Populisme sayap kanan

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Populisme sayap kanan adalah ideologi politik yang menolak konsensus politik saat ini dan sering menggabungkan etnosentrisme, dan anti-elitisme. Ideologi ini dianggap populisme karena daya tariknya untuk "orang biasa" sebagai lawan elit.Templat:Disputed inline[1] Di Eropa, sayap kanan populisme adalah sebuah ungkapan yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan kelompok, politisi, dan partai-partai politik yang umumnya dikenal menentang imigrasi,[2] sebagian besar dari dunia Islam[3] dan dalam kebanyakan kasus, Euroskeptisme.[4] Populisme sayap kanan di dunia Barat pada umumnya, tetapi tidak secara eksklusif, terkait dengan ideologi-ideologi seperti Nasionalisme Baru,[5][6] antiglobalisasi,[7] nativisme,[8][9] proteksionisme,[10] dan perlawanan terhadap imigrasi.[11]

Selain pandangan sayap kanan tradisional seperti perlawanan terhadap peningkatan dukungan untuk negara kesejahteraan dan "lebih mewah, tapi juga lebih ketat, pengeluaran sosial domestik", skema ini juga dijelaskan di bawah populisme sayap kanan dan kadang-kadang disebut "chauvinisme kesejahteraan".[12][13][14]

Sejak 1990-an partai-partai beraliran populisme sayap kanan didirikan di badan-badan legislatif bermacam-macam demokrasi, termasuk Australia, Kanada, Prancis, Belgia, Denmark, Swedia, Estonia, Romania, Brasil, dan Chili dan mereka memasuki pemerintahan koalisi di Switss, Austria, Finlandia, Yunani, Slowakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Belanda, Selandia Baru, Italia,[15] dan Israel dan mayoritas pemerintah di India, Turki, Hungaria, dan Polandia. Meskipun gerakam sayap kanan ekstrem di Amerika Serikat telah dipelajari secara terpisah, di mana mereka biasanya disebut "kanan radikal", beberapa penulis memandang mereka sebagai sebuah bagian dalam fenomena sama.[16] Populisme sayap kanan di Amerika Serikat juga berhubungan dekat dengan paleokonservatisme.[17] Populisme sayap kanan berbeda dari konservatisme, tapi beberapa partai populisme sayap kanan berakar dari partai politik konservatif.[16] Partai populisme lainnya berhubungan dengan gerakan fasis yang ada kerika periode antarperang ketika fasisme Italia, Jerman, Hungaria, Spanyol, dan Jepang bangkit berkuasa.

Sejak awal 2010-an, gerakan populisme sayap kanan seperti Barisan Nasional di Prancis, Liga Utara di Italia, Partai untuk Kebebasan di Belanda, dan Partai Kemerdekaan BR mulali bertumbuh populer.[18][19] Di belahan besar karena bertumbuhnya perlawanan terhadap imigrasi dari Timur Tengah dan Afrika, kebangkitan euroskeptisme dan ketidakpuasan dengan kebijakan ekonomi Uni Eropa.[20] Pandangan Politik 2016 President Donald Trump telah diringkas oleh para cendekiawan sebagai populisme sayap kanan[21] dan nasionalist.[22][23]

Pengertian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pengolompokan populisme sayap kanan menjadi satu keluarga politik telah terbukti sulit dan hal ini tidak diyakinkan apakah bermakna kategori yang ada atau hanya sekelompok kategor, karena pihak-pihak yang berbeda dalam ideologi, organisasi, dan kepemimpinan retorika. Juga, tidak seperti partai tradisional, mereka tidak termasuk organisasi internasional yang berpikiran sama dan mereka tidak menggunakan istilah yang sama untuk menggambarkan diri mereka.[15] Satu kesamaan adalah bahwa meskipun mereka lebih sayap kanan dari partai politik lainnya di sumbu kiri–kanan.[24]

Cendekiawan menggunakan istilah yang tidak konsisten, kadang-kadang mengacu pada populisme sayap kanan sebagai "sayap kanan"[16] atau istilah-istilah lain seperti Nasionalisme Baru.[25] Pippa Norris mencatat bahwa "karya referensi standar menggunakan alternatif tipologi dan beragam label mengkategorikan pihak sebagai kanan 'jauh' atau 'ekstrem', 'kanan baru', 'antiimigran' atau 'neofasisme', 'antipembentukan', 'populis nasional', 'protes', 'suku', 'otoriter', 'antipemerintah', 'antipartai', 'ultranasionalis', atau 'neoliberal', 'liberal', dan sebagainya".[15]

Partai politik populis sayap kanan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Partai-partai populis sayap kanan atau partai-partai dengan fraksi populis sayap kanan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mewakili di badan legislatif nasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

Tidak mewakili di badan legislatif nasional[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bekas partai populis sayap kanan atau partai dengan fraksi populis sayap kanan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Catatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

Berlet, Chip and Matthew N. Lyons. 2000. Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 1-57230-568-1, ISBN 1-57230-562-2
Betz, Hans-Georg. Radical right-wing populism in Western Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994 ISBN 0-312-08390-4
Betz, Hans-Georg and Immerfall, Stefan. The New Politics of the Right: Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. Houndsmill, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1998 ISBN 978-0-312-21338-1
Dolgert, Stefan (2016). "The Praise of Ressentiment: Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Donald Trump". New Political Science. 38 (3): 354–70. doi:10.1080/07393148.2016.1189030. 
Fielitz, Maik; Laloire, Laura Lotte (eds.) (2016). Trouble on the Far Right. Contemporary Right-Wing Strategies and Practices in Europe. Bielefeld: transcript. ISBN 978-3-8376-3720-5
Fritzsche, Peter. 1990. Rehearsals for Fascism: Populism and Political Mobilization in Weimar Germany. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505780-5
Geden, Oliver (2006). Diskursstrategien im Rechtspopulismus: Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs und Schweizerische Volkspartei zwischen Opposition und Regierungsbeteiligung [Discourse Strategies in Right-Wing Populism: Freedom Party of Austria and Swiss People's Party between Opposition and Government Participation] (dalam bahasa Jerman). Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-531-90430-6. ISBN 978-3-531-15127-4. 
Greven, Thomas (2016). The Rise of Right-wing Populism in Europe and the United States: A Comparative Perspective (PDF). Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. Diakses tanggal 9 August 2016. 
Ignazi, Piero (2002). "The Extreme Right: Defining the Object and Assessing the Causes". Dalam Schain, Martin; Zolberg, Aristide R.; Hossay, Patrick. Shadows over Europe: The Development and Impact of the Extreme Right in Western Europe. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29593-6. 
 ⸻  (2006) [2003]. Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Comparative Politics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-929159-5. 
Kaplan, Jeffrey; Weinberg, Leonard (1998). The Emergence of a Euro-American Radical Right. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2564-8. 
Norris, Pippa (2005). Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-84914-2. 
Skenderovic, Damir (2009). The Radical Right in Switzerland: Continuity and Change, 1945–2000. New York: Berghahn Books. ISBN 978-1-84545-580-4. JSTOR j.ctt9qcntn. 
Ware, Alan (1996). Political Parties and Party Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-878076-2. 

Bacaan lebih lanjut[sunting | sunting sumber]

Goldwag, Arthur. The New Hate: A History of Fear and Loathing on the Populist Right. Pantheon, February 2012, ISBN 978-0-307-37969-6
Wodak, Ruth. The politics of fear: What right-wing populist discourses mean. London: Sage, 2015. ISBN 9781446247006
Wodak, Ruth, Brigitte Mral and Majid Khosravinik, editors. Right wing populism in Europe: politics and discourse. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013. ISBN 9781780932453