MT-LB

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MT-LB
MT-LB
MT-LB yang Dipajang di salah satu museum
Tipe APC
Negara asal Uni Soviet
Sejarah pemakaian
Masa penggunaan 1960-sekarang
Spesifikasi
Berat 11,9 ton (13,1 ton pendek; 11,7 ton panjang)
Panjang 6,45 m (21 ft 2 in)
Lebar 2,86 m (9 ft 5 in)
Tinggi 1,86 m (6 ft 1 in)
Awak 2 (+ 11 passengers)

Perisai 14 mm max.
Senjata
utama
7.62 mm PKT machine-gun
2,500 per butir
Jenis Mesin YaMZ 238, V-8 diesel
240 hp at 2,100 rpm
Daya kuda/ton 20 hp/tonne
Suspensi Torsion bar
Daya jelajah 500 km (310 mi) (road)
Kecepatan 61 km/h (38 mph) (road)
30 km/h (19 mph) (off-road)
5 to 6 km/h (3.7 MPH)(in the water)

MT-LB (singkatan dari bahasa Rusia: Многоцелевой Тягач Легкий Бронированный, Mnogotselevoy Tyagach Lekhko Bronirovannyi / kendaraan ringan multi guna ) adalah salah satu kendaraan tempur yang melengkapi ketangguhan Sovyet diperkenalkan pada awal tahun 1960 dan masih diproduksi sampai saat ini. Blok Barat mengenal MT-LB ini sebagai M-1970.

Sejarah[sunting | sunting sumber]

Pada tahun 1970, Badan Direktorat Pusat Mobil dan Traktor Ringan Soviet memulai program pengembangan yang mana akan menggantikan nomor seri AT-P pada Traktor Pembawa Artileri nantinya akan dikembangkan berdasarkan fungsi ASU-57 yang dipakai oleh angkatan udara. MT-L dibuat berdasarkan casis tank ampfibi ringan PT-76. MT-LB adalah variant dari MT-L yang mempunyai lapis baja tebal. Mulai diproduksi awal tahun 1970-an, MT-LB sangat murah pembuatannya, karena menggunakan mesin truk standar yang ada di Soviet pada waktu itu.

Varian[sunting | sunting sumber]

Bekas Uni Soviet[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MT-L
    • MT-LB (izdeliye 6) - produksi model awal.
      • MT-LBV (vezdekhodnyj) - rantai bertekanan rendah, yang lebih ringan dari BTR maupun BMP.
        • MT-LBVM - dengan NSVT 12.7 mm senjata utama di turret.
        • MT-LBV-N
        • MT-LBV-NS
      • MTP-LB - versi teknisi.
      • SNAR-10 "Jaguar" (stantsiya nazemnoy artilleriskoy razvedki) - dengan 1RL-127 ("BIG FRED") dilengkapi dengan radar besar.
        • SNAR-10M "Pantera" - versi peningkatkan, dengan mesin baru.
      • 9A35 - as per 9A34 but additionally with passive detection system.
      • 9P149 "Shturm-S" - anti-tank version with retractable launcher for 9M114 Kokon ATGM. The vehicles carries 12 missiles on board and entered service in 1979. It has a crew of 2.
      • RKhM "Kashalot" (razvedivatel’naya khimicheskaya mashina) - chemical reconnaissance vehicle with detection, marking and alarm devices. This model has the hull shape and single rear door of the 2S1. Former Western designator: ATV M1979/4.
        • RKhM-K - command version with additional signal equipment but without sensors or markers.
      • RPM (radiatsionno-poiskovaya mashina) - radiological reconnaissance vehicle with a single KZO-2 flag dispenser and equipped with radiation detection devices NGP-81 (gamma), KDN-2 (neutrons), KRB-1 (beta), KRA-1 (alpha).
      • K-611 - radiological reconnaissance vehicle.
      • K-612 - radiological reconnaissance vehicle.
      • AZM "Vostorg-1" (aviatransportabel’naya zemlerojnaya mashina) - engineer vehicle, equipped with an hydraulic dozer blade and an extendable hydraulic arm with a bucket.
    • MT-LBu - variant with bigger hull and longer chassis. Many so-called "MT-LB variants" are in fact based on the MT-LBu.
    • UR-77 "Meteorit" - mineclearing system with rocket-launched explosive hose.
    • 2S1 122 mm self-propelled howitzer.

Rusia[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6M) - MT-LB modernization developed by Muromteplovoz in the 1990s. It can be fitted with several different turrets.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MA) - MT-LBM fitted with a turret from BTR-80.
      • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MA1) - MA armed with additional AGS-17 30 mm automatic grenade launcher.
        • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MA4) - MA1 armed with KPVB 23 mm instead of KPVT 14.5 mm heavy machine gun.
      • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MA2) - MA armed with KPVB 23 mm instead of KPVT 14.5 mm heavy machine gun.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MA3) - MT-LBM armed with four 9M133 Kornet ATGM launchers, 7.62 mm PKTM tank machine gun and an AGS-30 30 mm automatic grenade launcher.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MB) - MT-LBM fitted with a turret from BTR-80A.
      • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MB2) - MB armed with AGS-17 30 mm.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MB3) - MT-LBM armed with GSh-23V 23 mm, AGS-30 30 mm and "Kord" 12.7 mm.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MB4) - MT-LBM armed with GSh-30K 30 mm, AGS-30 30 mm and "Kord" 12.7 mm.
    • MT-LBM (izdeliye 6MB5) - MT-LBM armed with twin gun 23 or 30 mm, "Igla" SAM and equipped with improved sights.
    • MT-LBM1 (izdeliye 6M1) - MT-LBM fitted with 300-310 hp engine.
    • MT-LBM2 - MT-LBM upgrade package developed by Kurganmashzavod with new engine and transmission, improved suspension, BMP style side skirts etc. Prototype.
  • 2S24 - mortar carrier with 2B24 (or 2B14 "Podnos") 82 mm mortar and 83 rounds. The system designator for the carrier vehicle, mortar and ammunition is 2K32 "Deva". The 2S24 was designed by TsNII "Burevestnik" and has a crew of five.[1]
  • MT-LBVMK - a modification of MT-LBVM with "Kord" 12.7 mm machine gun instead of NSVT 12.7 mm.[2][3]

Bulgaria[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MT-LB AT-I - tractor for mine-laying systems. Fitted with racks for anti-tank mines.
  • MT-LB RHR or MR HR (mashina za radiatsionno i khimichesko razuznavane) - NBC reconnaissance vehicle with detection, alarming, sampling and markings devices.
  • MT-LB SE - ambulance.
  • SMM B1.10 "Tundzha" (samokhodna minokhv’rgachka) - mortar platform with M-38/43 120 mm mortar and 58 rounds.
    • SMM 74 B1.10 "Tundzha-Sani" - improved version with 2B11 120mm mortar.
  • KShM-R-81 "Delfin" - command and staff vehicle with R-123M, R-130M and R-31M radios, an AZI frame antenna, a generator and an additional cupola on the hull roof.
  • MT-LB TMX - mortar carrier with 82 mm mortar M-37M.
  • BRM “Sova” (bronirana razuznavatelna mashina) - reconnaissance version with NBC detection system ASP-3 and VPHR, radiosets R-123M and R-31M, PAB-2 aiming circle and NSPU night vision device. Comes in three versions with additional specialised equipment:
    • "Sova-1" - with R-130M radioset, an AZI frame antenna and a telescopic mast.
    • "Sova-2" - with R-143 "Lira" radioset.
    • "Sova-3" - with PSNR-5K (1RL-133) battlefield surveillance radar.
  • R-80 - artillery forward observer vehicle with observation devices.
  • BMP-23 (bojna mashina na pekhotata) - infantry fighting vehicle with 23 mm gun 2A14 and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315 hp engine.
    • BMP-23D - improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers.
    • BRM-23 - reconnaissance version. Prototype.
  • BMP-30 - similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2. Only 10 built.
bekas Jerman Timur

Republik Demokratik Jerman Timur (RDJT)[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • MT-LB (Pi) - combat engineer vehicle.[4]
  • MT-LB (Pzj) - version for anti tank units.
  • MT-LB (Pzj Fü) - command vehicle for anti tank units.
  • MT-LB (BO) SFL - battery command vehicle in self-propelled artillery units.
  • SaN MT-LB - ambulance
  • MTP-LB - technical support vehicle.
Iraqi MT-LBV fitted with wider tracks

Irak[sunting | sunting sumber]

peninggalan hussein dengan ZU-23-2 senjata antimpesawat terbang.
  • MT-LBV fitted with wider tracks.
  • MT-LB converted into a SPAAG by mounting a ZU-23-2 23 mm twin anti-aircraft gun on the rear part of the vehicle. The gun had its wheels removed and as such can not be easily dismounted and used separately. There were at least two variations of this conversion; one with the ZU-23-2 mounted in an open-topped turret, the other with the ZU-23-2 mounted on a platform extending beyond the hull of the MT-LB with a roof for the gun operators. The second version was most likely intended to be used in a fire support role, as the roof would hinder the gun's sights at high elevation.[5]

Polandia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Polish HSW S.A. (Huta Stalowa Wola S.A.) license produced MT-LB since 1976, and it also developed a modified chassis SPG-2, with better floating capabilities.[6]

  • MT-LB-2AP - APC variant with a turret from SKOT-2AP, armed with high elevation 14.5mm KPVT MG and 7.62mm PKT CMG. Prototype only.
  • WEM Lotos - medical evacuation vehicle with four stretchers.
  • WPT Mors - armoured recovery and repair vehicle, produced from 1983.
  • R-137T (radiostacja ruchoma UKF) - signals vehicle with VHF radioset R-137. Entered service in 1987 and has a range of 70 to 150 km.
    • ZWD-1 "Irys" (zautomatyzowany wóz dowodzenia) - command vehicle, belongs to the automated command set "Irys".
  • MT-LB-23M “Krak” - APC variant with a 23 mm gun in an unmanned turret. Prototype only.
  • Promet - self-propelled AA gun with twin 23 mm guns, from 1979. Four prototypes only.
  • "Przebiśnieg" - electronic warfare system, consists of three different vehicles:
    • SZ or MT-LB Z (stacja zakłóceń) - EW/Jamming vehicle;
    • SR or MT-LB R (stacja rozpoznania) - Comint/Sigint vehicle;
    • WD krel - command post vehicle (wóz dowodzenia kompanii radioelektronicznej).
  • SPG-2 - much modified base vehicle, with reworked nose section and hydrojets for better floating:[6]
    • TRI Hors - engineering reconnaissance vehicle, built in series from 1983, armed with 12.7mm NSVT AAMG mounted on a turret;[6]
    • WPT Mors-II - armoured recovery and repair vehicle, produced from 1986, armed with 12.7mm NSVT AAMG mounted on a turret;[6]
    • Opal-I and Opal-II - artillery command vehicles, with a turret with NSWT-12.7 Utios: Opal-I with a 245 hp (180 kW) turbocharched diesel engine SW680/167/1, Opal-II with a 300 hp (220 kW) engine SW680T (YaMZ-238N) and a longer chassis with 7 road wheels on each side.[7] Prototypes only.
    • BWO-40 - infantry fighting vehicle with 40 mm Bofors gun. A similar turret was mounted on the BWP-40 (BMP-1 upgrade). Prototype only.

Swedia[sunting | sunting sumber]

Swedish MT-LB diubah menjadi Pbv 401
  • Pbv 401 (pansarbandvagn) - Model Modifikasi MT-LB Milik Jerman Timur
    • Stripbv 4011 (stridsledningbandvagn) - battalion-level command post.
    • Bgbv 4012 (bärgningsbandvagn) - Swedish designator for the MTP-LB.
    • Rlpbv 4014/T (radiolänkbandvagn) - signals vehicle.
    • Stripbv 4021 (stridsledningbandvagn) - company-level command post.
    • Sjvpbv 4024 (sjukvårdspansarbandvagn) - Military ambulance.
    • Lvrbpbv 4016 (luftvärnsrobotbandvagn) - unconfirmed designator for vehicles, equipped with RBS 70.
    • Pvrbbv 452 (pansarvärnrobotbandvagn) - with RBS 56 BILL 1 Anti-tank guided weapon.

Pengguna[sunting | sunting sumber]

Peta Pengguna, Bekas berwarna Merah dan Biru sebagai masih menggunakan

Masih Menggunakan[sunting | sunting sumber]

  •  Armenia - 145 buah
  •  Azerbaijan - 393 buah
  •  Bangladesh - 40+ masih bertugas. Ada yang telah pensiun. Digunakan sebagai kendaraan pengintai, kendaraan komando, dan pembawa suplai.
  •  Belarus - 66 buah [8]
  •  Bulgaria - ada 812 sekitar 500-600 MT-LB hasil buatan lokal
  •  Republik Ceko - hanya Strela-10 ( versi MT-LB Republik Ceko ).
Milik Lithuania di museum.
MT-LB milik Angkatan Bersenjata Nigeria yang ditangkap Boko Haram dan kemudian dihancurkan oleh tentara Nigeria selama operasi militer di laksanakan.

Mantan pengguna[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Bendera Cekoslowakia Czechoslovakia - Passed on to the Czech Republic.
  •  Jerman Timur - 721 Bulgarian-made MT-LB's, 32 SNAR-10 and 36 Strela-10M. Unified with West Germany.
  •  Jerman - taken from GDR's army, all scrapped or sold to other countries.
  •  Hongaria - Strela-10 and SNAR-10
  •  Uni Soviet - Di pegang oleh negara penggantinya Rusia.
  •  Swedia - 460 (di sebut Pbv 401, bekas kepunyaan Jerman Timur, dibeli 1993; pada 2011 dibeli oleh Finlandia dan ada yang dipensiunkan).[9]

Lihat pula[sunting | sunting sumber]

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ "JSC CRI "Burevestnik"/ 82mm 2K32 MORTAR SYSTEM". Burevestnik.com. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  2. ^ "Транспортер-тягач МТ-ЛБ ВМК" (dalam bahasa Russian). Muromteplovoz. Diakses tanggal 6 February 2015. 
  3. ^ "Транспортные модификации машины МТ-ЛБ" [Transport modifications of the MT-LB vehicle]. TopWar.ru (dalam bahasa Russian). 19 April 2013. Diakses tanggal 6 February 2015. 
  4. ^ Gau L-R., Plate J., Siegert J. (2001) Deutsche Militärfahrzeuge - Bundeswehr und NVA. Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02152-8
  5. ^ Jim Webster. "MT-LB [ZU-23 - Iraq] tracked armoured fire support vehicle". Jedsite.info. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  6. ^ a b c d Jerzy Kajetanowicz, Prace nad rozwojem sprzętu pancernego w Polsce - przegląd lat 1955-1990 in: Poligon nr.5/2010, pp.12-18 (in Polish)
  7. ^ "Lekki samobieżny zestaw przeciwlotniczy Sopel/Stalagmit". Militarium. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  8. ^ John Pike (2012-09-27). "Belarus Army Equipment". Globalsecurity.org. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  9. ^ a b "Puolustusvoimat hankkii miehistönkuljetusajoneuvoja". The Finnish Defence Forces. 24 March 2011. Diakses tanggal 24 March 2011. 
  10. ^ "Борисов спазари наши бронирани машини за Ирак" (dalam bahasa Bulgarian). Dnes.bg. 30 May 2012. Diakses tanggal 30 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "MT-LB - Contracts, Orders & Sales". Deagel.com. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  12. ^ "Wojsko Polskie - Uzbrojenie". Militarium. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  13. ^ The Military Balance 2010, IISS
  14. ^ "MT-LB - Russian Military Analysis". Warfare.be. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  15. ^ John Pike. "Ground Forces Equipment - Ukraine". Globalsecurity.org. Diakses tanggal 2013-03-22. 
  16. ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/TransporterMN-01.jpg

Pustaka[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Hull, A.W., Markov, D.R., Zaloga, S.J. (1999) Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present. Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]