liberalism and Conservatism, 1846–1905. 

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bale, Tim. The Conservatives since 1945: the Drivers of Party Change. (2012, Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-923437-0)
  • Ball, Stuart. Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918-1945 (Oxford UP, 2013).
  • Beer, Samuel. "The Conservative Party of Great Britain," Journal of Politics Vol. 14, No. 1 (February 1952), pp. 41–71 in JSTOR
  • Blake, Robert and Louis William Roger, eds. Churchill: A Major New Reassessment of His Life in Peace and War (Oxford UP, 1992), 581 pp; 29 essays by scholars on specialized topics
  • Blake, Robert. The Conservative Party From Peel To Churchill (1970) online
  • Campbell, John. Margaret Thatcher; Volume Two: The Iron Lady (Pimlico (2003). ISBN 0-7126-6781-4
  • Charmley, John. "Tories and Conservatives." in David Brown, Robert Crowcroft, and Gordon Pentland eds., The Oxford Handbook of Modern British Political History, 1800-2000 (2018): 306.
  • Dorey, Peter; Garnett, Mark; Denham, Andrew. From Crisis to Coalition: The Conservative Party, 1997–2010 (2011) Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-54238-9 excerpt and text search
  •  ⸻ . British conservatism: the politics and philosophy of inequality (IB Tauris, 2010), Covers more than just political party.
  • Ensor, R. C. K. England, 1870-1914 online, passim.
  • Green, E. H. H. Ideologies of conservatism: conservative political ideas in the twentieth century (2004)
  •  ⸻ . The Crisis of conservatism: The politics, economics, and ideology of the British Conservative Party, 1880–1914 (1996)
  • Harris, Robert. The Conservatives – A History (2011) Bantam Press ISBN 978-0-593-06511-2
  • Hayton, Richard, and Andrew Scott Crines, eds. Conservative orators from Baldwin to Cameron (2015).
  • King, Anthony, ed. British Political Opinion 1937–2000: The Gallup Polls (2001)
  • Lawrence, Jon. Electing Our Masters: The Hustings in British Politics from Hogarth to Blair (Oxford University Press, 2009) excerpt and text search
  • McKenzie, R. T. and A. Silver. Angels in Marble: Working-class Conservatives in Urban England (1968)
  • Mowat, Charles Loch. Britain between the Wars, 1918–1940 (1955) 694 pp; Detailed clinical history during
Norton, Bruce F. Politics in Britain (2007) textbook
  • Parry, J. P. "Disraeli and England," Historical Journal Vol. 43, No. 3 (September 2000), pp. 699–728 in JSTOR
  • Powell, David. British Politics, 1910–1935: The Crisis of the Party System (2004)
  • Roberts, Andrew. Churchill: Walking with Destiny (2018), a fully detailed biography.
  • Reitan, Earl Aaron. The Thatcher Revolution: Margaret Thatcher, John Major, Tony Blair, and the Transformation of Modern Britain, 1979–2001 (2003) Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2
  • Searle, G. R. A New England?: Peace and War 1886–1918 (2005) 976pp broad survey
  • Seldon, Anthony and Stuart Ball, eds. Conservative Century: The Conservative Party since 1900 (1994) 896pp; essays by experts Contents
  • Snowdon, Peter. Back from the Brink: The Extraordinary Fall and Rise of the Conservative Party (2010) HarperPress ISBN 978-0-00-730884-2
  • Taylor, A. J. P. English History, 1914–1945 (1965), a standard political history of the era
  • Thackeray, David. "Home and Politics: Women and Conservative Activism in Early Twentieth‐Century Britain," Journal of British Studies (2010) 49#4 pp. 826–48.
  • Windscheffel, Alex. "Men or Measures? Conservative Party Politics, 1815–1951," Historical Journal Vol. 45, No. 4 (December 2002), pp. 937–51 in JSTOR

Historiografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Crowson, N. J., ed. The Longman Companion to the Conservative Party Since 1830 (2001); chronologies; relations with women, minorities, trade unions, EU, Ireland, social reform and empire.
  • Harrison, Brian. "Margaret Thatcher's Impact on Historical Writing", in William Roger Louis, ed., Irrepressible Adventures with Britannia: Personalities, Politics, and Culture in Britain (London, 2013), 307–21.
  • Kowol, Kit. "Renaissance on the Right? New Directions in the History of the Post-War Conservative Party." Twentieth Century British History 27#2 (2016): 290–304. online
  • Porter, Bernard. "'Though Not an Historian Myself…'Margaret Thatcher and the Historians." Twentieth Century British History 5#2 (1994): 246–56.
  • Turner, John. "The British Conservative Party in the Twentieth Century: from Beginning to End?." Contemporary European History 8#2 (1999): 275–87.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]