Partai Demokrat Liberal (Jepang)

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Partai Demokrat Liberal
自由民主党 atau 自民党

Jiyū-Minshutō atau Jimintō
PresidenYoshihide Suga
Wakil PresidenKosong
Sekretaris JenderalToshihiro Nikai
Ketua di Dewan PenasihatMasakazu Sekiguchi
Dibentuk15 November 1955; 65 tahun lalu (1955-11-15)
Digabungkan dari
Kantor pusat11-23, Nagatachō 1-chome, Chiyoda, Tokyo 100-8910, Jepang
MajalahJiyū Minshu[1]
Keanggotaan (2019) 1,086,298[2]
IdeologiFaksi:
 • Ultranasionalisme[13][18][19]
 • Konservatisme sosial[20][21][22]
 • Liberalisme[23][24]
Posisi politikSayap kanan[25][a]
Warna     Hijau dan      Merah[26]
Himne"われら"[27] ("We")
Anggota Dewan Penasihat
113 / 245
Anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
285 / 465
Anggota majelis prefektur[28]
1.301 / 2.668
Anggota majelis desa, kota, dan kotamadya[28]
2.180 / 29.762
Lambang pemilu
Liberal Democratic Party (Japan) Emblem.jpg
Situs web
jimin.jp

^ a: Partai Demokrat Liberal adalah sebuah partai tenda besar berideologi konservatif.[29][30] LDP juga dideskripsikan sebagai partai berporos kanan tengah,[31] tetapi LDP memiliki faksi berporos kanan jauh[32] dan ultrakonservatif,[33] dan banyak anggotanya merupakan bagian dari Nippon Kaigi, serta faksi-faksi yang lebih berporos ke politik sentris.[34]

Partai Demokrat Liberal Jepang (自由民主党, Jiyū-Minshutō), seringkali disingkat menjadi LDP atau Jimintō (自民党), adalah sebuah partai politik di Jepang yang berideologi konservatif.[35]

LDP hampir terus-menerus berkuasa sejak didirikan pada tahun 1955—periode yang disebut Sistem 1955—dengan pengecualian antara periode tahun 1993 sampai 1994, dan lagi dari tahun 2009 sampai 2012. Pada pemilihan umum tahun 2012, LDP kembali memegang kendali atas pemerintahan. LDP merebut 285 kursi di majelis rendah dan 113 kursi di majelis tinggi, dan setelah berkoalisi dengan Komeito, mereka berhasil meraih status supermayoritas atau memiliki dua per tiga suara di kedua majelis tersebut. Selain Perdana Menteri Shinzo Abe, banyak anggota serta mantan menteri LDP juga menjadi bagian dari Nippon Kaigi, sebuah organisasi ultranasionalis dan pendukung sistem monarki.[18][36]

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tahun-tahun awal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konvensi pembentukan LDP pada tanggal 15 November 1955

LDP dibentuk pada tahun 1955 sebagai hasil merger antara dua partai politik di Jepang—yaitu Partai Liberal (自由党, Jiyutō, 1945–1955, yang dipimpin oleh Shigeru Yoshida) dan Partai Demokrat Jepang (日本民主党, Nihon Minshutō, 1954–1955, yang dipimpin oleh Ichirō Hatoyama)—yang masing-masing merupakan partai beraliran konservatif berporos sayap kanan, sebagai front terdepan untuk menghadapi partai yang populer pada saat itu, Partai Sosialis Jepang (日本社会党, Nipponshakaitō), sekarang menjadi Partai Demokrat Sosial (社会民主党, Shakaiminshutō). LDP memenangkan pemilihan umum yang berikutnya, dan mereka membentuk pemerintahan konservatif Jepang pertama dengan status mayoritas di parlemen pada tahun 1955. LDP akan terus mempertahankan status pemerintahan mayoritas mereka di parlemen sampai tahun 1993.

LDP mulai mereformasi hubungan Jepang di kancah internasional, dimulai dari masuknya Jepang ke Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, sampai menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan Uni Soviet. Para pemimpin LDP pada dekade tahun 1950-an juga menjadikan LDP sebagai partai utama pemerintahan, dan pada seluruh pemilihan umum dekade tahun 1950-an, LDP memenangkan suara mayoritas. Satu-satunya pihak oposisi berasal dari partai berporos politik sayap kiri, yang terdiri dari Partai Sosialis Jepang dan Partai Komunis Jepang.

Dari dekade tahun 1950-an sampai 1970-an, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) dari Amerika Serikat menghabiskan jutaan dolar dalam rangka mempengaruhi pemilihan umum di Jepang agar bisa memberikan LDP keuntungan terhadap partai-partai berporos kiri seperti Partai Sosialis Jepang dan Partai Komunis Jepang,[37][38] meskipun fakta tersebut baru terungkap ketika The New York Times mengeksposnya pada pertengahan dekade tahun 1990-an.[39]

Struktur[sunting | sunting sumber]

Kepemimpinan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Posisi Nama Faksi
Presiden Yoshihide Suga Hosoda (Seiwa Seisaku Kenkyū-kai)
Deputi Pemimpin Masahiko Kōmura Asō (Shikō-kai)
Sekretaris Jenderal Toshihiro Nikai Nikai (Shisui-kai)
Wakil Sekretaris Jenderal Kōichi Hagiuda Hosoda
Deputi Sekretaris Jenderal Motoo Hayashi Asō
Katsutoshi Kaneda Takeshita (Heisei Kenkyū-kai)
Naoki Okada Hosoda
Ketua Dewan Penelitian Urusan Kebijakan Fumio Kishida Kishida (Kōchi-kai)
Ketua Komite Urusan Keuangan Yūji Yamamoto Ishiba (Suigetsu-kai)
Ketua Komite Kampanye Pemilihan Umum Ryū Shionoya Hosoda
Manajer Umum Organisasi Partai Taimei Yamaguchi Takeshita
Manajer Umum Hubungan Masyarakat Takuya Hirai Kishida
Ketua Komite Urusan Diet Hiroshi Moriyama Ishihara (Kinmirai Seiji Kenkyū-kai)
Ketua Penegak Partai Akiko Santō Asō
Ketua Dewan Perwakilan Umum Hajime Funada Takeshita
Ketua Dewan Urusan Umum Wataru Takeshita Takeshita
Ketua Dewan Umum Majelis Gabungan Hidehisa Otsuji Takeshita
Ketua Dewan Umum Majelis Seiko Hashimoto Hosoda
Sekretaris Jenderal Umum Majelis Hiromi Yoshida Takeshita
Ketua Dewan Urusan Kebijakan Majelis Keizō Takemi Asō
Ketua Komite Urusan Diet Majelis Masakazu Sekiguchi Takeshita
Direktur Sekolah Lulusan Politik Pusat Takeshi Iwaya Asō

Faksi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Keanggotaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

LDP memiliki lebih dari lima juta anggota partai pada tahun 1990. Hingga bulan Desember 2017, keanggotaan partai menurun menjadi sekitar satu juta anggota.[40]

Presiden[sunting | sunting sumber]

Terkecuali Yohei Kono dan Sadakazu Tanigaki, setiap Presiden LDP (自由民主党総裁, Jiyū-Minshutō Sōsai)[41] pernah menjabat sebagai Perdana Menteri Jepang.

No. Nama Periode jabatan Hasil pemilihan Foto
Mulai Selesai
Partai pendahulu: Partai Demokrat (1954) & Partai Liberal (1950)
Komite Kepemimpinan Sementara
Ichirō Hatoyama 15 November 1955 5 April 1956 Komite Kepemimpinan Sementara Hatoyama Ichirō.jpg
Bukichi Miki Bukichi miki.jpg
Banboku Oono
Taketora Ogata 28 Januari 1956 OGATA Taketora.jpg
Tsuruhei Matsuno 10 Februari 1956 5 April 1956
Pemimpin
1 Ichirō Hatoyama 5 April 1956 14 Desember 1956
Ichirō Hatoyama – 394
Nobusuke Kishi – 4
Lainnya – 15
Hatoyama Ichirō.jpg
2 Tanzan Ishibashi 14 Desember 1956 21 Maret 1957
Putaran 1
Nobusuke Kishi – 223
Tanzan Ishibashi – 151
Mitsujiro Ishii – 137
Putaran 2
Tanzan Ishibashi – 258
Nobusuke Kishi – 251
Tanzan Ishibashi.jpg
3 Nobusuke Kishi 21 Maret 1957 14 Juli 1960
1957
Nobusuke Kishi – 471
Kenzō Matsumura – 2
Tokutaro Kitamura – 1
Mitsujirō Ishii – 1
1959
Nobusuke Kishi – 320
Kenzō Matsumura – 166
Lainnya – 5
Nobusuke Kishi.jpg
4 Hayato Ikeda 14 Juli 1960 1 Desember 1964
Putaran 1 1960
Hayato Ikeda – 246
Mitsujirō Ishii – 194
Aiichirō Fujiyama – 49
Lainnya – 7
Putaran 2 1960
Hayato Ikeda – 302
Mitsujirō Ishii – 194
1962
Hayato Ikeda – 391
Eisaku Satō – 17
Lainnya – 20
Juli 1964
Hayato Ikeda – 242
Eisaku Satō – 160
Aiichirō Fujiyama – 72
Hirokichi Nadao – 1
Hayato Ikeda 1962.jpg
5 Eisaku Satō 1 Desember 1964 5 Juli 1972
November 1964
Eisaku Satō – YaY
Aiichirō Fujiyama – TidakT
Ichirō Kōno – TidakT
1966
Eisaku Satō – 289
Aiichirō Fujiyama – 89
Shigesaburō Maeo – 47
Hirokichi Nadao – 11
Uichi Noda – 9
Lainnya – 5
1968
Eisaku Satō – 249
Takeo Miki – 107
Shigesaburō Maeo – 95
Lainnya – 25
1970
Eisaku Satō – 353
Takeo Miki – 111
Lainnya – 3
Eisaku Sato 1960.jpg
6 Kakuei Tanaka 5 Juli 1972 4 Desember 1974
Tanaka Kakuei – 282
Takeo Fukuda – 180
Kakuei Tanaka 19720707.jpg
7 Takeo Miki 4 Desember 1974 23 Desember 1976
1974
Takeo Miki – YaY
Takeo Fukuda – TidakT
Masayoshi Ōhira – TidakT
Yasuhiro Nakasone – TidakT
Takeo Miki 197412.jpg
8 Takeo Fukuda 23 Desember 1976 1 Desember 1978
1976
Takeo Fukuda – YaY
Masayoshi Ōhira – TidakT
Takeo Fukuda 19761224.jpg
9 Masayoshi Ōhira
(Died in office)
1 Desember 1978 12 Juni 1980
Putaran 1
Masayoshi Ōhira – 748
Fukuda Takeo – 638
Yasuhiro Nakasone – 93
Toshio Kōmoto – 46
Putaran 2
Tanpa lawan
Masayoshi Ohira cropped 1 Masayoshi Ohira 19781207.jpg
Eiichi Nishimura 12 Juni 1980 15 Juli 1980 Pejabat sementara No image.jpg
10 Zenkō Suzuki 15 Juli 1980 25 November 1982
Putaran 1
Zenko Suzuki – YaY
Kiichi Miyazawa – TidakT
Yasuhiro Nakasone – TidakT
Toshio Kōmoto – TidakT
Putaran 2
Tanpa lawan
Zenko Suzuki cropped 1 Zenko Suzuki 19800717.jpg
11 Yasuhiro Nakasone 25 November 1982 31 Oktober 1987
Putaran 1 1982
Yasuhiro Nakasone – 57.6% (559,673)
Toshio Kōmoto – 27.2% (265,078)
Shintarō Abe – 8.2% (80,443)
Ichirō Nakagawa – 6.8% (66,041)
Putaran 2 1982
Tanpa lawan
1984
Mundur tanpa menentang
1986
1-year Extension
Yasuhiro Nakasone cropped 1 Yasuhiro Nakasone 19821127.jpg
12 Noboru Takeshita 31 Oktober 1987 2 Juni 1989
1987
Noboru Takeshita – YaY
Shintarō Abe – TidakT
Kiichi Miyazawa – TidakT
Noboru Takeshita cropped 1 Noboru Takeshita 19871106.jpg
13 Sōsuke Uno 2 Juni 1989 8 Agustus 1989
1989
Sōsuke Uno – YaY
Masayoshi Itō – TidakT
Sosuke Uno 1977.png
14 Toshiki Kaifu 8 Agustus 1989 30 Oktober 1991
Putaran 1
Toshiki Kaifu – 279
Yoshirō Hayashi – 120
Shintarō Ishihara – 48
Putaran 2
Tanpa lawan
Toshiki Kaifu 19890810.jpg
15 Kiichi Miyazawa 31 Oktober 1991 29 Juli 1993
Kiichi Miyazawa – 285
Michio Wantanabe – 120
Hiroshi Mitsuzuka – 87
Kiichi Miyazawa 19911105.jpg
16 Yōhei Kōno 29 Juli 1993 1 Oktober 1995
Putaran 1
Yōhei Kōno – 208
Michio Wantanabe – 159
Putaran 2
Tanpa lawan
Yōhei Kōno.jpg
17 Ryutaro Hashimoto 1 Oktober 1995 24 Juli 1998
1995
Ryutaro Hashimoto – 304
Junichiro Koizumi – 87
1997
Mundur tanpa menentang
Hashimoto Ryūtarō.jpg
18 Keizō Obuchi 24 Juli 1998 5 April 2000
1998
Keizō Obuchi – 225
Seiroku Kajiyama – 102
Junichiro Koizumi – 84
1999
Keizō Obuchi – 350
Koichi Kato – 113
Taku Yamasaki – 51
Keizo Obuchi 1998.jpg
19 Yoshirō Mori 5 April 2000 24 April 2001
2000
Yoshirō Mori – YaY
Mikio Aoki – TidakT
Masakuni Murakami – TidakT
Hiromu Nonaka – TidakT
Shizuka Kamei – TidakT
Yoshiro Mori cropped 1 Tim Hitchens and Yoshiro Mori 20150623.jpg
20 Junichiro Koizumi 24 April 2001 20 September 2006
Putaran 1 2001
Junichiro Koizumi – 298
Ryutaro Hashimoto – 155
Tarō Asō – 31
Putaran 2 2001
Tanpa lawan
2003
Junichiro Koizumi – 339
Shizuka Kamei – 139
Takao Fujii – 65
Masahiko Kōmura – 54
Koizumi 2010 cropped.png
21 Shinzo Abe 20 September 2006 26 September 2007
Shinzo Abe – 464
Tarō Asō – 136
Sadakazu Tanigaki – 102
Shinzō Abe Official.jpg
22 Yasuo Fukuda 26 September 2007 22 September 2008
Yasuo Fukuda – 330
Tarō Asō – 197
Yasuo Fukuda - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008 cropped.JPG
23 Tarō Asō 22 September 2008 16 September 2009
Tarō Asō – 351
Kaoru Yosano – 66
Yuriko Koike – 46
Nobuteru Ishihara – 37
Shigeru Ishiba – 25
Aso Taro 1-2.jpg
24 Sadakazu Tanigaki 28 September 2009 26 September 2012
Sadakazu Tanigaki – 300
Taro Kono – 144
Yasutoshi Nishimura – 54
Tanigaki Sadakazu 1-1.jpg
21 Shinzo Abe 26 September 2012 September 2020
Putaran 1 2012
Shinzo Abe – 464
Shigeru Ishiba – 199
Nobuteru Ishihara – 96
Nobutaka Machimura 34
Yoshimasa Hayashi – 27
Putaran 2 2012
Shinzo Abe – 108
Shigeru Ishiba – 89
2015
Mundur tanpa menentang
Shinzo Abe – 553
Shigeru Ishiba – 254
Shinzō Abe Official.jpg
(22) Yoshihide Suga 14 September 2020 Petahana
Yoshihide Suga – 377
Fumio Kishida – 89
Shigeru Ishiba – 68
Yoshihide Suga cropped 3 Joint Press Announcement of the Okinawa Consolidation Plan.jpg

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ 機関紙誌のご案内. Liberal Democratic Party. 
  2. ^ 自民党員7年ぶり減少 108万人、19年末時点. The Nihon Keizai Shinbun. 2 Maret 2020. 
  3. ^ "Japan's leaders, less apologetic, stay tough in S. Korea feud". Asahi Shimbun. 8 Agustus 2019. Diakses tanggal 21 Februari 2020. Two years later, then-Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama, a socialist who led a coalition with the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, made a "heartfelt apology" for suffering caused by Japan's "colonial rule and aggression." 
  4. ^ "Abe faces major election hurdle in bid to amend Constitution". Mainichi Shimbun. 8 Januari 2019. Diakses tanggal 21 Februari 2020. ... he should venture to dissolve the House of Representatives for a snap general election to coincide with the upper house poll," said a conservative LDP legislator. 
  5. ^ "Japan readies for July 21 upper house election as PM recalls past defeat". Reuters. 26 Juni 2019. Diakses tanggal 21 Februari 2020. He was referring to events that unfolded after his conservative LDP suffered a huge defeat in a 2007 upper house poll. Two months later, Abe quit as premier after just one year. 
  6. ^ McCurry, Justin (6 Maret 2020). "Japan prefecture to stop hiring female 'tea squad' for meetings". The Guardian. Diakses tanggal 13 Mei 2020. But Nobuaki Kojima, who heads the conservative Liberal Democratic party group in the assembly, said the change was also a recognition of changing attitudes towards women in the workplace. 
  7. ^ "Japan ministers Yuko Obuchi and Midori Matsushima quit". BBC News. 20 Oktober 2014. Diakses tanggal 13 Mei 2020. Mr Abe said he took responsibility for having appointed both women, and that they would be replaced within a day. Both are members of his governing conservative Liberal Democratic Party (LDP). 
  8. ^ "Poll finds nearly two-thirds oppose passage of casino bill; Cabinet's approval rating falls to 43.4%". The Japan Times. 23 Juli 2018. Diakses tanggal 13 Mei 2020. The telephone poll conducted by Kyodo News over the weekend found that 64.8 percent of respondents opposed the legislation and 27.6 percent supported it. The Diet, dominated by the conservative Liberal Democratic Party, passed the bill on Friday despite stiff resistance from opposition parties. 
  9. ^ Newlands, Peter (16 Desember 2012). "Conservatives win by a landslide in Japanese general election". The Times. Diakses tanggal 13 Mei 2020. Exit polls indicated that the conservative Liberal Democratic party has been returned to office after winning almost 300 seats in the lower house, which has 480 members. The new prime minister will be Shinzo Abe, a hawkish former prime minister, who is expected to revise the country’s pacifist constitution.
    [The] conservative Liberal Democratic party in Japan won back power in an election landslide today, returning Shinzo Abe, a former prime minister.
     
  10. ^ "The Resurgence of Japanese Nationalism (the Globalist)". 22 Juli 2015. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 19 Agustus 2016. Diakses tanggal 11 Juli 2016. 
  11. ^ "As Hiroshima's legacy fades, Japan's postwar pacifism is fraying". The Conversation UK. 6 Agustus 2015. Diakses tanggal 21 Februari 2020. Even though much of the Japanese public does not agree with the LDP’s nationalist platform, the party won big electoral victories by promising to replace the DPJ's weakness with strong leadership – particularly on the economy, but also in foreign affairs. 
  12. ^ a b "Why Steve Bannon Admires Japan". The Diplomat. 22 Juni 2018. In Japan, populist and extreme right-wing nationalism has found a home within the political establishment. 
  13. ^ a b "Shinzo Abe and the rise of Japanese nationalism". New Statesman. 15 Mei 2019. Diakses tanggal 21 Februari 2020. As a new emperor takes the throne, prime minister Abe is consolidating his ultranationalist “beautiful Japan” project. But can he overcome a falling population and stagnating economy? 
  14. ^ Weiss, Andrew (31 Mei 2018). "Towards a Beautiful Japan: Right-Wing Religious Nationalism in Japan's LDP". Council on East Asian Studies. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2020. 
  15. ^ Lindgren, Petter (2012). "The Era of Koizumi's Right-Wing Populism" (PDF). University of Oslo. 
  16. ^ Ganesan (2015). Bilateral Legacies in East and Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. hlm. 67. 
  17. ^ Hebert (2011). Wind Bands and Cultural Identity in Japanese Schools. Springer Science & Business Media. hlm. 44. 
  18. ^ a b "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis". Eurasia Review. 16 Juli 2019. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 13 Agustus 2019. Diakses tanggal 13 Agustus 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism. 
  19. ^ "Abe's cabinet reshuffle". East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education. 
  20. ^ Kesalahan pengutipan: Tag <ref> tidak sah; tidak ditemukan teks untuk ref bernama blogs.wsj.com
  21. ^ "Shinzo Abe? That's Not His Name, Says Japan's Foreign Minister". The New York Times. 22 Mei 2019. Diakses tanggal 19 Februari 2020. 
  22. ^ "Japan's capricious response to coronavirus could dent its international reputation". The Conversation. 24 April 2020. Diakses tanggal 5 Juni 2020. 
  23. ^ 今さら聞けない?! 「保守」「リベラル」ってなんだ? [Can't you ask about them now ?! What are "conservative" and "liberal"?] (dalam bahasa Jepang). Diakses tanggal 5 Juni 2020. ところが、現実の政治はもっと複雑です。自民党にもリベラル派がたくさんいるからです。自民党は考え方の近い人たちが派閥というグループをつくっています。(However, real politics is more complicated. This is because there are many liberals in the LDP. The Liberal Democratic Party is made up of groups of people with similar ideas, called factions.) 
  24. ^ 岸田派の政策、リベラル色前面に 安倍政権との違い強調 [Kishida faction's policy emphasizes the difference from the Abe administration on the liberal front]. Asahi Shimbun (dalam bahasa Jepang). 「トップダウンからボトムアップへ」「多様性を尊重する社会へ」など、リベラル色を前面に掲げ、安倍政権との違いを強調した。(He emphasized the differences from the Abe administration by putting liberal colors in the foreground, such as "from top-down to bottom-up" and "to a society that respects diversity".) 
  25. ^
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    • "Why Steve Bannon Admires Japan". The Diplomat. 22 Juni 2018. In Japan, populist and extreme right-wing nationalism has found a home within the political establishment. 
    • "The Dangerous Impact of the Far-Right in Japan". Washington Square News. 15 April 2019. Another sign of the rise of the uyoku dantai’s ideas is the growing power of the Nippon Kaigi. The organization is the largest far-right group in Japan and has heavy lobbying clout with the conservative LDP; 18 of the 20 members of Shinzo Abe’s cabinet were once members of the group. 
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    • Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Atomic Scientists of Chicago. 1983. hlm. 14. ... 12 Seirankai: an extreme-right faction formed within the LDP in July 1973; after Kim Dae Jung was abducted from ... 
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    • "Japan is having an election next month. Here's why it matters". The Japan Times. 22 November 2014. Diakses tanggal 8 Juli 2020. When Abe appointed five female ministers in September, two of which were forced to step down over scandals, a number of political commentators viewed the move with some cynicism, suggesting that the prime minister didn’t pay much attention to the qualifications of the candidates. Most of the women he chose were ultra-conservatives such as Eriko Yamatani, minister in charge of the North Korea abductee issue. 
    • "Japan, led by less apologetic generation, stays tough in South Korea feud". Reuters. 8 Agustus 2019. Diakses tanggal 8 Juli 2020. Electoral system changes and three years in opposition helped ultra-conservative lawmakers and lobby groups strengthen their clout in the LDP. 
  34. ^
    • "Portrait of Japan's main political parties". 17 Desember 2012. Diakses tanggal 26 Juni 2020. A union of centrist and rightwing parties created with US support after the second world war 
    • "Freedom house 2016 Japan". Freedom house. The LDP is a broad party whose members share a commitment to economic growth and free trade, but whose other political beliefs span from the center to the far right. 
  35. ^ Partai Demokrat Liberal secara luas dianggap memiliki ideologi konservatif:
  36. ^ "Tea Party Politics in Japan". The New York Times. 13 September 2014. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 17 Agustus 2016. 
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  38. ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1964–1968, Vol. XXIX, Part 2, Japan". Departemen Dalam Negeri Amerika Serikat. 18 Juli 2006. Diakses tanggal 29 Desember 2007. 
  39. ^ Johnson, Chalmers (Juli 1995). "The 1955 System and the American Connection: A Bibliographic Introduction" (Working Paper) (11). Japan Policy Research Institute. 
  40. ^ Liberal Democratic Party (5 Maret 2018). 役員会後 二階幹事長記者会見. Siaran pers.
  41. ^ "The President". Liberal Democratic Party of Japan. Diakses tanggal 13 September 2020. 

Bibliografi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Helms, Ludger (2013). Parliamentary Opposition in Old and New Democracies. Routledge Press. ISBN 978-1-31797-031-6. 
  • Henderson, Jeffrey (2011). East Asian Transformation: On the Political Economy of Dynamism, Governance and Crisis. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-13684-113-2. 
  • Köllner, Patrick. "The Liberal Democratic Party at 50: Sources of Dominance and Changes in the Koizumi Era," Social Science Japan Journal (Oct 2006) 9#2 pp 243–257.
  • Krauss, Ellis S., and Robert J. Pekkanen. "The Rise and Fall of Japan's Liberal Democratic Party," Journal of Asian Studies (2010) 69#1 pp 5–15, focuses on the 2009 election.
  • Krauss, Ellis S., and Robert J. Pekkanen, eds. The Rise and Fall of Japan's LDP: Political Party Organizations as Historical Institutions (Cornell University Press; 2010) 344 pages; essays by scholars
  • Scheiner, Ethan. Democracy without Competition in Japan: Opposition Failure in a One-Party Dominant State (Cambridge University Press, 2006)

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]