Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan

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Fakhr-e Afghān (فخر افغان) or Ghaffar Khan Baba
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan
Badshah Khan
Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan.jpg
Bacha Khan difoto pada 1940an
Lahir 06 Februari 1890
Utmanzai, Hashtnagar, Kawasan Persukuan Garis Depan Provinsi Punjab, India Britania (sekarang Distrik Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan)
Meninggal 20 Januari 1988 (usia 97)
Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Tempat peristirahatan Jalalabad, Nangarhar, Afghanistan
Kebangsaan India Britania – (1890–1947) Pakistani - (1947-1988)
Organisasi Khudai Khidmatgar
Kongres Nasional India
Partai Sosialis Pakistan
Partai Awami Nasional
Gerakan politik Khudai Khidmatgar, Gerakan Kemerdekaan India
Pasangan Meharqanda Kinankhel (m. 1912–18)
Nambata Kinankhel (m. 1920–26)
Anak Abdul Ghani Khan
Abdul Wali Khan
Sardaro
Mehar Taja
Abdul Ali Khan
Orang tua Bahram Khan
Penghargaan Amnesty International Prisoner of Conscience of the Year (1962)
Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding (1967)
Bharat Ratna (1987)

Khān Abdul Ghaffār Khān (6 Februari 1890 – 20 Januari 1988) (bahasa Pashtun: خان عبدالغفار خان), yang berjudul Bāchā Khān (Pashto: باچا خان, artinya "raja para pemimpin") atau Pāchā Khān (پاچا خان), adalah seorang aktivis kemerdekaan Pashtun melawan pemerintahan British Raj. Ia merupakan pemimpin politik dan spiritual yang dikenal karena perlawanan non-kekerasannya, dan pasifis seumur hidup dan Muslim taat.[1] Sebagai teman dekat dari Mohandas Gandhi, Bacha Khan dijuluki "Frontier Gandhi" di British India.[2]

Catatan kaki[sunting | sunting sumber]

  1. ^ An American Witness to India's Partition by Phillips Talbot Year (2007) Sage Publications ISBN 978-0-7619-3618-3
  2. ^ Raza, Moonis; Ahmad, Aijazuddin (1990). An Atlas of Tribal India: With Computed Tables of District-level Data and Its Geographical Interpretation. Concept Publishing Company. hlm. 1. ISBN 9788170222866. 

Referensi[sunting | sunting sumber]

  • Habib, Irfan (September–October 1997). "Civil Disobedience 1930–31". Social Scientist (Social Scientist) 25 (9–10): 43. JSTOR 3517680. doi:10.2307/3517680. 
  • Johansen, Robert C. (1997). "Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A Case Study of Religious Empowerment and Constraint Among Pashtuns". Journal of Peace Research 34 (1): 53–71. doi:10.1177/0022343397034001005. 
  • Caroe, Olaf. 1984. The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957 (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints)." Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-577221-0
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1969). My life and struggle: Autobiography of Badshah Khan (as narrated to K.B. Narang). Translated by Helen Bouman. Hind Pocket Books, New Delhi.
  • Rajmohan Gandhi (2004). Ghaffar Khan: non-violent Badshah of the Pakhtuns. Viking, New Delhi. ISBN 0-670-05765-7.
  • Eknath Easwaran (1999). Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Ghaffar Khan, a man to match his mountains. Nilgiri Press, Tomales, CA. ISBN 1-888314-00-1
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan: A True Servant of Humanity by Girdhari Lal Puri pp 188–190.
  • Mukulika Banerjee (2000). Pathan Unarmed: Opposition & Memory in the North West Frontier. School of American Research Press. ISBN 0-933452-68-3
  • Pilgrimage for Peace: Gandhi and Frontier Gandhi Among N.W.F. Pathans, Pyarelal, Ahmedabad, Navajivan Publishing House, 1950.
  • Tah Da Qam Da Zrah Da Raza, Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Mardan [Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa] Ulasi Adabi Tolanah, 1990.
  • Thrown to the Wolves: Abdul Ghaffar, Pyarelal, Calcutta, Eastlight Book House, 1966.

Pranala luar[sunting | sunting sumber]

Templat:Gerakan kemerdekaan India

Templat:Gandhi