Nashiruddin ath-Thusi

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Nashiruddin ath-Thusi
Prangko Iran untuk peringatan 700 tahun kematiannya
AgamaIslam
Pribadi
Lahir18 Februari 1201
Tus, Khorasan
Meninggal26 Juni 1274(1274-06-26) (umur 73)
Masjid Al-Kazhimiyah, Kazhimiyah, Baghdad, Ilkhanat
Jabatan Senior
GelarKhawaja Nasir
Karier beragama
MuridShams ad-Din Al-Bukhari[1]
KaryaRawḍa-yi Taslīm, Tajrīd al-'Aqa'id,
Akhlaq-i-Nasri, Zij-i ilkhani,
al-Risalah al-Asturlabiyah,
Al-Tadhkirah fi'ilm al-hay'ah

Muhammad bin Muhammad bin al-Hasan at-Thūsī (bahasa Persia: محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 24 Februari 1201 – 26 Juni 1274), lebih dikenal sebagai Nashiruddin ath-Thusi (bahasa Persia: نصیر الدین طوسی; atau hanya Tusi /ˈtsi/[2] di Barat), adalah seorang polimatik, arsitek, filsuf, dokter, ilmuwan, dan ulama Persia.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Dia sering dianggap pencetus gagasan trigonometri sebagai suatu disiplin matematika tersendiri.[13][14][15] Dia merupakan seorang Muslim Syiah Dua Belas Imam.[16] Cendekiawan Muslim Ibnu Khaldun (1332–1406) menganggap Tusi sebagai yang terbesar dari para cendekiawan Persia kemudian.[17]

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Nashiruddin ath-Thusi lahir di kota Tus di Khorasan abad pertengahan (timur laut Iran) pada tahun 1201 dan mulai dan mulai belajar pada usia dini. Di Hamadan dan Tus dia mempelajari Quran, Hadis, fikih Ja'fari, logika, filsafat, matematika, kedokteran, dan astronomi.[18]

Dia tampaknya dilahirkan dalam keluarga Syiah dan kehilangan ayahnya di usia muda. Memenuhi keinginan ayahnya, Muhammad muda mengikuti pembelajaran dan pendidikan dengan sangat serius dan menempuh perjalanan jauh untuk menghadiri kuliah para cendekiawan terkenal dan memperoleh pengetahuan, sebuah amalan yang sangat dianjurkan dalam iman Islamnya. Pada usia muda, dia pindah ke Nishapur untuk belajar filsafat di bawah Farid al-Din Damad dan matematika di bawah Muhammad Hasib.[19] Dia juga bertemu Attar Nishapur, sang guru sufi legendaris yang kemudian dibunuh oleh pasukan Mongol, dan menghadiri kuliah Qutb al-Din al-Misri.

Di Mosul, dia belajar matematika dan astronomi dengan Kamaluddin bin Yunus (meninggal 639 H/1242 M), seorang murid Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi.[20] Kemudian dia berkorespondensi dengan Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi, menantu dari Ibnu Arabi, dan kelihatannya bahwa mistisisme, sebagaimana yang disebarluaskan oleh para guru sufi pada masanya, tidak menarik bagi pemikirannya dan begitu kesempatan cocok, dia menyusun buku petunjuk Sufisme filosofisnya sendiri dalam bentuk buklet kecil berjudul Awsaf al-Ashraf, "Tanda-Tanda Kemuliaan".

Ketika tentara Jenghis Khan menghancurkan tanah airnya, dia dipekerjakan oleh negara Nizari Ismaili dan memberikan kontribusi terpenting dalam ilmu pengetahuan selama masa ini ketika dia berpindah dari satu benteng ke benteng lainnya.[21] Dia ditawan setelah penyerbuan Puri Alamut oleh pasukan Mongol.[22]

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Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ Nashiruddin ath-Thusi di Mathematics Genealogy Project
  2. ^ "Tusi". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ Bennison, Amira K. (2009). The great caliphs : the golden age of the 'Abbasid Empire. New Haven: Yale University Press. hlm. 204. ISBN 978-0-300-15227-2. Hulegu killed the last ‘Abbasid caliph but also patronized the foundation of a new observatory at Maragha in Azerbayjan at the instigation of the Persian Shi‘i polymath Nasir al-Din Tusi. 
  4. ^ Goldschmidt, Arthur; Boum, Aomar (2015). A Concise History of the Middle East. Avalon Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8133-4963-3. Hulegu, contrite at the damage he had wrought, patronized the great Persian scholar, Nasiruddin Tusi (died 1274), who saved the lives of many other scientists and artists, accumulated a library of 400000 volumes, and built an astronomical ... 
  5. ^ Bar Hebraeus; Joosse, Nanne Pieter George (2004). A Syriac Encyclopaedia of Aristotelian Philosophy: Barhebraeus (13th C.), Butyrum Sapientiae, Books of Ethics, Economy, and Politics : a Critical Edition, with Introduction, Translation, Commentary, and Glossaries. Brill. hlm. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-14133-9. the Persian scholar Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī 
  6. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr (2006). Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy. State University of New York Press. hlm. 167. ISBN 978-0-7914-6800-5. In fact it was common among Persian Islamic philosophers to write few quatrains on the side often in the spirit of some of the poems of Khayyam singing about the impermanence of the world and its transience and similar themes. One needs to only recall the names of Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi, Nasir al-Din Tusi and Mulla Sadra, who wrote poems along with extensive prose works. 
  7. ^ Rodney Collomb, "The rise and fall of the Arab Empire and the founding of Western pre-eminence", Published by Spellmount, 2006. pg 127: "Khawaja Nasr ed-Din Tusi, the Persian, Khorasani, former chief scholar and scientist of"
  8. ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Islamic Philosophy from Its Origin to the Present: Philosophy in the Land of Prophecy, SUNY Press, 2006, ISBN 0-7914-6799-6. page 199
  9. ^ Seyyed H. Badakhchani. Contemplation and Action: The Spiritual Autobiography of a Muslim Scholar: Nasir al-Din Tusi (In Association With the Institute of Ismaili Studies. I. B. Tauris (December 3, 1999). ISBN 1-86064-523-2. page.1: ""Nasir al-Din Abu Ja`far Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Hasan Tusi:, the renowned Persian astronomer, philosopher and theologian"
  10. ^ Glick, Thomas F.; Livesey, Steven John; Wallis, Faith (2005). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96930-7. drawn by the Persian cosmographer al-Tusi. 
  11. ^ Laet, Sigfried J. de (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. hlm. 908. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7. the Persian astronomer and philosopher Nasir al-Din Tusi. 
  12. ^ Mirchandani, Vinnie (2010). The New Polymath: Profiles in Compound-Technology Innovations. John Wiley & Sons. hlm. 300. ISBN 978-0-470-76845-7. Nasir. al-Din. al-Tusi: Stay. Humble. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, the Persian polymath, talked about humility: “Anyone who does not know and does not know that he does not know is stuck forever in double ... 
  13. ^ "Al-Tusi_Nasir biography". www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk. Diakses tanggal 2018-08-05. One of al-Tusi's most important mathematical contributions was the creation of trigonometry as a mathematical discipline in its own right rather than as just a tool for astronomical applications. In Treatise on the quadrilateral al-Tusi gave the first extant exposition of the whole system of plane and spherical trigonometry. This work is really the first in history on trigonometry as an independent branch of pure mathematics and the first in which all six cases for a right-angled spherical triangle are set forth. 
  14. ^ "the cambridge history of science". 
  15. ^ electricpulp.com. "ṬUSI, NAṢIR-AL-DIN i. Biography – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2018-08-05. His major contribution in mathematics (Nasr, 1996, pp. 208-14) is said to be in trigonometry, which for the first time was compiled by him as a new discipline in its own right. Spherical trigonometry also owes its development to his efforts, and this includes the concept of the six fundamental formulas for the solution of spherical right-angled triangles. 
  16. ^ Ṭūsī, Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad; Badakchani, S. J. (2005), Paradise of Submission: A Medieval Treatise on Ismaili Thought, Ismaili Texts and Translations, 5, London: I.B. Tauris in association with Institute of Ismaili Studies, hlm. 2–3, ISBN 1-86064-436-8 
  17. ^ James Winston Morris, "An Arab Machiavelli? Rhetoric, Philosophy and Politics in Ibn Khaldun’s Critique of Sufism", Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review 8 (2009), pp 242–291. [1] excerpt from page 286 (footnote 39): "Ibn Khaldun’s own personal opinion is no doubt summarized in his pointed remark (Q 3: 274) that Tusi was better than any other later Iranian scholar". Original Arabic: Muqaddimat Ibn Khaldūn : dirāsah usūlīyah tārīkhīyah / li-Aḥmad Ṣubḥī Manṣūr-al-Qāhirah : Markaz Ibn Khaldūn : Dār al-Amīn, 1998. ISBN 977-19-6070-9. Excerpt from Ibn Khaldun is found in the section: الفصل الثالث و الأربعون: في أن حملة العلم في الإسلام أكثرهم العجم (On how the majority who carried knowledge forward in Islam were Persians) In this section, see the sentence where he mentions Tusi as more knowledgeable than other later Persian ('Ajam) scholars: . و أما غيره من العجم فلم نر لهم من بعد الإمام ابن الخطيب و نصير الدين الطوسي كلاما يعول على نهايته في الإصابة. فاعتير ذلك و تأمله تر عجبا في أحوال الخليقة. و الله يخلق ما بشاء لا شريك له الملك و له الحمد و هو على كل شيء قدير و حسبنا الله و نعم الوكيل و الحمد لله.
  18. ^ Dabashi, Hamid. "Khwajah Nasir al-Din Tusi: The philosopher/vizier and the intellectual climate of his times". Routledge History of World Philosophies. Vol I. History of Islamic Philosophy. Seyyed Hossein Nasr and Oliver Leaman (eds.) London: Routledge. 1996. p. 529
  19. ^ Siddiqi, Bakhtyar Husain. "Nasir al-Din Tusi". A History of Islamic Philosophy. Vol 1. M. M. Sharif (ed.). Wiesbaden:: Otto Harrossowitz. 1963. p. 565
  20. ^ Sharaf al-Din al-Muzaffar al-Tusi biography - MacTutor History of Mathematics
  21. ^ Peter Willey, The Eagle's Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria, (I.B. Tauris, 2005), 172.
  22. ^ Michael Axworthy, A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind, (Basic Books, 2008), 104.

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